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Little Grandmother 

of the 

Russian Revolution 





McClelland, goodchild, & stewart 


■L^ir^Mr *mA; 

Copyright, 1917, 
Bt Littlb, Bkown, and Compawt. 

All rights reserved 

J. ^ - • v./ \j 

NortoooB ]prr<f 
Set up and deetrotyped by J. S. Curbing Co., Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 






The material in this book is drawn mainly from three 
sources. Madame Breshkovsky, while in New York, 
gave Doctor Abraham Cahan an account of her child- 
hood and youth. He wrote out her reminiscences, and 
published them in his paper, the Jewish Daily Forward, 
m instalments, running from October 23, 1904, to 
January 18, 1905. 

This account, translated from the Yiddish, and 
somewhat condensed, is here printed in English for 
the first timp. It brings the narrative down to her 
first arrest. Through an interpreter, she gave a 
description of her early prison experiences and an 
outlme of her later life to Ernest Poole, who published 
It m the Outlook. To the Ovilook I am indebted also 
for her letters written in prison to her son. Her ex- 
periences after she was sent to Siberia for the second 
time are told in her own correspondence. 

Her full name, in Russian, is Ekaterina Constan- 
tinovna Breshko-Breshkovskaya. I have used the 
shortened form of it which she herself used in this 

Alice Stone Blackwell. 

8 MoNADNOCK Street, 


i^:» -^Sr '^'^1 mm- 

,*'»■., -7^u!.fl» ^.,.'.sv-5-. =«. 

. SfQ « J ** v^;iia*-' iM 



The Russian revolution is one of the great events 
of modern history. While it seemed to come with 
surpnsmg suddenness, it was really the fruit of the 
labors and sacrifices of thousands of Russia's noblest 
men and women. Preeminent among these stands 
out the figure of Catherine Breshkovsky, known to 
millions by the affectionate name of Baboushka. the 
Dear Little Grandmother" of the revolution. 

She was born in 1844, on an estate in the district 
of Vitebsk, in Little Russia. She was fortunate in 
her parents. Wlienever she speaks of them, her face 
lights up. "I had wonderful parents." she says. 
If there is anything good in me, I owe it all to them " 
Her father, Constantine Mikhailovitch Verigo w- 
the son of a Polish aristocrat. Her mother, 'oig 
Ivanovna Goremykina, came of a noble family of 
Great Russia. Catherine is therefore three fourths 
Kussian and one fourth Polish. 

Constantine Verigo was a handsome, elegant man. 
of majestic presence, with a large head, a high fore- 
head, and blue eyes twinkling with good nature. 

8 urru cRA.vDMon,Ka ok ris.,,,^ hevolition 

»"l«r.l,„„u.,s; 1„„ the.,. ;«,'-■ '""' 

manner.. „„., i™ ,,,Je ,r;" Sh 'T; "'""'"'"' 

«rad, and was a wii,a„ "f ^'I'tt: T'""' '" '•'■'™- 
roh'Kious. She eared ht°le7„ I,' "■"" "'"''^■'•'"'y 

monies of the Greek rfci. > l" '^'"'"' ""'' '^"e- 

men and womeU ' ^ °" ''™""'"' ^'""^ «' holy 

oth^ot^r^xr""'"' '■" ""^ ''^•"•"■- "--d» 

II . trnth were ^ainfuTr^? T'' f "«<"'' '"™-" 
Over and over aKd? "hi f? , t ''?'''^ ""«■»•«' it. 
best thing 7lTl ,h? 1." ''" "'"■'''™' "The 

^tantly a^nl^i het th': tth""'""" ""'^ ~"- 
ful as excess If » Mu,-, , '"^ "■"' ^o harm- 
mother wou^id "prote'h r'^-'an^dTrlh" h'm'\'''-^ 
read the Bible tL . j ? 'he child then 

reprove her a jl and TV' """ """•-" '^ould 

. W *^ 


tender nnd warni-l,..„rt,,l. She wu,, always well 
.!ress,Kl an. ,.„,k .are .l,„. l,..r™ l<i* ,|,oT,M 

•vervl,.,,!,. wore .I,.,,, ..|„.l,..,; „„ „,„. „,^.j;7;^ 

<mk. „,,,v ,.|,an„e ,vl„.„ <.„,„„„„,. „„, ,.,„.,„„,"'"' '" 

I he lu„,„. l,f,. of the fan.ily was rarely rudlcd bv 

clun.l II,™ for hour.,. K,.nlly im-uloaling "the 
liear.1. (all„.nn..-., .-l.lor ,i.,t..r Natalie, when al^ut 

f.ninlj. On her return ho.ue she reported with mueh 
e.xe.tem..nt that he had u.,«l i„ his talk such shodc"n« 
vufeansnis as "Bah !" and "Piffi" »nocKmg 

a Z'r ?,"":"";; "f '°" y«"-« oW. her father housht 
a I arKe estate ,n the district of Tehernigov. There L 
chddhood was passed. luerener 

She ha<l a quick temper as a child. At three years 
oI<l she once „ot .so angry that she struck her mX 
n the eye with a stick. In the end hermother's 
trainmg enabled her to conquer this fault. 

In her childhood she was always distressed about 
her mnumerable "sins." "I would sin and stratM 

rent with grief over my misdeeds." What were the 

wnen ordered to speak French, or she would sulk 

like butter , and the tears streamed down her cheeks. 


She would go to bed full of koo<I re«>|„tio„,. but when 
the „e, day came. a««i,. »he would .peak Kult" 
when bidden to speak Fn-neh. «us»'an 

\Vhen the children went out to walk, Kalva u«^ 
to keep apart from the other,. She loved i,mu^ 

her ehTf 's n'j •• ' g::: "'" ''l''' ''''" ""•' °"- "' 
er cniu sins. Governesses found the child .,iiil» 

unmanaKeable in this particular. She w„ , '"! 
nave to t>e hunted for with excitement and aiyieiv 
tne fold One German Rovemess was «, vexed bv 

"Kat'i:',;S"!^ -»'"••- ''■-'''''-'^^^^^^^ 

ch,^" wt"'.'''" ■?"''' "•*' •""'•'"tand this eccentric 
child. What added to her concern was that tlhTli L 

ftead And Katya, hearmR it, would wonder "\Vl,,t 
are they bothering about.'" Her crooked „e;k " "r 
troubled her. She wa. whoilv indifferent ^ 'to ^ 

She used to run off to the meadows and watch the 
cows gracing and then go to the huts of Thfserf, 

From earliest childhood she was vividly impressed 
by the sharp contrast between the comlitlnn „7 T 
fathers hundreds of serfs and that of her o™ ,!,> 

ttTCd" ; r"" r"' " ''"'^ Peasant",^;^ 
the hand and hurry him into her beautiful home 


leading him throuKh th. oxqui.itdy furnished roonu. 

lUhe fc.„„d her .no,hc.. Mu^ {„ the parlor, reading 

«,„K. Then she would beg her mother to look 

"t the pcH>r h,t e f.-llow. whc.e legn were «o skinny" 

n. «t„nmeh «o I„k, hi. fuee «o dirty and hollow, and 
IHM clothing nothing but rags. To her mother this 
M^med natural. Th. unnatural thing wa« for a rich 
litt^rc girl to drag a dirty pcmant child into her mother'^ 

Her mother had taught her to be kind and courteous 
" the servants, and she h,ve,l to pass her time with 
htm. but whenever her mother found her among 

thc.m she drew her away, saying. "Katya. this is 

no place for you. 

She wrote in after years: "We lived in a large 
house, ricdy decorated and handsomely furnished 
surrounded by beautiful parks and gardens. It was 
always open to receive visits from other families of 
the nobih y who were scattered about the district 
where we lived and to guests from other parts of the 
empire, especially during the great f^es which were 
given several times a year. Their carriages filled the 
court-yard. their servants of every degree crowded 
the corridors and anterooms, and ladies in elegant 
oilets and men in full dress surrounded the enormous 
tables, which groaned beneath the weight of the festal 
meats, prepared by cooks who had served their ap- 
prenticeship m St. Petersburg. Warsaw, and even 
^aris. Ihe Russian nobility loved luxury, and they 
knew how to secure admirable service. Orchestras, 
troops of actors and singers were found in the homes 
of the Russian gentry. Yet all these actors and 
musicians, as well as the cooks, valets and nurses. 

'"^■^mmi mnmmi.ff:m:M. 



wen. HuHsUm ju-n^nnU, tn„Hf„rm..| l.y fh. u.!l i 
tn«'ir iiiasfrrH tti..t »i. • • """' »•»> lUv will or 


'?■"«"""•""■ ""r... I.,.,.rl I ,„,,•,; , 1 ,:'"" 

creatures ciml irwv».r '•^••'iKnaJ rohust 

"nwa,h«i. :1 ',r :;; «;::■;•;;': ''-< «» 

th<! p.'..»»nl» wl,„ |,||,,| 111,, soil , "'■'■*' 

the nii-iulows. (ho w,)<,,l« II, • '"■'''•'• 

«nrt «lw„v.,. Tl,,.v „' , ■ \P ?"■'"•'' -■"•rvwh-.r.. 

for the least f„„,t. T| •;.':;"'';''/ '''.'''^ '""»'-• 
taken to serve the ,„ , u "'"' ''""«'"<■" "-■re 

their childr: Jet " ri", ':„'"","""" "l '■"»''— » = 
to be .ruined ., ^rvunt" „f . •""■" ™""™' 

The men would «Tme ,n .7 "'"■'■ '" ""' ''""«'• 

for which iJ^iZiiX^,:::^L^T' '""" 

would »n,e we..pi„,, de., „,H "" ' ^ i';-; .:™"'™, 
whom they had heen rohhed If ™ "' 

stupefied and .shocked I . , ""'">' "■""• 

"ueh humili„,i„r d 1 d r !'"'• "■""'■^^ "' 

How many time, i havtlh '"'"'"■'"""« 'hing'! 

feet to impl„rTn„,d!rf "™ "T" "' ""J' '»""•■•'' 
only faulTlrhr" " "l \''°-™"<-l culprit, whose 
y auit, perhaps, was to have fallen asleep while 

h-r.linK .1,.. ,h„.,,! I|.,„ ,„„,„. ,i„„., , ^^^.^ 

,n.l,Knm,l .„ ,„• how hu,„|r.,|, ,.f ,h „„, w.,„ld .« 

k-,,. ,v„.l,„« ,„ ,1 „„„.,,,r.|. I,„r.-h..,..l.,l and 

.lMv..rn,« w.lh ,.,l.|. w„i,i„K f..r .1,.. ,„„„„ .., „„,..„. 

Il...n »ir »,.l,.,„ „ w„„|. „ ,„|„,, , ^.„, ' 

K..nMM,K a. .•«r,N »i,( „., ,„„,,. „,,„ ;„ .^..j * 

v..r.. „,,,k,„« ""•"• ••«.-l..n.n w„il „„ „„. carriage 
Imx nil luinils w.-r.. fr,«,.n ! * 

••Th.,.. il,i„„, ,.,r,„..„l...l ,„y ,,h min.l, and 
.urM...I „,.. ..v..„ n„„ ,„j. ,,„., „,„.„. , 

1!!^'2 '" "'"'" '"' ""'"''"'« "' •■" "«• '•"'"'" 

"I lm.l v.y op,K,rliinity I., „l,,..rvc llio life of the„,„ry , ,- „,...v ran,.- in «„„„„ ,„ .,,.^„„ J;^ 
.■v,.n. r..|„.,.,« t„ ,|> «,„,„,„„„| |if.. ., , f,.,^ J 

I ...iKht l„.„r »h„t ,1,.. ,„.a.,an.,s had ,o ,„,, Vhore 
wm- qu,.»t,„n,, „!„„, ,1,.. fi..|d,, Ih-,. the 
wkhK the „„ldi„« of enhin,. ,h.. tax., thoy mu,' 
pay t .. r™uN to h.- I„.i„, ,h., „,„,,,,.. ,„ ,,. X„i„:; 

un lluTe uore <,u..,tion» „l,„ut wruiting: for in 
II.-0 day, „ „.„, only th. p,.„,ant, who b«v.. their 
son, to the Russian „„„,, f.^,.,,, „, j « ^^ J 

n" understand why these honest folk .should lH.„r t le 
• burden of „.,rk and of taxes. I saw that n,y 
her. «„.„! though he was, put mueh more heart 
.. to lookmK after hi.s own interests than the interests 
of h„ serf, „n.l F was sho<.ked at the incuahty £ 
Iween the rieh and the poor. 

neiZ'*'." ' '"T"' '""" ''"""■ ""■' ""■"♦ »'»"<• »" the 
and there I would see old men lying on the .straw 


till thn.!, I t •"•'■;• ""•'• """''' '""■<• '" •'.ii 

rti\r i:\;!;r:ilr.,;:: ',"- ',- ■'"■••• •"''■• 

tho <liff..r.-i,c<- m, „ T ■ V ■'■''""''''"•• "''"'I 
refc^^ , .^ ""•ver»«l,„„ wild Ih- n..,Khl„rs 

evi-n among the Veri,(o» there wa» n„r„7 »' 

«nd friendlv f«.r.„. . "'7'""" ""' " fnHv warm 

give a.ay fverythin/th^t'-^me' o'lri^LT' » 
•he were pven «,me cr«p delieacv, fre,h rom' .h„ 
oven s^^e wouM .mmed.a.e,,. present' iiroonZ 

«oie pauant child before the day was out. Often 


•hf oame home without her rl.Hilt or without her drfM 
haviuK Kiven it «w«y to nam. nhiverin^. h«If.cUd 
crr«ture. lUbuked by her ...other. »he «„,werecl. 
Mmtma you nml to uh fro.n the kc«,h.| thiit if 
any one lm« two Kur.u.nU he .houhl give one to the 

ini?" "''* ^""" "'"^'^ '' ' ^^^^ ^"*' ^*'*' >'«" '^'^ 

.. i U i.'T*^ "'"''"■"'• '^*"' '""«'•'' '««• « J'itten 

o K,ve her he entire charge of u youn« r„If. At 
hr.t he, „,.„|UT w.,uK| not he..r of it. Fi„„I|y ,he 
ynMecl ,„ part. The ehihiren were taken to the 
b,jrnyanl «n,l told thut ea.-h n.iKht choose a calf. 
I hc> Hc. ...n hrouKht into the houMe and instructed 

an « forwards they were allow..! to adorn the calves the collar-H. Their n,o(l,er thought thin was 
quae enough, and forbade the children to go near 
the cnlvt'H any more. * 

KaJya wa.s not .satisfi ^he yearned to have a 

hltle calf of her own. that co ..d take care of and 

make a companion. One .lay as .he wan.lered through 
the hdck. she came urnm a thi.k branch broken from 
a trtT. w,th tw,.s growing in .such a wav as to giv^ 
|t a rough reseniblance to an aninu.l. n;r heart beat joy. Here at last was her calf! She propped 
t up aga.nst the tree, and hurri.l to the f^r 
provKs.„„.s. She set f.Kxl before it in one , and 
nnlk H, anot er. Three tin.e.s a day she fed it. vi^^t 

fancies '^''''''"'^ "'''""'^ '^ "" ''''^' «' 

But one day when she was with her governess and 


the other ehiWron, .she was .,eiz„l with «n irrcistil.l 
w«h to vs t her calf. H.,lf u„c„„»ebu.,lv X ' 
hem towards .t. A, »«,„ „, ,h.y eaught .sight of 
they all exclanned "Ah Katya', calf- It i! K^^^ 
calf! Katya felt abash«l. Her illusion was shat 

Affer ,.r. "'"Tl ''"■''"""« "' ■"•'"'■"" »"«■ one 
whole ^Jr ""' "■'' '"■'"•" ''''-'''' "" 

elsf %^' "T r'T""'' '■" P~I>'« ""an in anything 
else. When the family made journevs in their eoich 
she often eaught sight of Jews, an.l .s'he was movTto 

aCuZT' '' ""7 'r"'""""»- ^'- '~'<° ' -• h 
awe upon these people who spoke a strange lanma^e 

Once she saw a group of men with shaven heads 
the street, under guard. She was much impressed 
they tr""""' ^■"'"* '"" ''*'^'' •>" ■'«'"'" "hi 

ha7tken"Ihr'°'"'"'*\P'?P'^-'°^' I^P'^' "t" 
swl^ n ! I '™"*' P""" "■ '•"'"•" >■" -other an- 
swered. But the response did not dispel the mystery 

no anrer""'"""^ '^'""^ ''"^^«°- ^ "-ieh she J^ 

of "~! ~"^^™- '«'"^™'- ""-^ fo' the great class 
mak^Sem h i''"'" ™' *° help them and 

S a vtr ^T"- u^*" ""•''S'"^'' herself the mistress 
of a vast es ate, where all the unfortunate serfs in 
he world m,ght live, wearing beautiful clothes, hav" 
jngjienty to eat, and passing their days free from 

- • *# 



On quiet summer afternoon, she would lie down 

with tl,e tall grass all around her. and look 1 into 

he sky wth .t, flock., of fleecy clouds. In Z T- 

tance there was a hill over which a coach o<^asio„^t 

passed. Every cloud that drifted byTe^mTto Te^ 

the form of some definite ohieot — n ♦, • 

city hills and valleys -wtCr sle'Tad-h^r'o: 

read about. Against these clouds as a bacSmJ 

she built her castles in the air. "Aground 

She had heard of An.erica, and how Columbus and 
h.s companions went there in search of gZ and 
ound treasure in abundance; and she planStd to go 

back t^"'r 'f "-"^ f-^P "P fort-nes to Lring 
back w,th her for the serfs. She would buy vZ 

■Ss -rnd'ih'"".^^ ""^' '•" "■•' *"* n.oX 
i! u- . .u . """^ "■* peasants should live and 

^r:i /"',:''' '""'• ^' '•'' «-«^ '"to the ".any 
t" cr^at: "'• ""^ '"" "•^ ™'y ™'W 'hat she hoped 

I ^"'y* '«*«< fr«ly of her plans about Califonua 
i ZtJ"' """"^ ■^P'" '"'- ''™»8''t gold from 




The estate of the Verigos was an oasis in the desert. 
Among the families that they visited, Katya saw very 
different scenes. 

A neighbor and relative of the Verigos was Madame 
Shiria, a wid ,w with an idiot son. She had the dis- 
posal of his immense fortune, and squandered it reck- 
lessly. Other relatives tried to have a guardian 
appointed for him. It was the government's custom 
to let all matters be decided by the nobility rather than 
by experts. Instead of having a commission of doctors 
determine whether the young man was mentally defi- 
cient, the authorities decreed that the question should 
be settled by his acquaintances. Then on every side 
there were disputes, one person crying, "Fedia is an 
idiot !" and another protesting, "Fedia is not an idiot !" 
The line of cleavage was between those who expected 
to inherit something from Fedia's estate and those who 
hoped to get a handsome present from Fedia's mother. 
Madame Shiria hired a young man to personate her 
son, and placed him in a notary's office as proof that 
he was quite able to manage his own affairs. Mean- 
while she continued to squander his property. She 
lived like a queen. During a single winter in Berlin 
she spent two hundred thousand rubles. She was a 
woman of rare beauty, and captivated the heart of the 


Jk'- '^jfjkm:. 



German Emperor; but she filled honest httle Katya 
with disgust. ^ 

Once during a grand b.Il at Madame Shiria's. Katya 
ran from room to room. looking and hstening, as was 
her custom. The band was playing, couples were 
dancmg, and laughter and merrymaking reigned 
•supreme. At last Katya reached the outer room In 
the shadow of the doorway stood a sorrowful figure with 
bowed head It was a serf waiting to see Madame 
Shiria He had been waiting there all day in the same 
attitude. He was m tatters, and through the rents in 
h.s rags h,s hmbs looked like those of a skeleton. At 
last Madame Shjr.a's silken train was heard sweeping 
along the polished floor, and she appeared. The 
s arvmg peasant trembled, and a faint light of hope 
flidcered in his eyes. She asked r a chilling tone. 
VVhat do you want here?" He threw himself at her 
leet. and broke into a storm of sobs. 

"My lady, God bless you! Have pity on me. My 
cow IS dead. Help me, I beg of you '" 

Madame Shiria stepped back with disdain. "How 
do these things concern me? Go to my steward. 

The serf had already been to the steward, who had 

for the unfortunate man, but he was put out of the 
house, and Madame Shiria went back to her ballroom 

Ajiother neighbor was fat Duke Baratov, whose 
god was his belly." Poor himself, he had married a 

wife s money. He kept an orchestra, and gave magnifi- 



cent banquets and balls. On every holiday a fortune 
was spent on the champagne alone. And all this 
fountain of squandered wealth flowed from a source 
buried in muddy huts and squalid poverty - from the 
meek and oppressed peasants. Their last penny, 
their last bit of cloth, cheese, butter, and bread went 
into his storehouse, while they were starving. He 
plundered not only the peasants but the merchants. 
If a merchant came to buy wheat, the Duke would 
exact a large deposit in advance, promising prompt 
delivery of the wheat in return. Then he would sell 
the same wheat over and over again to half a dozen 
other merchants, taking a deposit from each. and. of 
course, failing to deliver the grain. The mercha.. s had 
no redress against a nobleman. The Duke wa. a fre- 
quent visitor at Madame Shiria's, a< here a circle of the 
more worthless nobility used to gu her. Katya knew 
this group. She often heard their behavior discussed 
and condemned in her own home. 

Another nobleman was a kleptomaniac, to put it 
delicately. Wherever he went, his friends had to 
keep an eye on their silver spoons and candlesticks. 
There were a few nobles of a better type. Constan- 
tine Verigo hked Nicholas Kovalik-the father of that 
Kovalik who afterwards became a leader in the rev- 
o utionary movement of the seventies. Young Kova- 
hk s mother and Katya's mother had been schoolmates. 
Ihe friendship between the two families was so close 
that, although their estates lay far apart, visits were 
frequent; and the simplicity and sincerity of the 
K-ovaliks made a lasting impression on Katya 

When the nobles of the Letter sort got together, she 
noticed that they often discussed certain matters in 


subdued tones and behind close,! doors. Sometime.s 
one would read aloud an article not wholly favorable 
to the Czar, or recite a poem by Pushkin or Chamikon. 
Those were the days of the terrible Czar Nicholas. 
Nobody dared to say a word against him in public, but 
the nobles condemned him in secret. Then cam.- the 
Crimean War and the great siege of Sebastopol ; and 
those same nobles freely offered the Czar regiments of 
serfs gathered from their estates. Thousands of 
peasants wearing red girdles and red hatbands were 
torn from their families, armed with guns and axes 
and sent forth to do or die. in the name of God a.d the' 
«nT;», '!-'''"'*'^'^''^*'°"' ^"^^^^" •"^"''^ thoughts 
:nd maTererTonr' ^" ''' ^^""^ '''' ^^'^^^^ 
Another acquaintance of the Verigos was a Duchess 
Gahtzm. iving on a grand estate near Lugovetz in 
UieStarodubov district, in a palace that aif emper" 
might have envied. She was a member of the highest 
aristocracy, as intimate with the Czar's family as with 
her own. When Katya was still very young the 
Duchess invited Constantine Verigo to"^ tike charge 

t^i^::::::z:zr-'' -' ^-^^^' ^-^-^ 

KaTv/r^' to Lugovetz. taking his family with him. 
Katya now had a chance to see what was considered the 
highest society; and when they afterwards went to 
Petrograd, she found herself among the very flower of 
he aristocracy The old Duchess had ladies in wait- 
mg of various degrees, and innumerable servants and 
attendants all graded and classified. Before any 
one entered her august presence, it was necessary to go 
through a long series of scrutinies and cross-examina- 


tions. The only reht'l uKninst those ceremonies was 
little Ivutyu. She objected to bowinK before the 
Duche-ss us before u Koddess. Her mother told her 
that the Duchess was her ehler in years, and demanded 
reverence; but Katya felt that the old lady preferred 
submission to reverence, and fear to love. 

The mother had brought the children upon the Bible 
and religious stories; but in the Duchess's library they 
found material of every kind. There were pictures of 
foreign countries, landscapes and love scenes, romances 
and books of history and travel. At nine vears old 
Katya had read the whole of Karanzin's "History of 
Russia", in several volumes. She read books of travel 
with eagerness, and remembered the details so well that 
once, years after, when she talked about foreign coun- 
tries with the captain of a ship, he felt sure that she 
must have actually visited the places she described 
Pier practical mind led her also to devour discussions 
of the market price of wheat, of land, etc., and to sludy 
her father's business records and letters. She did not 
care for fiction. What interested her was real life. 

As she learned more, she grew more and more heart- 
sick over the way the peasants were treated. When 
she was but ten years old, her indignation against the 
flogging of the serfs broke out in such hot words that 
her old peasant nurse begged her to speak low. 

"My father helped me to think/' she says. "He 
was a man of broad, liberal ideas. W^e read together 
many books of science and travel. Social science 
absorbed me. By sixteen I had read much of Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and Diderot, and I knew the French Revolu- 
tion by heart. I spoke French from babyhood, and 
my German governess had taught me German; and 





at that time the world's best thought was not garbled by 
the nussiun censorship. 

"Fired by such ideas. I saw the poor, degraded 
slaves around me. and longed to set them free. At first 
I beheved that freedom could be reached without a 
radK-al change oi government. No revolutionary 
■spirit had yet been kindled. It was the first great 
era of the Liberals. The emancipation of the serfs 
was soon to take place; so loo the introduction of trial 
«'.v jury; and these promised reforms sent a social im- 
pulse sweeping through Russia. I was thrilled by the 
glad news. Filled with young entlmsiasm. I opened a 
utile school near our estate. 

"I found the peasant an abject, ignorant creature, 
who d.d not understand even the meagre rights he 
already had. He could think only of his mud hut and 
Ins pot of ground. As for the government, he knew 
only that m peace he must pay money; in war. lives. 
I he new rumors had kindled lu's old heart-deep hope 

the mdhonsm Russia suspected that the proclamation 
had been hidden, and often went to the landowners 
demanding their freedom. At last fhe manifesto 
emancipating the serfs arrived." 
This was in 1861, when Catherine was seventeen It 

l7b.rr.r'R^^^^' '"^ enthusiasm among the Russian 
Liberals. But m some respects emancipation made the 
lot of the peasants worse instead of better. Under the 

tje'T\T!; ''1' ^''"^'^ cultivating his master's 
estate^s, had had a plot of ground on wh'^h he raised 
food for his own family. He had supposed that this 

ft:;hiSkr^ -'' '^^°^^ *^ '^-' «^ - 


and. h,s lum lord ordeml hi.n off. He was shown a 
.ttle strip of the. r>oore.Ht8oiI. thoro to be free and starve. 
Ih. was bewildered; he could not imagine himself 
w thou h.s old plot of land. For centuries past, an 
estate had always been described as containing so 
many souls. It was sold for so much per '.^ul.' 
The soul and the plot had always gone together. So 
the peasant had thought that his soul and his plot 
would be freed together. In dull but growing rage, 
he refused to leave his plot of laud for the wretched 
strip. Musters,' he cried, 'how can I nourish my little 
ones thrmigh a Russian winter? Such land means 
death. This cry rose all over Russia. 
^ "The^ government appointed in every district an 
arbiter to persuade the peasants. The arbiter failed. 
Ihen troops were quartered in their huts, families 
were starved, old people were beaten by drunkards, 
daughters were raped. The peasants grew more wild, 
and then began the flogging. In a village near ours, 
where they refused to leave their plots, they were 
driven into line on the village street; every tenth 
man was called out and flogged with the knout; some 
died. Two weeks later, as they still held out. every 

/• 1 1,";^^ ^^' ^°^^^'^' ^^^ P^' '^«»-«"t creatures 
st.Il held desperately to what they thought their rights ; 
again the line, and now every man was dragged forward 
to the flogging. This process went on for five years all 
over Russia, until at last, bleeding and exhausted, the 
peasants gave in. 

"I heard heartrending stories in my little school- 
house, and many more through my father, the arbiter 
of our district. The peasants thronged to our house 


# 3 . t. ,. -.Aiiffji 


day and night. Many were carried in. crippled by the 
knout. SohbinK wives told of hiwhunds killiHl before 
their eyes. Often the poor wretches literally grovelled 
clasping my father's knees, begging him to read the 
manifesto again and find it was a mistake. In'seeching 
bim to search for help in that mysterious region, the 
law court. From such interviews he came to me worn 
and haggard. 

"I now saw how ineffectual were my attempts- I 
felt that tremendous economic and iK>Iiticnl changes 
must be made; but I was .till « Liberal, and thought 
only of reform, not of revolution. To seek guidance, to 
hnd out what older heads were thinking. I went at 
nmeteen with my mother and sister to St. Petersburg 
Into our compartment on the train came a handsome 
young prince returning from official duties in Siberia, 
l-or hours he discusstnl with me the problems that were 
rushing upon us. His words thrilled like fire Our 
excited voices rose steadily higher, until my mother 
begged me. as my nurse had done before, to speak low. 
Itiat young prince was Peter Kropotkin " 

In Petrograd. Catherine jointnl the central group of 
Liherah, men and women of noble birth and university 
training; d^tors. lawyers, journalists, novelists, poets, 
scien ists Since higher education for women was 
stnctly forbidden, they had already become law- 
breakers by opening classes for women in the natural 
and political sciences. All these classes she attended. 
Her mother fell ill and had to go home. She wanted 
to take Catherine with her ; but the young girl objected, 
bhe longed for independence; she believed it to be a 

nnl^vl'' TT ^"" ''^^ '•''•"^' ^^«"y °f the younger 
nobihty had come to the same conviction. Prince 


If i 
■ I 


Krornilkin. in hi» "Mmolr- of a Ucv«Iutionl«f\ 
quoU-H the wonlH of ih. Hu..Hiun ikh-I. Nekra^f. 
llu. hroucJ that ha* Ikh-m riiacir by «lttv.n. i. bitter" 
lie adds : 

"The young generation actually refuHtnl to eat that 
bread, and to enjoy the riclun that had In^en 
lated in the.r fathers* houHen by uwaixs of servile l«lH>r. 
whether the lalmrcTs were actual H«rf.s. or «laveM of the 
(irewnt industrial .system. 

"All Russia read with astoniMhment, in the indict- 
ment iinxluci-d in mirt againnt Kar«k6z«ff and his 
frien.l.s, that thes*. young ,nen. own.Ts «f ctinsiderable 
fortunes, used to live three or four in a room, never more than five .lollars apicve a month for all 
the.r needs, and giving their forlimes to start coOrH-ra- 
tive assocuitioas. ctWipcrative workshor)s (where thev 
themselves worked), an.l the like. Five years later, 
thousands and thousands of the Russian youth - 
the best part of it - were .loing the same. During 
the years 1860-1805, in ain.ost every wealthy fan.ily a 
bitter struggle was going on between the fathers, who 
wanted to maintain the old traditions, and the .sons 
and daughters, who defen.led their right to dispose of 
their ives according to their own ideals. Young men 
left the military service, the counter, the shop, and 
tlocked to the university towns. Girls bred in the most 
aristocratic families rushed penniless to St. Petersburg 
Moscow, and Kiev, eager to learn a profession 
After hard and bitter struggles, many of them won 
personal freedom. Now they wanted to utilize it 
not for their own personal enjoyment, but to carry to 
the people the knowledge that had emancipated them." 
Catherine compromised with her mother by entering 




H nobleman's liou«liol<| ns ttovvrnvvi lo hiii rhildrrn. 
It wa« ujM-ful work, ami it iimbUfl Imt to »ttty in tlip 
city. She lulil tluM |>o.Hilion for two years ami a half, 
antl wiM well treatwl, lur eliuraeter eomnianilinK ^ 
flffection and resiMet. Meanwhile Mhe ntudied the 
workinK of the zenistvo. Kvery iiiHtitiition that was n 
iM'KinniiiK of r«'pre.Hentative government, lu.wever ini- 
perftHt. woH holy in the eyes of the Ku»«iiin "inteilec 

Her father finally insisted iijn.n her returning home. 
He<l that she .should l>e indejx'ndent. and live 
on he- own earnings. He hejprd her to open a Imard- 
in« Mehool for Kirls. and throiiKh the influence of her 
relatives she obtained many pupils, dauKhlers of rich 
parents, who paid for their instruction. Her father 
also built her a cottage where she tauffht the peasant 
<hildren free. All that she earned above her livelihood 
.she devott-d to helping the peasants. She would buy 
a cow for one. a horse for another, doing her utmost 
to relieve the misery aroun«l her. " I now drew closer 
to the people." she says. "I begun to realize the dull 
memory every peasant has of flogging and toil from 
tune immemorial. I felt their subconscious but heart- 
tleep longing for freedom." 

Three years later, at the age of twenty-five, she 
married a liberal, broad-minded voung nobleman, with 
a gocKl education and a good heart. He was active 
in the district zemstvo, and took a sincere interest in 
the peasants. He was glad to help ratherine in her 
good work, and they established a coiiperative bank 
and a peasants' agricultural school. Several of the 
younger landowners became interested, and they met 
together frequently. 

« UTTU OI.»NI.«,miK« », H.*a.s ,KV„L.TION 
C..hrri„r howrvrr, fri. ,|,. „wl „f ,|„,n« ,«„,r.hin. 

. hu.l,«nd ly.,« «, ,h.. ,H,i,„ „, .,.,„„, J^ 

..I n.W ,h, f,.n.r«l. «„.| .,„„,,„,„, „,.. .,i.lo, Z' 

childhood. annoumhiK lh«l I „,\ «.,„„) ..ih-r. who 

wrre profound,^ di,™,i.«.,l wi,h ,h „„,.. .,, 'Z^^ 

H.U... ,,„. «„i,^ u> Am..ri,.« .„ f„ „ „,|„„ ! X« 

"oryHHly would work will, ,|,..,> l,„„d, Jw"l «" 

h«r brum, - „ «.,, „, Brook K«rm. H. invit.^ 1," 

tojoinlhi-ni. She rqiliwl : ■"vmu ncr 

I. « much of imporlanc.. I„ l„. ,|„„,. ,„.„.. ih,., i, h„r,l|v 

Mninwhil,. ,1,.. |,«,k„| „lK,ut h..r in Ki..v for rocruiU 
o Ih.. ,.au».. of proKr™. Sh.- know no onr in tl,7X 
bu ,h.. d..(..rm,m.d lo ,..„rrh for "roo.! ,«.p|,. " Th*j 
un,ver«t.v ,,ud..nt, had ..„„l,|i,l,„, „ ,„„.,, ^„ ^^^^, could Ik. had for »ix rul.l.. a ....nth. An, m" 
..d..r could eat (here at the same pric.c. Catherine 
pa,d for a month-, l«ard in advan«.'and ,SZy 
day. to ™t an.l observe. The roou, ,xTupi«l (he whole 
ground fl.K.r of „n old wooclcn buihlin« The tabt' 
were lon« rou^,-hew„ fi.,ture,, with t„bl.l,h, not ov™ 
clean. At each corner »too<l pile., of thick, heavy white 
plates, and at meal time,, th..,c would be drop,K.d along 
m = row with a Kreal clatter, anud the din made by thf 
»^udent,. talking. di,cus,iuK. , „d waxing hot in l^. 
men . .wmmrtv much more inlcresled in feclini, their 

her old-fashioned Atla, fur. with its short sleeves! 







•able collftr, and wtin HikkI - a Karb lonff oul of atyle • 

but nrither nho m>r thr MiulrntM tannl ttlHiui fii^hion! 

DinntT wiu r.-rvwl from oiit> to fivi. |..m.. umi nhf ate 

lewurfly, iiu-anwhilf H-ntchiriK thf nimU-xxW f«tv., 

h»ti.ninK to thrir talk, and irying to ju.Ik,. «f their 

charactt-rii. After a while nhe .vrc.te on .lirw c»f pam-r 

her name and the addreMU of the hotel where nhe and 

her lifter were stayinK. and the next day at dinner time 

>*he distributed the ..lips to the stmlentn who had nuuli* 

the nuwt favorable inipren^ion u{Kin her. Maying, "Come 

to Hit' me, and let us talk things over." 

Five ntudents came the same evening. They were 
frank. .symiMilhetic young men. studenti. not only of 
lK>ok.s but of life. She eame to the ,H,int at onee. 
Wliy are you doing nothing." she said, "when the 
great mass of the ixnipl,. in Russia are starving, with 
the yoke on their necks and the wolf at the door? 
Why are you idlers ? ^S^^y do you use the academic to 
screen your eyes from the real?" 

All gave the ame answer: "We are idlers; but what 
w to be doner- How can we nuike things better?" 
Some of them were acquainted with revolutionists- 
but they were not sure whether they wanted to become 
revolutionists themselves or not. 

.. ^\.'"^"""*i'«t<' «n«wer could be given to their ques- 
tion. WTiatistobedone?" But they began to culti- 
vate a closer acquaintance with the revolutionists, and 
mtroduced Catherine to them. 

Soon she was summoned home. Then she and her 
h band and their little circle of Liberals made a 
vigorous effort to secure better treatment for ♦he peas- 
ants through political action. 
She says: "It is a poor patriot that will not thor- 

.*»'■ ■'■'^ 





oughly try hi, government before he rises against it 
We »earehed the laws and .nliets; „e found eertain 
fnl . "" . ""«-"'■«'"■''•'' P'-''»"nts' rights of local suf. 
rage and then we In^gan showing the peasants how to 
use these rights that they already had " 

they held among the peasants. She had a clear 
strong voice: she could talk to the people in word, 
t a they understood; and she exercise.1 the power 

gr;:ittr """"'"" '""" " «""' •^^"'""^ »>«' » 

The peasants (locked to the local elections, and began 
electing men of liberal views as judges, arbiters. Tn,l 
"Iher official,. One of Catherines brothers was chosen 
a» a judge, an, .so was her friend Kovalik, whose plan 
of star ing a colony in America had encountered many 
difficulties and had bc^n indefinitely postponed. TOle 
he was on a visit to the Verigos. Catherine persuaded 
him to b^me a candidate. As a resident of another 
province he was disqualified ; but Constantine Ver^o 
made a nominal of his estate to Kovalik. and thus 
rendered him el gible. He was a man of marked abi ity 

as thtirlrf '"I"- I""' "*''" '""^^ ^'-ted h m 
as their chief; and in three months he cleared up an 

aecumula lon of eight hundred cases that had doggeS 

the docke for years. He and the other Liberal offidal, 

decided all cases with strict justice to the peasaM 

and defended their legal rights against the o^rlsiln 

of the nobihty. But when the more despo«c laid" 

owners were ousted from the positions thaVthey had 

made a source of graft, they denounced the little group 

of Liberals to the Minister of the Interior as a band of 

conspu-alor. .gainst the goveramen: In less than . 



year. Kovalik was turned out of his judgeship on a 
t^hnicahty; Constantino Verigo was deposed from 
othce. as a dangerous wan; several of their friends 
were exiNd to Siberia without trial; Catherine and 
her !■ dKu.d u.r« put under police surveillance, and 
the s. ho. A and tf . bank that they had opened for the 
peasa it., were cl< sed. 

A rigid inqui.y was also instituted as to the kind of 
addresses that Catherine had been making to the 
peasants, and the Governor of the province himself 
asked Constantme Verigo for an explanation. Verigo 
said that his daughter had felt it her duty to expound 
the new laws to the peasants, so that they might have 
a clearer understanding of their rights. The Governor 
answered dryly, "We want no apostles here." He 
mtmiated bluntly to Verigo that the less he and his 
household meddled with peasant questions the better it 
would be for them, and for the peasants too. 

Ihis experience convinced Catherine of the necessity 
of a change m the existing form of government, before 
any serious improvement could be brought about. All 
over Russia the attempts made by liberal-minded men 
and women to educate and elevate the peasants by 
peaceful means were meeting with the same fate 
I'unished as criminals for teaching the peasants their 
^egal rights, they learned to see the autocratic govern- 
ment as it really was, a vast system of corruption, 
watching jealously through spies and secret police to 
keep Its peasant victims from being taught anything 
that could make them think or act like men. 

To try to overthrow the autocracy was to face im- 
prisonment, torture, exile, and death. Catherine was 
twenty-six years old. Her husband, like herself, had a 


whole life before him. She felt that it was only fair 
to put the matter fruiikly before him. She asked him if 
he was ready to expose himself to these tremendous 
consequences. He answered that he was not. "I 
am," sb- said; and she started out upon the under- 
taking without him. 

She secured letters of introduction to such noblemen 
as had shown a wish to improve the condition of the 
peasants, and traveled about the country visiting their 
estates, and studying whatever they had done in the 
way of starting schools, cooperative workshops, and the 
like. She tried to impress upon them that the funda- 
mental need was for the peasants to own the land; 
but she could not make the nobles see it. She also 
found that the heavy hand of the government was 
always ready to shut down upon even their mildest 
efforts at improvement. She came home feeling that 
she had gained nothing but experience and an added 
knowledge of life. 

By this time th. spirit of revolution was fairly awake. 
A Liberal named Nechayev had gathered together a 
group of revolutionists. They were discovered and 
arrested, and their trial in 1871 was the first great event 
in the long struggle for freedom. The procession of 
political exiles along the Great Siberian Road had begun. 
Meanwhile their revolutionary documents had been 
published, and were read by thousands of Liberals 
throughout Russia. 

Catherine went to Kiev, and joined a revolutionary 



The revolutionists at this time were divided into 

Lavrists and Bakuninites, according as they favored 

the program of Peter Lavrov or Michael Bakunin. The 

Lavrists believed that the peasants must be gradually 

educated for freedom and revolution The Bakuninites 

believed in organizing the peasants for revolution as 

promptly as possible. They held that they would 

soon be ripe for revolt, because of the prevailing misery. 

Hunger is the most efficient teacher," they said. 

•Tell the peasant why he is hungry, and show him how 

he can feed himself, and he will learn quite readily." 

Lavrov and Bakunin, who were then living in Switzer- 
land as political refugees, were good friends despite 
their difference of view, and so were most of their 
followers. It was a difference of method only ; their 
aim was the same. Both Lavrists and Bakuninites 
felt that the nobles had been living in wealth and ease 
for centuries on the labor of the peasants ; that it was 
only through oppression and robbery of the peasants 
that they were able to pass their time in luxury and 
amusement; and the younger generation looked upon 
It as their duty to make reparation to the peasants, so 
far as possible, and to give their lives to bring them 
freedom and happiness. 

Catherine, like most of those who had lived close 
to the peasants, was a Bakuninite. In Kiev she soon 






gathered around her a group of young men and women 
who oved and admired her. Among these her special 
friend was Maria Kalyenkina, a girl who later became 
famous for her courage and her faith in the revolution, 
bhe had been a village school-teacher. Under the in- 
fluence of Nekrasof's songs of the p^-asants, she became 
an ardent revolutionist, and went to Kiev to absorb 
the most advanced revolutionary ideas of the day She 
entered a school for mid wives, and there met Catherine's 
sister Olga. Thus she became acquainted with Gather- 
ine, who was nine years older than "little Masha" 
but found in her a kindred spirit. Masha was quiet' 
sweet-tempered, industrious, and daring bevond all 
others m a crisis. She talked little, and did much. A 
secret entrusted to her was as safe as in the grave She 
was a pretty girl, of rather frail physique, with a remark- 
ably fair skm and yellow hair. She took no sentimental 
interest m the young men, though many of them took 
a sentimental interest in her. When Catherine com- 
mented upon her indifference to men, she answered. 
I love the movement." To th? ■ day her old friend 
speaks with enthusiasm of this sweet girl, gentle as a 
lamb, yet brave as a lioness. 

From a smouldering hotbed of revolution, Kiev had 
now become a seething volcano. It was full of young 
enthusiasts who were determined to do or die The 
movement "To the people!" which had been sweeping 
all over Russia was at its height in Kiev. Russian 
young men and women were studying at Swiss uni- 
versities^ and drinking in republican ideas. Many 
young Russians also made pilgrimages to Switzerland 
to visit Lavrov and Bakunin, and came back full of 
revolutionary zeal. The Russian government became 


alarmed, and issued an order that all Russian students 
m hw.tzerland must return by a certain .late, or they 
would not be allowed to ctoss the frontier from Switzer- 
land mto Russia. The Russian students, however 
used to stay as lon^^ as they liked, and then o„m<. baek 
by way of Austria, getting across the Austrian frontier 
with comparative ease; and Kiev was their first 
stopping place. The revolutionists "made in Switzer- 
lam were smuggled into Rt.ssia by way of Kiev. 

1 he movement "To the people!" had changed in 
character. After the emancipation of the serfs, thou- 
sands of young men and women from Ihe richer classes 
had asked themselves how they could be most useful 
to the masses . and decMed that the only way was to 
go and settle among the poor, and live as they did 
Prince Kropotkin says : ^ 

doctors helpers, teachers, village scribes, even as 
agricultural aborers. blacksmiths, wood-cutters, and 
-on. and tried to live there in close contact with the 
peasants. G.rls passed teachers' examinations, learned 
midwi ery or nursing, and went by the huTidred into 

Dart' o T' T^ '^'"^'^'"^^ ^"^"-^''^ ^« '^' P««^est 
part of the population. 

"These people went without any ideal of social re- 
construction in their minds, or any thought of revolution. 
They simply wanted to teach the mass of the peasants to 
read, to interest them in other things, to give them 
medical help, and in any way to aid in raising them from 
heir darkness and misery; and at the same time to 
learn what were their popular ideals of a better social 

This movement was entirely legal, and was carried 


on openly But it wa, frowned upon by the OTvern- 
men . and the would-be helper., of the ^aTanU weTe 
ruth e»,iy suppressed. Then most of them beclme 
revolufonists. The experience of Gathering and her 
friends m this respect was typical 

Thereupon great numbers, including many of the 
nobihty d.sgui.,ed themselves a, pc-asfnt.,. T„d ,i^„ 
and worked side by side with the poorest of the people 
secretly preparing them for revolution. They felt' 
that m this way they eould get a better understanding 

w"^- T 'T- "'r '^°^ ""-o »™' 'he shoe 
unworthy to live m ease and comfort themselves while 
sSil P'"f"'''°'''« the greatest dangers and 
sacrifices. W e shall have the right to agitate among 
them when we are of them." .said Catherine. More 

«mid "\^ ""V'";""'?' ""^ '<• o™--''™''- the peasants- 
im.d distrust. Victimized for so many centuries 

^he ex-serfs were as much afraid of the revoluliWs 
L1.7ir "[ ""t «°^ernment. The peasant was 
ataost like a dumb animal. If he cherished any 
thoughts of revolt he hardly dared tell them to any 

nobleman ''" """''' """ '=™^'** *''*'° t" ^ 

Before entering upon the active revolutionary work 
which would take her away from home for good Zd 
i.hich was almost sure to end in exile or death, Catherine 
made a round of farewell visits among her relatives and 

s er Naf'r ''"t'r '." "•' «°°''-''^« '0 h- elder 
sister Natalie, who lived in the district of Novo- 

Aleksandriya, m the province of Kovno. From there 

she went to Lugovetz for a last interview with her 

parent, and her husband. It was a sad and memorab e 



meeting. Three years before, when Catherine's school 
had been suppressed and her father dismissed from 
office, she had told her husband that she was ready 
to lay down her life for the cause. The time had now 
come when she was to make the sacrifice. Her hus- 
band ^^s overcome with grief. He beggeu her to give 
up her mtention. and go with him to th.'ir estate in the 
province of Moghilev. He was a man of noble character 
but he lacked the iron determination needed to face the 
terrible consequences of working for freedom under the 
shadow of the Czar. Her family pleaded a still stronger 
argument; they reminded her that she was soon to 
become a mother. On theoneside was a life of domestic 
love, amid wealth, luxury, and splendor; on the other 
prison and exile. Many would have said that duty 
bade her stay. She was profoundly convinced that the 
cjill of the greatest and gravest duty bade her go. 
Thus believing, she was resolute. With an aching heart, 
she bade them all farewell. She never saw any of them 
again. Her husband died soon after she was sent to 
Siberia; and before she returned, her parents also had 
passed away. 

In Kiev, Catherine lived with her widowed sister Olga 
and her young friend, ^.asha Kalyenkina. Around 
these three as a nucleus there g-ew up a circle that be- 
came known as "the commune." It was the revolu- 
tionary center of Kiev, and a powerful influence in the 
awakening of Russia. 

They had to earn a living while carrving on their 
revolutionary work. Catherine cut out Httle squares 
of paper, and wrote on each her name and address, 
with the announcement that she was ready to give expert 
mstruction in such and such subjects. She took her 

- = 



If ' ' 

1^. ,r 


f ■ 



a* UTTU; <iinM,M,n-,.Kii .,► r-ssiAN rkvoi.ition 

sinn.l on Iho <.„rn,r ..f „ ,,r,^, „),..«■ ll„.ro wa, an 
".•...1..-,.,. f„r ,o„„„ |,„, „„,, ^„,„ ,,..^ ..„ ^ 

".usm, „f ,1... ,..h,.,l«irl, „„p|i,.| f,„ |..„.„„ „„„ 2 
h".l lo urn m„„.v „„,.,.. si,.. ..„rn,.,l .,„ „„ ,„,.„,«• 

for 1,.. „,.„ , „f ,1... „,o,i..„ i„,„,,„„i.,. SI,,. „„, ; 

II -'".v "n.l half 11„. „i«l„, „„.| „|,„y, „„,„ ,„ ',..^ 
wlH-,, ,l„. ha,| b,...n a „f l,.,„,ro. Sl„. |,„.l a „ ™" 

were si, II «.„„« „„, ,„„, .„„„,„•„„,, ^,,„^_.,, 

One n,Kl,t when Cath.^in,, was al,„„t ,„ «„^,„ ","• 
more weary than „„,„,, ,,,.. „,,,,•,,„, „ „,„ ) ' • 

It that' ;:,'" ';V""' '^'"'^'" '" •^■'"- »'» ">-»'-»noe 

Wc have here two delegates .sent from Peter Uvrov 
and two more from Odessa, and we are to talk ove 
some very ,m|)()rtant matters" 

Axelrod h.'.d faith in her brea,lth of mind. Although 
she belonged to the op,K,si,e fa.tion, he knew ,1 at "he 
phjced her love for the peasants above all party lines 

He ed her thr„„«l, dark side streets am! deserted 
"leys to an unfinished building without a roof. !„„;,« 

The o„r™' "■"" '"™ ''""' "■'"""«• Catherine was 
the only woman. 

She was especially impressed by one of the group. 



He w«, very y„m,K. will, l,|usl,i„« ,.l,„.k,. ,„„| |,,. , 
th.. most r..„«.,f„| ,„„„„..r „. ,1..,,.. „„.,..„,. 1^' , 
all of th..m w..r.. 1„, ,.|.|..r,.! i,.,r.Hlu,,,| hi,,, 

Ich""^ to ri,i.. as „ f.H.„,„.„ ,„,,„„, ,,, ,„:„;.;?; 

To „.vol„ii„„i,,t,. in tl,„,.. .|„j.,. „.„|,i„^ „,,„ ,,„,,. 

man odueal,,!. a,„l f,.ll „f ,„,,,,„,,.., ,.,|.„.,, „„,, „„-;;'« 
ud m ,„r..„,l„,„ |,|„,r,y „„.| |i^,,„ f A^,,,^j ^_,^ « 
to introduce hini. ' 

The nobleman who owned this young sort \uu\ nol.Ved 
hut the boy was exceptionally bright, and had given 
lum an education Wh.r. he eanu- to Kiev as a' le' 
Kate, he was a « tu.lent at tlu- I^rnvvrsity of Odessa. He 
«eemed an.l plain, and to<.k only a lunnble pa t 
m the discussion. No one could guess then Th 
seven or eight years later he would beconu ti: ^ 
conspicuous revolutionary figure in Russia. His name 
was Andrei Zhelyabov. When the Czar Alexander I 
after -nanc.pating the serfs and giving the nation 
hopes of further great reforms, backslicfin his late" 
he and became a ruthless rci.ctionary, it was Andrei 
Zhelyabov who organize<l and carried through the con 
sp.racy that resulted in his assassination. 

In the unfinished building in Kiev, the discussion 

andd.^ r ^"'" T" "''^ ^"''"^'^^ •" --"tious 
and dehberate approaches, and others who favored 
quick action. The delegates from Lavrov soared to 
bi^'iier and higher regions, and the delegates from 


OdeMa tried brnvcly but urwuccoMfully to fellow them. 
A. the talk grvw more an.l more r.hilo.ophic.«l «,ul ab- 

both fell fa.Ht ashvp. 

Catherine wh« determined to (fo out and work amonff 
the peasants : but «he wa* mlvi^ed to wait a little while 
until some further degree of organization .hould have 
been efftx-ted among th.m. EffortM to thi. emi were 
being made throughout the eountry, stinu,lat«l from 
fftrograd by Kovalik an.l others of like views The 
opponents of the Bakuninites ealle,| them*, half 
moekmgly. "flame-seekers". b<vause they .v,ught out 
those yiHages where a longing for freedom was already 
smouldermg m the peasants' hearts, and tried to fan it 
into flame. Catherine was a "flame-seeker." 

In "the eommune" life was earrietl on simply, with- 
out eeremony or affcK-tation. Plain living and high 
th.nk.n.T were the order of the day. Catherine and 
her friends lived on the poorest fare, while their minds 
were busy with the greatest questions, all centering 
about the problem of the peasants. 

On the outside, the homes of members o? "the com- 
mune differed little from other houses; but inside it 
was like a different world. There were many large 
rooms, and each looked like a workshop. In one were 
carpenters' tools, with noblemen working as apprentices 
to the trade; m another students were learning shoe- 
muking; m yet another etchers were preparing metal 
seals to stamp false passports. 

There was a general office where letters and telegrams 
were received all in cipher. Here young men and 
women could be seen discussing political and economic 
questions. Some were dressed as peasants, others, not 


yet wholly hardi'n.Hl to disroriifort. were weariii« n H«»rt 
of conipromi«. c^^timu.. while u thini group, ne .roriier., 
were ftrruyetl in the eoHtliest finery of fanhion. It wan a 
noteworthy gothering of the urmU-n of rmlUuln 
in their fortrens. making preparation* for an attaek 
upon their tH>lo.sHttl foe. A barefoot^! man in iH.«Mant 
garb might be st^-n talking with a man tlresH.^! in the 
height of style, the «m>n.| listening to the first atten- 
lively and even deferentially, bmiuse of \m wider knowl- 
e<lge an«l exiHTience of peasant conditions. 

The whole community was absorbed in the study of 
the p<.ttsttnt. They would get together in the sitting 
room and folksongs, or tell stories of the [H-asants 
I lu-strating their simplicity and gcxid nature, or their 
dullness and superstition. There was much laughter. 
I he members of the community were merry and full of 

One day Leventhal came into the group with his bride, 
the daughter of Doctor Kominer. Both were bare- 
footed, poorly clad, pale and exhausted. They had 
been working all day with the bricklayers, helping to 
put up » big building, carrying heavy pails of water, 
and stamping the lime into a paste with their ft«t 
They were worn out, and their limbs felt sore and dis^ 

"It is no joke, trying to agitate for freedom among 
men wh.> toil so miserably." they said. "Both they 
and we are all tired out. They are used up. they cannot 
listen without falling asleep; and we are ill. we cannot 
muster strength enough to stand up and talk." 

This was the typical argument of those who ad^'ocated 
beginning with minor reforms, improving the condition 
of the workers so that Ley could get rest after their 

I (J 




cky*« Ubor. Th..r.. wa» a ctmwum ll,„,ia„ «,l„^,, 

An nUmuuU .nakrn « ,HH,r,t." Th,„ 

t.H,. th,. r,.v«l„tio„i,lH ,.rKu..|. h..w c.m.I.I ihrv httv.. the l» try to .pur up « fir,.!. Inn,«ry. worii-out nmi. 

t.. rtHum. ttii.1 iiHpir,. hitii will, « %hti„^ .pjHi ? 

To ••tl... mnwnuni." n,,,,.. «Im, Wra fuvlovrm. who 
w«. r.»„„„„|Iy ,„„rrJ.M| to «„ of!i<...r. S,.rh inarriuire. 
W.T. fn.Mu..„t i„ ,|,o.„. day... A «lrl livinK in The 
r.n,r,.ry. who was i„ nympathy with Ih. rrvolu.ion. 
wouM to K.» to Ih.. ci»y i„ „r,i..r i„ ^,„k for it. 
«r H.M,p!v ,« onh.r to sUuW. lUr consorvativ. p„nn.. 
Houl.l n.fuM. thr.r sanction. «n.I wifhonf it sho ro.ihl 
not Kvl li p«.s.s,H,rt. Then Mon.r chivalrous man in 
«.vn.p«thy the revolution ,H.rharH an officer. 
Hometunes ..v..n a nol,h,„„„ -- ^,,„,., „jt,, ,,, ,„,,^^^. ,,^.^ 
with a private underHJan.lin^' iMfwe.,, (I,,.,,, that thcJ 
umcn was :.. hr uur.W no.niual. With the marriage, 
he fathers h.«al authority ovct fh.. Kir! pass.-cl to hcT 
huslu.u.l. n„|, his c-cmsent, she .ould take out a 
P«.s.s,.ort and ^^o wlu-rever she ,,|..asc.,|. H,. „,a,|e no 
Chun, on hcT. and often they parted after the wedding 
never to meet ajrain. 

Vera PavIo^^l« with others wc-nt to work in some 
lar^e gardc-ns l.c.lon^ni.K to m„nk.s of the Orthodox 
(.reek (hureh. There they cvnuc- in c-cmtaet with 
peasants, and tried to influenee th.-m. As the n.onks 
were often nu,re tyrannieal evc-n than the nohh-.s, there 
was enough for disc-onlent ; |,ut wIum, Vera and 
her fnends tried to stir the pc-asants to aetion. they 
nnswercl calmly : "We do not care anythiu.^ about the 
f^r God " "''' !>'""»'«« '^nd galhering these gardens 
Meanwhile a cousin of Catherine's, a woman of 

UTTIE c;BAM)MoniFn ..► HI wniv i,KVni.i Ti()N 37 
™i,VI,e...,.„..„t ,„„| |„.„, ,,..„„. ,.„,.;,„,, 

hrr «(«.. ,t «;„r,„„y. i„ ,„.. .|i,.nV. ,.f \i,.., ,1^ 

.n. to „„.k.- ,1 ., ,,.,„..r f.„ I,.., |,„„ .,„,.„_ .^ 

<»llHrm.. „„„|.. ,l„- vi,i,.„„.| ,,.» ,,,,, , „.„ ,'^; 

."'■'""■ .'">""' ;' ■'•"" "•«-.r. »l„. ,v.. IV,r.„r,„ 

hcrr. SI,. r,„„,,| ,„„,,, ,„. ,. „,„i„„.,„ , 

""•n in« l,r.,„«l,„,„ ,|„. .ilv. SI,.. „„.,„i,„„.,| ,„, 

"".»",,„„„ ,., K..v„iik. II,. „,„„„,.,.,, ..K,,,,-,,^; 

H HKh .».,.. f„r ,,.„ ,„ „,,„„.., i,„., „,„ „,i,.^ , 
Why <lim I yoii join Hi,' mriks?" 
II.. .i,.„nt ll,„l ,1,.. o„K)„ ,„ ,„k.. „ ,„.„„„„., ^ 

.. K.„ l,..r l.r,„„l ,|,„„l,l,.rs. ,„„| ,., .„„ ,.;,„„. ^« "^ 

o r..v.,|,.„„„ ,„ „,.. f „, „,„ ^__.^ j|_ . 

Ii.ilf-A>iy ni,..,siir.., .,f „i,.r,. I,,.,,,.,,,!..,,,.,. 

In IVlr.,«r„.l „, i„ KiVv, C.Huri,, „ 1„«,„„. ,|,.. 

o...,t,.r of „ ,.,r..|,. ,0 „.,„.,„ ,,„, „,„ „ ,,,. . ' ;; 

«. .-ouraK.., h.T fr,.„k. v,„or.,„,, „„,| ,„„■„„.,, ,,„^^,Z. 
Uon. w..r. ,„|„„r,..| „.,„,„,,.,,, ^,,^, •■i„(,.||,^.i„„|^„ , 
PrlroKrail ..iiiii,. loK,.||i,.r, 
In l,..r room, ,l„. |,..|,| „„,l,<.n„K,, „f yo„„ ,,. , 

. ™.l. what „„«l„ („ ,„. ,|„„,.. „„., ,„ „,„„ f„, , .^ 
inr ar.l,.nt .h.,„„l,.., i,,,., „„l,.,a ,,.,,|, „ jj 

lionary movement. "vum 

TOilo CatluTin,. was in p..„„p„..,, ,,„ ^„ 

rH''"™''":"!' ''""'" '"•■• «'"fin..„,..„,. ,l,e 
returned to K,ev, „„,i j„i,„.,| her hr„tl„.r-., wif... ^•,.„ 
of whom she was very fond. It had been agreed that 

MR.-!ii*5#R.,... ^..^J^^.^^immm^ 


Vera and her husband shouKl undertake the care of 
Catherine's child, and they had promised to treat him 
as if he were thci'- own. Vera was Hving in " the com- 
mune." Catherine found her ill, and nursed her ten- 
derly till she got better. 

A great grief befell Catherine at this time. Her sister 
Olga died of brain fever, calling in her delirium upon 
Catherine, whom she had loved better than any one else. 
"Women have always loved me. I am proud of it," 
said Catherine, in speaking of the strong friendship 
that existed between her and her sisters, her sister-in- 
law, and other women. 

Her sister-in-law stayed in Kiev ../ some time after 
her recovery. Finally her husband came to take her 
home. Catherine then had the anguish of parting with 
her child. The scene is still vivid in her memory. 
Outside stood the coach, drawn by two restless horses 
that snorted and pawed the ground. Vera and her 
husband were seated in the coach. Catherine came 
out to them with the baby in her arms. She gave the 
child to Vera. For a moment or two there was dead 
silence. Then Catherine burst into tears, weeping and 
sobbing like an inconsolable child. Vera cried, " Katya, 
Katya! what is the matter with you?" But the 
mother wept on. Vera gave her a hasty kiss on the 
forehead, and the coach drove rapidly away, rattling 
over the stones. 

Catherine stood dazed and bewildered. Her eyes 
were fixed upon the turning wheels of the coach, and 
when they disappeared in the distance, she still gazed 
after them. It was a bright spring day, but a cold 
autumn seemed to have settled down upon her. She 
felt forlorn and deserted. She says : 


"My heart felt torn into a thousand pieces. My 
feet were lame, my arms stiff. I could not move 
from the spot. I thought of the warning that had been 
given me when I first spoke of my wish to work for 
the peasants. While I was still a girl, they said, ' Wait ! 
You will get married, and that will tie you down. Your 
young blood will be calmed ; your running brook will 
become a quiet lake.' And Ihe time came when I was 
married, and I was conscious of no change in my spirit. 
I felt for the people's cause as strongly as ever — even 
more strongly. And then friends told me, *Just wait, 
you will have an estate of your own to care for, and 
that will take up all your time and thoughts.' But my 
husband and I bought an estate, and no such result 
followed ; for I could never let one tiny estate outweigh 
the vast plains of all Russia. My spirit and my con- 
victions remained the same. And with time came new 
counsel from friends. Now they argued: 'Yes, you 
have remained unchanged by husband and home, but 
you will succumb to the command of Nature. With 
the birth of a child will come the death of your revolu- 
tionary ideals. The wings you have used for soaring 
high in the air among the clouds you will now use to 
shelter your little one.' And I gave birth to a little 
one. I felt that in that boy my youth was buried, 
and that when he was taken from my body, the fire of 
my spirit had gone out with him. But it was not so. 
The conflict between my love for the child and my love 
for the revolution and for the freedom of Russia robbed 
me cf many a night's sleep. I knew that I could not 
be a mother and still be a revolutionist. Those were 
not two tasks to which it was possible to give a divided 
attention. Either the one or the other must absorb 


one's whole being, one's entire devotion. So I gave my 
child to Vera and my brother, to be brought up as 
their own. 

"I was not the only one called upon to make such a 
sacrifice. Among the women in the struggle for Rus- 
sian freedom there were many who chose to be fighters 
for justice rather than mothers of the victims of 




Catherine now made all her preparations to start 
out as a missionary of revolution among the peasants. 
She invited two comrades to go with her, Masha 
Kalyenkina and Yakov Stephanovitch. 

Stephanovitch was one of the most sincere among 
the young revolutionists. He was a boy of twenty, 
tall and broad, with an open, honest face, and lips so 
thick that he was often called "the White Negro." 
He was very silent. He was the son of an intelligent 
priest, who was an inspector over thirty schools, and 
who I id secured positions for many revolutionists as 

I Stephanovitch had fitted himself to be a shoemaker 

and cobbler. Masha had gone among the dye-workers 
and painters and learned their trade. Then she taught 
it to Catherine. This was an itinerant trade, and hence 
well suited to revolutionists. 

One bright morning in July, 1874, the three set out 
together from "the commune." Interested eyes 
watched them from every window, as they passed 
down the narrow street. All three were dressed as 
peasants, and carried packs on their backs, containing 
a few coarse garments and the tools of their respective 
trades. They were provided with false passports. 
Catherme's passport described her as forty years of 



age, though she was only thirty. A skilful arrange- 
ment of her hair beneath a peasant woman's shawl 
gave her the appearance of added years. She wore 
enormous bark shoes, a shirt of thick canvas, a skirt 
of coarse sacking, and a black jacket with a loose red 
belt. She had used acid on her face and hands. 
The two women carried boards for painting and dye- 
ing. The party passed as three cousins from the 
province of Orlov in Great Russia. 

It was a beautiful day. Catherine and her com- 
panions were very happy. Their hearts were over- 
flowing with good will towards all mankind, and in 
their love for the oppressed they found a sort of reli- 
gious joy. 

They made their way to a port on the Dnieper River 
where a boat was about to start for the city of Tcher- 
kass. It was full of laborers and peasants, who were 
talking and eating. The three travelers pulled out 
of their wallets bread, dried fish, and cider, and began 
to eat and drink with the rest. Some of the peasants 
asked them where they came from and whither they 
were bound. They answered, "We come from Orlov, 
and we are looking for work. We have heard that 
in such and such a town there is need of workers in 
our line." 

There was nothing strange in this. Since the eman- 
cipation of the serfs, swarms of destitute peasants who 
had lost their land had been wandering all over Russia 
looking for work. This explanation also made it 
needless for them to try to imitate the peasant speech 
of the province. The dialect of Great Russia was so 
different from that of Little Russia that the peasants 
could not tell whether they were speaking like educated 


persons or like peasants. Catherine and Masha had 
the soft hands of women who had never done heavy 
manual labor, but when Catherine explained that 
they had been the servants of a wealthy nobleman, it 
was assumed that they had been employed in some 
of the lighter tasks. As for Stephanovitch, his hands 
were already callous with hard work. 

At Tcherkass, as they trudged up the sandy hill 
from the landing, little Masha found herself unequal 
to the weight of her heavy pack. It bowed her down 
more and more. Her friends wanted to relieve her. 
At first she rejected their help with indignation, say- 
ing, "What sort of a peasant woman am I, if I cannot 
carry a load?" At last she had to succumb, and let 
the others divide part of her burden between them. 

Presently they came to a statue of the great Russian 
poet, Shevchenko. They were curious to find out 
how much the peasants knew about this man, who had 
been one of the besc friends of their cause. Some had 
never heard of him; others thought he had been some 
mighty man revered by the nobility. This was all 
they could learn. 

When they reached the heart of the city they felt 
as if everybody were looking . them; but they were 
soon reassured. Nobody took any notice of them. 
They walked till they were tired, then sat down on a 
little rocky eminence, and shared a loaf of bread. 

They passed through the city, to the last row of low 
wooden houses, and out into the open country. On 
one side the vast plains stretched away without end ; 
on the other the forest seemed to frown down upon 
them. Sometimes a coach rattled by, covering them 
with clouds of dust. Sometimes the road was swampy. 


The two women found it hard work, tramping under 
a heavy pack. After a while they had to sit down to 
rest their aching feet. Stephanovitch was used to 
walking for miles in the mud and dust, and he scorned 
their damtiness. 

"Come, now, you have had enough of sitting'" 
he said, standing in front of them. They were ex- 
hausted; hut they knew they must reach the next 
village before dusk if they were to find shelter in 
any peasant hut. The peasants were suspicious of 
strangers and would not take in anybody who came 
after dark. They rose and trudged on. 

Abo'.c six o'clock they arrived at the village of 
Byelozerye. Thoroughly tired, they sat down in a 
cottage porch. Passing peasants asked them where 
they came from and where they were going. They 
answered as before, that they came from the province 
of Orlov, and were looking for work. Soon the district 
clerk appeared, and demanded, with a haughty ges- 
ture, "Have you your passports?" With inward 
misgivings, but with unmoved faces, they pulled their 
false passports out of their blouses. Stephanovitch 
asked where they could get a night's lodging. The 
clerk did not condescend to answer. With the same 
haughty air, he glanced over the passports, and handed 
them back without a word. They folded them up 
reverently -a peasant looks upon a passport as 
something almost sacred — and put them back in 
their breasts. All breathed more freely when the 
functionary had gone. 

They were still at a loss for a lodging. "We must 
go to a tavern," said Stephanovitch. "We shall find 
more people there." But it was the middle of the 



•xf-_ ^'^ 


weok. and the inn waa almost divserted. Only the 
Jewish host sat behin.l the count.T. and a tall. raKKed 
tipsy peasant was sprawlinK over a table. He had' 
bt^.n a soMier in the Oinu-an War. and his ^reat delight 
was to tell boastful an<l fantastie stories about it 

None of our sohliers could talk with the Turks" 
he began. "But I talked with them as easily as I do 

Chald. Maid,!' and he would reply straight to the 
pomt. 'MaMi. Chaldi'. and in this way we would 
Keep on through a long conversation." 

At first the travelers were amused, but they soon 
grew tired. They urged the boaster to direct them 
to a lodgmg, but he stood in the middle of the room 
and kept on declaiming his stories. Finally Stephan- 
ovitch treated him to several glasses of whisky, and 
then he remembered that a friend of his. a widower 
had a room to let ; but it was at the othc r end of the 
village. He offered to escort them, but they assured 
him they could find the way. 

Trudging along with their packs, they laughed 
Maldi, Chaldi!" said Catherine. "Chaldi. Maldi>'' 
answered Stephanovitch. Masha. walking slightly 
bent under her burden, smiled in silence. 

It was a typical little Russian village, a row of small 
white houses, and between every two houses a well 
After many inquiries they found the place. The wid- 
ower agreed to rent them the house, but he warned 
them that it was too filthy for them to sleep in it that 
night. An old woman, a relative of his, generouslv 
invited them to spend the night with her. and pre- 
pared some food for them. She gave each a barley 
bun, as big as a man's fist. The remembrance of their 



flavor fills Catherine with horror to this ,lny. They 
ate some cakes, ami then lu-gan to nil.hlo at the agon- 
izing slippery buns. They tried hard to swallow 
them, but it seenunl a physical iniiwssibility. Then 
they thought of the great men who had sprung from 
the peasantry, and who had been brought up on such 
fare; and that helped them to get it down. 

During the meal they talked with their hostess, 
and described their hardships while looking for 

nJ.'u^''"* ^^"* °** ^^^ ^"^ worry." she answered. 
The girls will come to you to have their kerchiefs 
pamted. and their boots, too. You will have plenty 
to do." 

After the ordeal of breakfast, the three travelers 
went to look at their new home. The walls were 
rotten and tottering, the floors broken and carpeted 
with vermin, and on every side there were rat-holes 
hung with cobwebs. They stootl helpless in the midst 
of the dirt. Perhaps they let a momentary thought 
stray to the soft featherbeds and the pots of roses and 
morning glories in the chambers of the homes that 
they had left. Their hostess remarked, in the most 
matterK)f-fact way: "You had better get some fresh, 
warm manure from the fields and mix it with lime. 
That makes a good wash for the floor. Then you can 
take some fresh hay and arrange the beds." 

Mixing the lime and manure was considered strictly 
a woman's job, and Stephanovitch could not help. 
Catherine and Masha set to work courageously; but 
the task of kneading lime and steaming manure into 
a paste to varm'sh a worm-eaten floor was altogether 
new to the two delicately bred ladies. They were 


iiiiri^^"'**'"''^^"'** '' 

"•-— *'jafcj:,a.jj».^ 


overcome with nnusea. Stephanovitch inniled, with 
his arms folded behind him. 

"Woman'j* work!" he sang out heartlessly. 

"Why don't you help? It's so hard to talk, you 
know!" answered Catlierine mockingly. 
^^ "That's a kcxkI one!" retorted Stephanovitch. 
"Why. I should be the laughingstock of the peasanU 
and their wives!" 

Finally it was done. The house was cleaned as far 
as possible, the travelers' packs were lugged across 
from their lodging place, fresh straw was spread, and 
all arrangements were made for the night's rest. But 
there was to be no sleep for Catherine and Masha. 
As soon as they blew out their tallow candles, armies 
of bugs and insects swarmed out of hiding and attacked 
them. It seemed ini{)ossible that the house could 
have held so many. Stephanovitch slept as peasants 
can, even under such circumstances; but the two 
women could not rest for a moment. They kept up 
a constant fight with the invaders. They rolled from 
side to side ; they shifted from their beds to the floor ; 
but the attacking legions followed them, and were 
reinforced by armies of mice. With the break of 
dawn the tormentors retired. The humming and 
buzzing and squeaking died away, and the weary women 
got a few hours' repose. 

Then they started out to ply their trade. Masha 
painted a handkerchief as a sample of what she could 
do, and Catherine polished a boot for the same pur- 
pose. Stephanovitch set up a little shoe shop in one 
part of the house. They gradually attracted cus- 
tomers. They entered into familiar talk with them, 
and inquired into the particulars of their condition. 



«»kinK how much .and had U.„ «iv.... ,„ ,aeh p«„„,. 

=n:tir-h::t::i£-^ v^^ 

1"^"'" ""^ "• But they npviT fh#iii.Tk» # c i- 
fnu t wiih »»,.. f, .1 inou^ht of finding 

tZl ! K "'• *'"•>' ^■""'•' "-"fher have found 

ihe Czar was the fuihcT of all the r.easants Tf 
body was to bhtme. it was the X I Th » ^J 
ordered the fore.sts to be burned slly ^^"0^, 
never knew of that! >^uruy me Czar 

Tl". ••fl„„,..,,,,.k,,r,.. f„„„,, ^^ ,„„„,j . 
on hm.. But they h.ard (hut in th,. town of c;^„ i 

:^;:utrif- - - -- - - 

At Smyela raost oi the people wor-k„l in the sumr 
factorn.. A Count Babrinski h„.l revived a aSe 
grant of unuse,! land. He .sent for thousands of pe^! 
ant. from the e.states in Great Ru.s.,ia, and had thl 
plant .ugar bec-ts and build refinorie.,. so that he «uld 
ship the sugar direct from hi., land to market Th, 

borers. The peasants who had lived there from child- 


hocHj. ami wert. rum ,„„rri,.d. cKrupiod ^vernl hUx>k» 
of .H,nu I wcKKl.n l.ut... Th. iinn.urrinj luuuls. and 
thmo w UMu,,,,. froM, otluT .listr.Vts to work. .!..« Ih.,,.- 
jelve. holoH ... tl.,. hillsi.h, u,...r. th.y Iiv.<l Jnt 

floor .t l«>anl.s; „„d th. hi||, were <lotU.| with 
hese burrows where- „.e„, wo,„e,.. „n.| ehihlre,. were 
ni.l.lh.c] toKelher. wilhc.t re«anl to .sex or Mnlal rehi- 
t.o, Many of ,he yo....^ k.VIs lH,re iNeK.ti.nate 
ch. jlren. They wore their hair i,. ...nall braids' hopin. 
m th.s way to pass for h'^itinuUe wives; but the mar- 
r.ed womeu m theeottaRes .uekna.ned the,,, "braiders" 
and looked u,K>n then, and their children with scorn! 
Ihe human rabbit warrens on the hill were close 
to the sugar refineries. an<l the sugar refineries were 
dose to the Count's nu.gnificent palace. One glance 
could take .„ he extremes of poverty and wealth; 
and the breeze brought the mouldy stench of the hill 
holes, nnngled with the fragrance of the Count's 
gardens and k.tchen. 

The three wandering idealists found a tiny cabin 
m an old man lived close by the cottage of his 
marned son. and persuarled him to rent it to them 
He was tall, broad-shoul.lered, and erect, despite his 
eighty years, with a flowing beard, and a bright 
energet.c face. In his youth he had been shipped 
to Smyela. along with many other young men. to work 
on Count Babr.nski's estate. The pioneer labor on 
the land was very hard, and the peasants were flogged 
almost to death. So ruthless was the Count's treat- 
ment that they made up their minds to combine 
agamst him. The old man recalled, with a flash in 
his eye, how he had led them. But soldiers were sent 

Nl^innt fh.m. and thry were put down atl.r u few 

U Kr. had Wn ,u, lK.«te„ that he w,« o„„fi,u.| |„ hw 

bed for week-. S „.. then there h«d Invn „« rel^lhW 

Thw «d man had many talk., with Catherine „„d 

IZl \r^ '*'"^"' '*""" """•'• '^"'^«-. -n»pl>^ 
HK them with many .n.all convenience.; b„t he knew 

hat they were ,Kx,r. and he n-fuMed all their invitation. 

o Cm. then.. Finally Catherine «.»! around 
the Cfhculty by inviting hin. to over for a Ik 
and then offennK him a «hare of the dinner ca.Hua ||y 
«.". « »ort of secondary pha.,e of the <li.Hcu.H.Hion H; 
would wax enthu,ia«tic over the work to U- done the oppression of the n<,hle« 

"We mu«t fiKht or .lie." Catherine and her friend, 
would say to him. "We he nilent and reldy 
not «dent and helpless." ^' 

-iJh'^*'"!!/* ''•'^. """l^ '"^'' *"**"" "«"'"•" h- '^o"''^ 
and old. We need youth for that." 

They got acquainted with a younger peasant named 
Ivan, and trietl to indoctrinate him. 
"Wliat made you leave Orlov.?" he a.sked. 
We could not get any growrul to till. When we 
were freed from .serfdom, we were freed from the land, 
too — that IS, we were free to leave." 

"VVell. that's nothing new." said Ivan. "We have 
had the same trouble right here. Why. there isn't 
even any pasture land for the cows, or any plots for 
gardens. We have to buy everything we^nee^ and 
we have to pay for it. too." ' 

Under serfdom, the peasants had been able to supply 
most of their wanU from the soil. ^ 


•Thf tinif Urn romp now whon wp must all work " 
went on Iv«n. •Fro.,, tlw tir »i to the oKlrlt 

man — men. women, luul thil.inu. we nil have our 
pnce; the men uf forty ko,M.kH « .lay. the women at 
"enty-five, ami the ki.Mie-, nt ten." 
But when C'Htherine trietl to nhow him that they 
niUMt join hamlH nK«i,ut the Kovernnunt. he answered : 
It tan t be. Tlie (zur knows nothing? of all these 
UunK* that \m officials an<l «ulM,nlinateH ,|„. They 
are all rawal.s. an.l they kivp It from him. for fear of 
bemK ,,uni.Hh|.l if he knew. Why. <|o you think tho 
C«ar IH a ftx,! ? Do you think he cIck-s not know that 
without land the jM'asant raimot live?" 

Catherine insisted that the was no better 
than the nobles, and that h.- was in league with them 
Ivan answered : '•Flow can it pay the (xar to In- on 
the sale of the nobles when they are cmly a handful 
and the peasants are millions .=» Besides, who pay« 
all the taxes.' Who serves in the army? Who fe^nls 
the nation? The peasant, and only the peasant." 
What you say is very true." answered Catherine, 
but for all that the Czar is the peasant,' enemy. 
Who ,s the Czar? He hims<.|f is a nobleman. He 
feasts and drinks with the nobles about him. They 
are his friends and advisers. What he says, they do 
and what they want, he says." 

But Ivan persisted: "The Czar is good to his 
peasants. They are his children. Everything that 
IS bad comes from the barons and the lords." 

To the Russian peasants, the Czar was a deity 
It was easier for them to believe the most fantastic 
^bles than to give up thei. 'aith in the "good Little 
father." They were firmly convinced that the book 



Diessings for the peasants, and had interpolated . 
long l«t of oppressive laws that the Czar nX 4ean? 
or knew anything about. Their hope was tS^t Tme 

htCL^Tp'iZ':' '"^^" '^"~'^^ ^ 

But Catherine persisted: 

"You say the Czar is the peasants* friend Well 

uITL:'c::^^.! ^-"0- «- that'helS 
"It is." 

Ja^"^ ^^"^ commands the army and tells it what 
to do? Is not that the Czar's business?" 

It IS. 

"Then why do the soldiers flog and shoot you ? Why 
do they murder you and your children in cold bkod 
when you organize clubs ? Because it is the Czar who 
tells them to do it. They take orders only from him " 

Ivan wrinkled his forehead H» 1 J 

"Reallv if ;. . 'weneaa. He murmured: 

ear You know how deceitful those officials are 

e?;Krr:oL°„^,::..p- "'- ■"- -- 

th^'tW «°°f,t»' °' *«*. Ivan became convinced 
.htgs righr-'" '"^ '" '=«'•'' *"" ««"» •"-■■ to'et 

Catht^.:'"'' """"' "'"' """^^ -'*' "««?" «-ked 

toZtToi^S-r-'^'y- "How have you 

.♦ :s>M. 


,1."^^'!^"^ !"" """'y t-verywhere who understand 
he truth, and they are ready to organize an" ^^ 
n the movement against the oppressors. The C°ar 

him. But the mountain rests on your shoulders 
and .f you walk away, the whole burden wTfan' 

Wd'tinT'- T.'"' 7l'°™"'y high aJveyo^ 
head, will l,e in the mud beneath your feet " 

Ivan wrinkled his brows again. He was thinking. 

hel^d 'i'well """"Tir """^ "'"' '-"•"tionists, 
ne said . Well, we will talk it over. If there is to be 

an uprising, we must all stand together. The s^^^e 

groups all over the country must unite. You seem to 

tavel everywhere. Talk it over with the pe-^pT ^ 

"W. J "'"'"'"'• ^""^P^ ""^y ''"' help us." 
„i r.'^;u ™'' '"PP*"' ">»» I »■» the only one?" 
said Catherine. "Hundreds and hundreds of men 
and women all over Russia at this moment are U|l° 
mg to he peasants as I talk to you. The ~^hat 
we ehildren of the soil have to suffer are^^grlat 
We are broken and ruined under them. And why 
must we endure them? Many are going a^ut s"^ 
mg these things. They are even distributing books 
and pamphlets about our sorrows. Just see, I We 
such a booklet here." * 

She pulled out from her blouse "Moses and his Four 

diSittoin" th™"';'^' """,*■'•' '-o'-tionists us^ to 
distribute m the villages. It was a story containing 

::xs:^':ititthr.r''-'---«'- ^- 

u ' ^ . 

M'.-" ~-> 

«•"*•■.;':&» ; '• 

• 1 

feel."'"'" "^ *"'''" """'''"' '^''^y 'P*'''' "hat we 

much*"!;? ""' '"''"*''•" "f''' <^''"'"'"*- "On« '«!» 
much, and one says much. But does one always 

otUT" '''"' ■""'' """'* -^ acquainted :^J^ 

bors with whom you ought to talk. They too feel a 

nK**""'- ..'."'" *•""« y" ""d them t„ge4«." 
And he added, excitedly. "You will bring along 

laws?'*'" *"*" '^*" ''"" *""• °"" "' "''book o? 
It was agreed that the first meeting of the factory 
hands should be held in Ivan's house. MeanThuI 
Cathenne tned to get in touch with some peasants 
ess gentle and phlegmatic than he. She heard of 
two brothers m the sugar refinery who were noted for 

^1 LT'Tru*^"- T'«'y •"'<' '«'- '-d- in 

o one of ;f' '' 'T.**'"" P"^- S*"* "'"' "> 'he house 
of one of them. It was evening, but he had not vet 

come home. She found his wife in great fear a?d 

anxiety because of the disappearance of their hog. 

She knew what her husband would do to hor if the 

an.mal was lost through her lack of watchfulness. 

Cathenne t„ed to comfort her. Bursting into tears 

the poor woman seized her hand and covered it with 

Kisses. It was an unheard-of thing for one oeasont 

woman to kiss the hand of another, and Catter ne 

was great y taken aback. She was afraid the wonLn 

had penetrated her disguise. But the unusual act 

was only due to gratitude for the unaccustomed syn- 

rlefv , Z . '"?' '"'' ■"" g*™ Catherine 

a very favorable idea of the husband; nevertheless. 



she wished to await his return, but the wife urged her 
to go. not wanting her to witness a painful scone. 

The next day Catherine saw the man, and talked 
to him about the many wrongs of the factory workers. 
It IS strange." she said, "that when your wages are 
cut down a few kopeks a day you make a terrible out- 
cry and fight desperately against it; but when the 
nobles take away your land and all your rights, you 
are as meek as cattle." 

"What can we do ?" he asked. " If tlie crowd holds 
back and only one man steps forward, what do you 
expect him to accomplish? The crowd disowns him 
and the oppressors give him a flogging and send him 
to Siberia. 

The same idea had been expressed to Catherine 
again and again. She tried the brother, but found no 
encouragement. He was immensely proud of the 
factory, although he lived as miserably as the rest of 
Its two thousand hands. "Where will you find such 
another factory?" he boasted. "Where is there one 
that employs so many workers, and turns out so much 

At last the Sunday appointed for the meeting came. 
About forty peasants filed slowly into Ivan's house 
They sat on chairs, tables, window sills, and bedsteads 

Ivan began: "My brothers, the 'original papers' 
are among us. The good and noble writings which 
the lawless nobles and oflScials tore out of the statutes 
are now here, and are going to be read to us." 

There was dead silence. The peasants were all 
ears. Catherine was almost as breathless as they 
Her heart throbbed with joy over the fulfilment of her 
long cherished hope. For the first time, she was to 


address a gathering of peasants in a peasant's home 
-not students, not educated men and women, but 
the children of the soil, the crude, rough foundations 
of the Russian nation. She said to them: 

"I have no miraculous papers, stolen from law 
books ; but I have other valuable papers, which, 
al hough not written by the Czar, are nevertheless 
full of sympathy and interest for the peasants. These 
works are by very good people - indeed, by the best 
P^ple m Russia. They are all written about you - 
about the wrongs you have suffered in silence and 
resignation, about the outrages committed upon you 
and about your rights as human beings." 

"But who will read these things to us?" asked the 
peasants. None of them could read. 
"Oh. she — * Auntie.*" answered Ivan. 
"What! Can she read?" 

l^l^' ^^y- '^^ '^^^ very well," exclaimed 

She began to read. There was a complete hush, 
rhe peasants drank in every word; the motion of 
their mouths imitated every syllable uttered by the 
reader. She read in a clear, strong, pleasant voice, 
and with beaming eyes. The peasants were fasci- 
sTo^ed '^ hypnotized. At the close, many 

"a"^'' «™* °°^^^ ^**'*^«'" "What golden 
words!" "What truth!" 

Catherine's face shone. This was one of the supreme 
moments of her life. 

"Well," she said, "what is to come of it? We 
must do something. We cannot remain indifferent 
to this horrid mjustice all around us." 


At these words the audience awakened from their 
trance. An elderly peasant answered : 

"You are right. Your words are golden words. 
Hut how can we organize for a revolt? If we alone 
were to take arms against the power of the govern- 
ment we should be flogged, ruined. The soldiers 
wo,, d be sent against us. and that would be the end 

^Xps -'' ""^"^ ''^^'' '''"''^^' ^*°'"^** "'• *^^° 
"And I think." another peasant interrupted, "that 
we had better wait till the Czar learns about our 
miserab e condition, and the atrocities committed by 
the nobles. Then he will avenge us " 

th«?!l!'"r' ^""^"^ *"'"" *^"* ^' ^^« ""^^'y mistaken; 
that the Czar was no better than the nobles, perhaps 
even worse; and that to look to the Czar for help was 
like seeking salvation at the hands of the devil Ud 
roar followed; not another intelligible word was 
T^i.^"* The peasants were completely confounded. 
To hear the Czar and the devil named in one breath 
was too much for them. Catherine withdrew from 
the meeting, excited and a little disturbed. 

The facts leaked out and reached the authorities. 
Stephanoyitch was warned that he must vanish, ^le 
did so. A young man brought the same warning to 
Catherine and Masha. with a sum of money. He 
urged them to start at once for Tcherkass. where 
Stephanovitch would rejoin them. Then he too 
disappeared. The two women told the peasants that 
they had had an offer of work in another district 
and must leave at once. Every one was sorry to have 
them go. Even their aged host's daughter-in-law, a 
shrew that scolded and cursed continually, shed tears 


at their departure. The old man himself was deeply 
moved. He said to Catherine : 

"I lived happily with my wife for many years, but 
that which I have felt toward you I have felt toward 
no other woman. You are one in a thousand. May 
God help you in all that you undertake !" 



Masha returned to Kiev. Catherine staved for a 
time in Teherkass. As she wandered about the town, 
looking for new recruits, she came one day upon a 
group of working people seated on a stone wall near 
the river, where they were employed about the landing. 
Several women were cooking the midday meal in a 
large pot mounted on three bricks. This was a com- 
munal group, that worked and ate together. If any 
member was ill. his part of the food was sent home to 
him. Communal clubs of this kind had their origin 
in the most ancient customs and traditions of Russia. 
Cooperative colonies and other community under- 
taki gs existed and flourished in large numbers through- 
out the country. The revolutionists took a great 
interest in them. They believed that if the workers 
could act in concert to provide for their material wants, 
they could learn to fight in concert to secure a free 

Catherine wa5 pleased to come upon this example 
of folk brotherhood. She greeted the laborers, and 
they responded cordially. Handing her a sDoon, 
they urged her to sit down and share their meal. ' 

"Where do you come from?" they asked. 

" From Orlov. I am waiting for my nephew. When 
be arrives, we shaU go together to look for work." 





• T 

"^"l l ^i?^J" ^r' ""«»^borhood?" they .aid. 

no'unV" ""^^ ^^^*"''»«' »n <^honi«. "the old story - 

Catherine turned the conversation to a village that 
was much talked about at the time, where the pelnt' 
dnven desperate by the oppression of the nobles, had 
appointed delegates to go and complain to the Czar. 

Ah. delegates!" exclaimed one of the workers a gesture of despair. "What good does it do to 
send delegates? They were thrown into jail, and a e 
rottmg there to this day." 

"But what do you think of the Czar's not even 
allowmg h.s chjhlren the peasants, to come to him 
with their complaints ? " said Catherine. 

"YoT. ♦K^'rJ' r' *" ^'"'""'" ^^^ *^^ P''o»"Pt reply. 
You think he knows that we come to himi and so 
arrests us. But the nobles and the officials do kot even 
let us get near him." 

"What a fine Czar." said Catherine, "not to know 
when his peasants want to see him. or not to be able 
to let them come to him ! There are millions and mil- 
lions of peasants, and only a handful of nobles, yet he 
never sees the peasants, and he always sees the nobles. 

-VSTatt/r ^"^'^^^ ^' '--' -'^'^ ^--'-s 

sidtd'wllrr"..^^ '""'""u "T- ^^' y°""^^'- »^»>«r^'-s 

the Czir ^''^*'^"°^' ^"* *^« «^^^' on^« «" defended 

-writ iTl.^'r''*"; n';?^^'"^" '^'^ *>°^ «»^ »"«"• 

Was ,t not the Czar? Have you so soon forgotten 

a noble deed of bounty ? " forgotten 



Catherine had many talks with lalmrcrM aiul poas- 
ants in She hml ^ivm away ail hor htrra- 
ture, but «he «o«n Ioarne.1 to sprak to thi-in so that 
their hearts were hke wax in ht-r hands. She was as 
Kood a hstener as she was a talk.-r. I lor K,ve and svni- 
pathy made each of them tvt'l as if hv were opening his 
heart to a mother. They toM her all their troubles. 
When It was tune to go, they could hardiv tear them- 
selves away. They would go to the .loor. hesitate 
and turn back to ask about something they had for- 
gotten; walk lingeringly to the door again, go out. 
and then s.-nd somebo<ly back to ask just one more 
question of the strange, wotuh-rful peasant 

When Stephanoviteh arrive.1. Catherine and he took 
boat down the Dnieper River to the district of Yelizavet- 
grad. in the province of Kherson. Here there were 
many Dissenters, known as Evangelists. They had 
undergone much persecution from the government, 
but had resisted so stoutly that now they were tacitly 
permitted to pray as they pleased. Not knowing where 
their head center was. the two revolutionists said to 
some of the passengers on the boat : 

"People talk of a new sort of religion in these parts. 
Do you know what it is all about ? " 

Some of the peasants looked shocked, others shrugged 
and smiled. Some were too frightened to take any 
notice of the question. One answered, laughing: 
Why. do you want to join this new faith?" 
They discussed the Dissenters with everybody who 
was willing to talk about them, in order to find out how 
tliey were generally regarded. 

One peasant said : "These Evangelists are certainly 
in league with the devil and his imps; for if you put 



. Ihref-ruble p.W on Ihc do„r,ill of ,„ Evan«,H,f. 
roUa«e. the nrxl .lay you will find a hundr..d ruble 
piw in place of it." uuuiru ruDle 

The,,. ,torie» ^rew out „f the fart that no EvanKeJist 

; ±1 "'"'• '" """"'"'""' '"•» ••""•■•'•«»= ""^ no 
«lran«er w«, ever h.rn„l away fron, , he door. The 

pne,U of the ()rlh«lox (ircvk Church de„oune«^ 
hcs,. herelKx and warne.1 the ,„,,.le ,„ have noth^ 
to .lo wlh hem ; hut the p,.„.,anl, found them humble 
court^u, hospital,,,, ,.„d b,.|p,„,. „|„„VH doin^ «2l 
Ihey coud not r..e„ncile what they heard in church 
with what they .saw in daily life. 

Ivnl!^ '"b ""'",""-«■;'"•"■■ »t"PPe.l at the village of 
L, il»„„rka. Mere the opponent, of the Slate Church 
had gained a arge following. l,„.,.u,, ihey had an able 
local leader. Ivan R.v„l,a,hapka. He wi, „„t only . 
man of .strong ehara.ler. but a diplomatist. He wa. 
« earpc-nter and he had pr..,en.„l the chief of Mice 
with a,l«,mely.c„rved bureau and the police in- 
"Pector with a beautiful cabinet. In LyXimirka 
he EvangclHt, were looked ,ip,.„ lenientfy by he 
pohce while everywhere el.,e they were flogged. VVTien 
the two revolutionist., arrived. Uyobalhapka w^ 
away, but waa exp,Tte,l back in a few .lay. 

To disarm suspicion, they lo..k up their quarter, 
w th a ver.v ortho.l„x peasant. They rented the cabTn 
adjoining his cottage, and there Stephanovitch ,e? 
out his shoemaker's t.H,ls and Catherine h-T .Ivestuff, 
and pamtbru.shes. They questione.1 th<.ir h.;,! and 

they had a terrible reputation, which it was hard even 

or such chiWren of the devil to live up to; in Zh 

their outward behavior was fairly g«Kl, but of co.^ 



that «li<l not matter, nincv the village prie.t declnred 
that their religion was horrible. 

"Do any of tht..e dreadful jHHjple live near here?" 
OJikefi ( atherine. 

«,i.T*'^'c*'"'''" !!" *'"'' "' **'^"» «"'y "**"* ^»«>»": and 
what an Evangel,. t he is! His eye. Mparkle and hum. 

\ou eannot look ,n hin eye.H without fcvling that the 
devd ,H there. Fie in one of the leaders, too . He 
can tolk almut his reliKion for hours. Ho like., it 
better than foo<l or work. But what sort of religion 
can thi, have, without a ehureh. and without the 
sanction o the Czar? Imagine people fitting and 
smgmg and praying within bare walls, and with no 
sacred candles! 

Not wishing to be seen going along the road to visit 
Stephan. the Evangelist. Catherine climbed over the 
fenc^. mto his ground. He stopped ^vork. and leaned 
on his hoe. looking at her with his brilliant eyes. 
Oood day, brother," she said. 
"GowJ day, sister." he replied. 
Catherine sat down on a pile of hay. ond began to 
sew on a shirt that she had brought with her. 

"I do not want to disturb you." .she said. "Finish 
your work, and then we will talk." 

He dropped his hoe, saying. "It is easy enough to 
let this work wait, but we should never let the wonl 
of God wait a moment." 

Leading her into the house, he proceeded to expound 
the doctrines of the reformed religion with fervor 
How could she endure the absurdities of the Greek 
Church, the false pomps and ceremonies of tlu blinded 
image-worshippers? Why not embrace 

the noble, the only true* faith? His face shone 



E^n-I^ fjk. 

TK^^mam ^^m 



.•«^.. A .tr«n«.. f«.!i„« .toir ovir Catherine 

«nK face to f«,v each In-i.t u,h,„ cnv.rtlnK Iho «ih.r. 

How do you know timt I have not alrvmly enihracr^l 
Ihr doctr,n.H »f KvanKH.„m ?" «he H«i.l. ^ 

C>f coiirHo. I ,|o not km^w/' hv anMwm^l. "hut 

fi'l! ;r';'*'/""^'" '^•*' ^'«t'«'*nn,.. "that the faith 
of ho Ortho.l«x (Jnvk Church i. false iu rnanv n..,H T 
mu hat .t ....I. to iH. nK.te.| out of th,*. cou'^ry: 
Hut that ,.H not the only evil in UuMsia that nml.s to 
Cr TrV T: V'" «--"— >t that foMtcr. tl ^ 
I?I r ,""''• r.\'*''^^--'' •-• The writin«« of 1 1- 
"ly fa her.s wh.rh .hvlare the country', ruler to b^ 
he ano.nt.l of C.kI to he .lest^.^ecl „. in,!!:,!: 
>y ffo ft Htep further than you Kvangelist.. We 

Church, hut falsehotKi and evil wherever and when- 
ever ,t «hows itself. We oprn,.. it in the laws hit 
men make for their hrothers; we it in the da ly 
•fe of every man, wo.nan. an.l chihl. Do you believe 
hat .t ,s wro„K to worship the ima^e of Cuh\, but right 
to worship the inuige of the Czar ? '' 

••VVhat are you saying, sister?" askcnl the Evange- 

that we shouM render unto C«,^ar the things that 
arc Ca^ar sand unto God the things that are (Li's?" 
in reply, ( athcrine quoted scn eral other texts which 
on .Hy demolished the interpretation that th. Fvl ^e 

n .^"n.T" "^"' °"" "«^''"^' »>-^'n brought 

up on the B.ble. she wns fortified with a great array 
of revolutionary passages of Scripture. To every 



evil which couhl »m» irrnv.! to Iho ('«ar. ^Uv »mAm\ « 
quotation from Holy Writ. "How ran CWmI havt- 
unoiiit«'«l a ruk-r who (Kmh ««vi«ry tiling that (mmI ron- 
•IriiiiiH? IKm's (itxl «'iicoiiniK«* miwry and fiovfrty 
•nionK hi.» chil.lrrn on oarth ? IXm'h Hi* i luouraKc 
opprivwion and nmnlrr? Wtll. but that in jrwt what 
thf Catar dm-M ciu-our ;'r!" 

Whrncvtr (all. un- 'vaxfd eloquvnt. th«» FAanKtlint 
would nu-ditate i.r sshil .,,u' then May drr. mily : 
"Who knows? i«rhj.,..-. ,' .,». of us 'Evanf/diHts 
otMdd com.' ira. il.. r ^,,- , ,,^„ , .^ j^,. ^.„„,,, j,.|j jj^^. 

Casar ovcrytli,,-. mi.: th., , i . hing would chi.MKf 
for the bott Tl. • ...... I.. (^ t ,«t \w is always .sur- 

roundod by ui.s. r.i mi'..^ , ..MbU.- and offlnal.s Ah. if 
ono of our nifniU-rs « >. |,| ,„ , pproj,(.}, |,i,„ r* 

Catlu-rine told t .. u^,U ; that hor nephi-w was 

deeply interestwl in these subjeets. and she would 
brinK him over to have a talk about th.'m if Stephan 
would arrange to have some other KvanKflistj* present. 
To this he gladly a^eed. 

Catherine intrcKlueed Stephanoviteh to Stephan. 
and lh«'y argued for hours, Sterihanovitch bringing 
forward many texts to prove the nee<l of a revolution. 
Then Catherine began to chat with the Evangelist 
about his family. He told her he had been married 
twice, and had two children by his first wife. 
^^ "That is the .source of all my troubles." he said. 
"There is continual quarreling between the stepmother 
and her stepchildren." 

"What do you do about it?" 

"Well, what would you expect? The world has 
found a cure for such cases, hasn't it?" He smiled 
— not a pleasant smile. "Sometimes I have to give 



the children a thrashing to keep them within bounds, 

SIThS.?.""' ^'^ ^^'^ ''' ^*^- '''-^^ ^-* 

Catherine knew that most peasants beat their wives, 
but ,n the ease of a deeply religious Evangelist she 

What! she exclaimed. "A man of your intelli- 
gonce do such an unmanly thing? Would it not be 

Zt tht; r^ '""^ ^""^ ^^^^ '^"^ ^^"'^- ^^ ^^^^■ 

Just then a slender young pr -sant woman came in. 
with a cluld m her arms, and un older boy and gir 
hangmg to her dress There was a weary, melancholy 
w^h h ' :^^;^"P,«""ken eyes. Catherine had a talk 
with her. while Stephanovitch engaged the husband 
m another discussion. 

"Sister, my heart is Jull to burstinR." said the frail 

.Hie woman. "When we come together to pray. 

they all bow their heads and murmur their thought 

and wishes to God. but my heart is heavy and I am 

and I ' ^""•"./•■•"y- .'»■• -ny conscience is not clear, 
and I feel dreadful misgivings. In the Holy Book 
.t says that we should all love one another; but what 
kmd of love have we here? The children vex and 
torment me, my husband beats me. and I am ignored 
and trampled upon. Nobody ever pays the slightest 
heed to my wishes. I sometimes feel that I have no 
place here; and so I cannot honestly pray to thank 

The poor woman wept bitterly, stifling her sobs for 
fear they might reach her husband's ear. Catherine 
could hardly keep back her own tears. 

The meeting at the Evangelist's house was held the 


next night. The room was packed. There were 
many men, and some women and children. None of 
the men were young. Some had interesting faces; 
there was something there beside the careworn wrinkles 
of the peasant; there was a faint glow of enthusiasm 
in their eyes. All wore their holiday garments of white 
Imen freshly washed and pressed, with green belts; 
and the women had on brilliantly dyed shawls. A 
kerosene lamp hung from the ceiling. They sang 
psalms and hynms with a (lerman rhythm. The 
harmony was poor, for the Russian peasants were still 
unaccustomed to the nuisical genius of the German 
Protestants whose religion they had adopted; but 
they struggled through the lines heroically, making 
up m enthusiasm what they lacked in skill. 

Then a peasant rose and prayed, his eyes fixed upon 
the wall m the left-hand corner of the room, where 
the sacred images and pictures are foimd in the houses 
of peasants belonging to the Greek Church. Here 
they had been replaced by a strip of bright-colored wall 
paper and several flower vases. He called upon God 
askmg the cause of man's <lebasem'-nt, and how this 
sinful creature could ascend into .!-- light of heaven 
Meanwhile the other peasants shook their heads with 
rhythmic piety, their lips faintly murmuring tender 
supplications, their eyes all fixed upon the many-colored 
wall paper in the left corner. Then a woman arose 
bhe prayed that sin might be swept from the earth, 
and that Evangelism might come into its own in every 
part of the land. She mourned over the frailty of 
mankind, with her eyes fixed on the spot where the 
picture of the Madonna used to hang; and the eyes 
of the whole assembly gazed in the same direction. 



Then Stephan said : "Brothers and sisters, we have 
here two guests who wish to become famihar with our 
creed and our manner of praying. They are inclined 
towards the Evangelistic faith, but they are still un- 
certam upon several points, and they want to inform 
themselves by asking us some question's." 

Catherine then took the floor. She said: "It is 

^'!i"^!; 'Vr!"" ^""^y ^"^^ *^«* '«'*h without works 
IS dead. Where there is true religion, there must be 
action. If so, then, when the Holy Scriptures tell us 
to help the downtrodden and oppressed, we musi do 
more than merely repeat the words after them We 
must practice what we preach. We must really help 
those who are suffering." 

"Well. well, that is certain," assented several peas- 
ants. ^ 

"But I know of many villages where the peasants 
are on the verge of absolute starvation — where the 
old people never eat bread and the babies never get 
milk. They need not only religion, but food. They 
are so hungry that they cannot even think about 

She went on to describe the dire poverty she had 
seen m other districts she had visited - places where 
peasants ate the bran that here was thrown to the 
cattle; places where women and children were merci- 
lessly flogged for the slightest neglect of their work 
Her pictures were so vivid and gripping that the women 
melted into tears, and the men bowed their heads in 
sorrow. One short peasant with fiery red hair broke 
mto shouts; he wanted to go out at once to feed the 
starving people from the bursting granaries of the 
wealthy nobles. 

•- .4 M 


"And why have we all this suffering around us?" 
continued Catherine. "Because the peasants, since 
their emancipation from serfdom, have been given 
no land ; because they have been ruthlessly robbed of 
nil their possessions and of all their rights, not only in 
regard to religion, but in all social, political, and eco- 
nomic matters." 

The Evangelists were wholly under the spell of Cath- 
erine s magnetic personality. They shouted approval, 
and declare^ they would avenge the wrongs of their 
brethren. There was enthusiastic confusion 

Suddenly the door opened. On the threshold stood 
a remarkaoly handsome man. His face was domineer- 

H^V /? S^x"/"^. "'^''*'^'' ^'' ^^^^^ ^'"^««t splendid. 
He held a Bible in his hand. 

^Ah! Here is Brother Peter!" cried the i>easants. 

Peter was the right-hand man of the absent 
Kyobashapka. He had received a hint that it would 
be well for him to attend the meeting, as the Evange- 
lists would need a man who could hold his own in argu- 
ment. ® 

He marched with a self-confident air to the middle 
of the room, took a good look at the two strangers 
and sat down to listen. Stephanovitch began an 
address, quoting from the Scriptures, but was inter- 
rupted by Peter with the text, "Render unto Cffisar 
the things that are Caesar's." Stephanovitch re- 
sponded with such a shower of revolutionary texts 
that Peter was soon confounded and put to silence. 
Ihen Catherine again described the miserable condi- 
tion of the peasants in different parts of Russia. She 
told of peasants who never baked, and sometimes were 
driven to eat grass; of whole villages suffering from a 



contagious eye-trouble, because the people lived in 
burrows; of peasants who sptmt the whole summer 
pickmg crumbs and other bits of food out of the barrels, 
and lived during the winter on what thev had been 
able to save of the food thus collected. They were as 
gaunt as .skeletons, yet they were exploite<l, and taxed, 
and forced to serve in the army She told of the thou- 
sands and thousands who wandered from pK.ce to place 
in search of work, destitute and starving, till they 
found their last bed in a ditch, and no one knew when 
or where they died ; and all because the peasants had 
been deprived of the land that was rightfully their own. 
The listeners wept and groaned in heartfelt sym- 
pathy. ^ 

"\yell," said Catherine, "can you know of all this 
that IS going on around you, and not care?" 

"No, no! Never!" cried the little peasant with the 
red hair. 

"We must do something," exclaimed others. 
Then Catherine and Stephanovitch explained that 
there was a great revolutionary organization, with 
branches all over Russia, which was planning to win 
justice for the WTonged and bleeding children of the 
soil. The revolutionists, they said, were also preachers 
of a religion, and one of its maxims was, "No stone 
•shall be left unturned until life in this world is started 
on an honest basis." "Brothers and sisters," said 
C atherine, "will you join us in this movement for jus- 
tice and equality?" 

The peasants hesitated. Then they answered, "We 
are all m full sympathy with you, but we cannot de- 
cide upon anything till our eldest brother, Ryoba- 
shapka, is here to advise \x<' 


"And hav-e you no wills of your own - no minds 
of your own ? " said Catherine. 

"It is wiser to wait for him," they insisted. "He 

way to bt. Petersburg in our cause." 

The peasants ,,arte<l with the revolutionists in a 
very friendly spirit. Peter tried to sli,. away un- 
nofced, but Catherine insisted upon shaking hands 
With h,m. rhe audience left one by one, so as not 
to attract attention. Then Stephan took Catherine 
and her nephew mto his back yard, silenced his 
dog w,th a kick, and helped them over the fence, so 

heretics ^"^ ""^^^ ^"""'^ ^^^^' ^""^ *''"''" ""^"'^'"S *h^* 
The next morning their host asked them if thev had 
yet met his neighbor Stephan. Catherine said that 
they had, and that he seemed to be a fairlv good sort 
of peasant, only that his religion was not quite what 
1 ought to be She and Stephanovitch spent the day 
studying the Scriptures, in preparation for the evening 

thrEpfstleJ ^^ '^'^'^ *^*'*' ^"'"'""•^'"" especially from 
In the evening a still larger gathering of Evangelists 
met in S ephan s house. Peter was there, Bible in 
hand, ready to renew the fight. He held out somewhat 
longer than before, but he was finally discomfited, 
and took shelter behind the little red-headed man, 
who was absorbed in admiration of Catherine. 

btephanovitch spoke about the earlv trials of the 
Apostles, telling how they had oppJsed autocratic 
rulers, and had refused to recognize the divine right 
of kings, or the sacredness of their laws and edicts 
Ihe peasants waxed still more enthusiastic, and were 


all ready to join the revolutionary movement, if only 
Ryobashnpka approve.!. Catherine had misgivings 
u»K>ut their bhn.l trust in this "eld.r brother/' She 
feared also that Uyobashapka would be influenced 
ugamst her and Stephanovitch in advance, by Brother 
1 fter. whose pride had been wounded by his defeat 
m argument. 

The next evening they found the peasants restless 

und full of expectation. - To-day we shall come to it 

;lms.on sa.d Stephan. "Our eldest and wisest 

brother has just got back. He will soon be here." 

The peasants kept stealing glunces at the d(x>r. At 

last It opened, to admit a powerful, broad-shouldered 

giant, ruddy and well fed. with a high forehead and 

piercing eyes. He gazed at the two visitors in silence 

for a few moments, then marched through the crowd 

straight up to them, and thundered. "Where do you 

come from?" ^ 

"From Orlov." 

"Why are you wandering about? Why don't you 
settle down somewhere?" 

"We have no land. We are looking for work." 
Where are your passports ? Have you passports ? " 

C atherme and Stephanovitch rose, and began slowly 
to pull out their passports, but the look of mingled 
«corn and pity that Catherine cast upon the arrogant 
carpenter made him blush to his ears. It was the 
business of the government alone to demand passports; 
and It did not become an Evangelist t.» help the perse- 
cuting government in making its inquisitions. But 
Kyobashapka represented that he only wanted to make 
sure they were not tramps. Go,! know who might be 
prowling about among respectable people • 




"Well, now, why do you come to us?" he asked, 
after looking at the passports. 

"We are truth-seekers." they answered, "and we 
heard that you people here havi discovered and ud- 
hold the true faith." 

"Well, that wouldn't be so bad; but I understand 
that you are agitating for a rebellion against the Czar." 

"We simply believe that the oppressed should defend 
themselves against their oppressors." 

Ryobashapka defended obedience to the Czar from 
the gospels. His arguments were soon demolished, 
but this only made him more bitter. "If I did not 
understand the teachings of my religion and practice 
them," he said. "I should turn you over to the police 
this minute." 

"There would be nothing new in that," answered 
Catherine, with a shade of mockery in her tone. "The 
Czar has plenty of spies and informers." 

Confusion followed. Many of the Evangelists were 
displeased with Ryobashapku's roughness. 

"Why bully them so.'" they said. "They mean 
well. They are seekers after the truth." 

"They have the people's welfare at heart," said the 
little man with the red head. 

"What is all this excitement about?" asked the car- 
penter, frowning. "I said I had a right to turn them 
over to the police, but that, Iieing an honest Evangelist 
I shall not avail myself of the right. There is nothing 
harsh about that." 

This calmed the disturbance. The two revolution- 
ists then reminded the peasants that the government 
<1kI not permit a true interpretation of the Bible, and 
that the people suffered severely in consequence. 



"Here you are." they «aid. "trv'in« to live according 
to your own conviction.H. and you are continually 
moIestH and t^r.vexMr Catherine described the 
suffermK« of others who tri«l to live according to their 
Ideals, and how they were all arresttni. or flowed or 
sent o Siberia "Do you think a Czar who^rmiU 
such thiUKs ,s pleasinff to God ?" she said 

"What are you <lrivlnK at?" cried Ryobashapka. 
Do you mean to tell nie that if t ho officials will not 
permit an honest mtorprotahcm of the Bibl,.. they will 
permit rebellion and an honest form of Kovernment ? 
Perhaps ,f you went to prison for a year or two. as 
I have done, you would learn a thing or two. I know 
what I have gone through to gc-t our right of free wor- 
ship for this congregation, and I don't fancy the idea 
of going through it again. We have been flogged and 
persecuted, we have been thrown into prison Tnd had 
our property confiscated and our rights taken away. 
over and over again ; and now. when our burden has 
grown somewhat lighter, and we are about to be able 
to enjoy our newly won lib.Tties in peace, I certainly 
don t see why we should join in a most desperate under- 
taking, which will ruin everything for us. We have 
had enough of persecution. We have no particular 

He made a long and telling speech, and carried all 
the peasants with him. The two revolutionists re- 
tired, completely routed. 

They would not leave town at once, for that would 
have seemed like flight. They stayed long enough 
to allay suspicion. When Catherine wenf to bid Ste- 
r-hzn good-by. he, in a voice of deep emoUon: 


'«• - 


l<nrr into my j„r.l, »ui,„.i|,j„„ „„, i- . , , "V; "" 

liottrt \Vhi>n r I. I iiKni«i up in mv 

'•an. When I li,.„r,l y„„ „(,„,.^ „ (^. '' , .' 

b.. »<,und«) by on.. ..f tl, own h„„„.|,„|.| ••.•"'" ''"'" 

wa,:•t^c;:!J •• ';r;::r i^"■• %"• "'^^^ 

mnrb „f -1 . ircaifHl thfin with ovfrv 

mark of consHleration. aiul when thov starf.wl » i ^ 

The' hi r .7 TT.''* ""' '"'"• '" ■■"I'.ire of s.r„„«..rV 
nill on the outsk rts of the town Tl. i • 


The two "flamc-seekers" next went to Zlatopol. 
rhey foun(J in the market place niunv Roumanian 
women, with heads so wruppe.! up that only their 
eyes could be Mcen. Junt as they arrived, a |K>liceman 
snatched a papir ruble from one woman's hand, and 
made off with it. The woman screanunl. and Stephano- 
vitch. who always fired up at the sight of injustice, 
started after the policeman. Catherine hung on to 
his coat with all her might. 

"You child!" Mhe said. "Do you want to ruin 
everythmg by starting a riot here?" 

In Zlatopol she had a large supply of revolu- 
tionary literature printed, and spent some time dis- 
tributing her pamphlets and holding meetings among 
the peasants. Then she traveled on. going from 
village to village. 

"I did my organizing by night," she said, in telling 
of her experiences. "You desire a picture? A low 
room with mud floor and walls. Rafters just over 
your h^nd, and still higher, thatch. The room was 
packer, with men, wom«>n. and children. Two big 
fellows sat up on the high brick stove, with their 
dangling feet knocking occasional applause. These 
people hpd been gathered by my host, a brave peasant 
whom I nad picked out. and he in turn had chosen 



«nd have lo Z '" M J A "•"",■*"" """''' '"■""« 
chance, .heir babj;:; '„, t'^ 'jlt**, ""," ">"" 

the wi„U.r .„.forr w;' t'! t T ''"^ ''"'' '''-^ 
l.«.l only ,h.. „,.„, ,,, X'l I , •,!;"• ,"'!."'" ""^ 
«n.. live, the p„.p|„ Z 'iw^^ S, l"^ '- 

of u, had lih™:^' ii..;Zi:T""- "r. ™"^ 

wH: and new reen.iN kl't fr ''°'™' """^ '"" '» 
had no per^naur;;';''^'" "•"'"« "> -' '""<'• We 


until a few „„., I ,,„ „T i. j '"""y •'"''"nwl. 

to them. '^' ""'"'«■'• '«•«'" '" diwi^ came 

n J^n^worn'tlvell,' "'" *7 """-"" ""-ated 

work, you 2 Ye. r°"? ""'""'"'■''• ^•'"y 

a me spmt of freedom seemed an illusion. 







l^|2£ 12.5 
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But when that spirit grew real, one felt far from weary. 
Then, too, we had occasional trippings of hands witJi 
comrades. We could always encourage each other, 
for all had found the peasants receptive to our doc- 
trine. To own the land had been the dream of their 
fathers. Their eagerness rose; and stout words of 
cheer were sent from one group to another. An under- 
ground system was started, a correspondence cipher 
was invented, the movement spread through thirty- 
six great provinces of Russia and became steadily 
better organized. So the People's Party was es- 

In September, Catherine and Stephanovitch were 
working near Tulchin, in Podolia. They had chosen 
this region because here the peasants ' -d often banded 
themselves together against the Polish nobility. 

In Tulchin they saw an old deserted palace in a 
great park. In the heart of the town they noticed a 
strange, gloomy building, surrounded by a high stone 
wall. Catherine wondered what it was. She was 
soon to learn. 

They took up their quarters, as usual, with a peasant. 
He inspected their passports, and stowed them for 
safety in his great wooden chest. Beside it stood 
their packs. These were full of revolutionary litera- 
ture, but they had no fear that any one would pry 
into them. It was an unwritten law that no peasant 
should ever meddle with another peasant's pack. 
Unfortunately, just the opposite rule prevailed as to 
letters. The arrival of a letter in a little town was a 
rare event, exciting general interest and awe. If one 
peasant received any mail, the other peasants expected 
to know all about it, as a matter of course. 


Their host had taken the two travelers into his own 
hut until the litile cabin beside it, whieh was partly 
filled with grain, could be cleared out and made ready 
for them. As his wife was ill. he ha.l a servant «iri 
After a time Slephanovitch went to Kiev on business 
leaving his pack in Catherine's care. She used to g.! 
every morning to the market to buy food. Coming 
home one day, with her motU'st purchase of two apples 
and a bit of pork, she passed the dilapidated palace, 
and was just thinking that some day the lofty throne 
of Kussiu might in like manner be given over to the 
worms, when she heard the rattling of a carriage 
coming rapidly along the road behind her. Turning 
she saw that its occupant was a stout police officer. 
Halt !" he called to her roughly. 
For a moment the world turned black before her 
eyes. Then she was herself again. 

"Come here!" he cried sharply. "Where do you 
come from?" "^ 

"From the province of Orlov." 
"WTiere is your passport?" 
"At my lodging." 

"Well, get in with the driver. We'll soon see the 
passport, if you have one." 

The carriage started off. in a cloud of dust. Cather- 
ine was surprised to see that they drove straight to 
fier odging place, without asking where it was. Then 
she knew that there had been a discovery. 

It was a hot day, and the windows of the hut had 
been taken out, to let in more air. The servant girl 
was standing at one side, near the stump of an old 
tree. She was deadly pale, and her face looked be- 
wildered - almost idiotic. Catherine saw that she 


hiul hvvn rosponsililo for the misfortune. The simple 
girl had fouml that Catherine's pack contained papers 
and u map, and had told the wonderful news to her 
friends. It ha<l passed from one to another till it 
reached the ears of the police. 

"Passports!" growled the policeman. 

The driver ran into the hut and brought out Cather- 
ine's host. 

•'Passports!" shouted the policeman again. The 
host ran in, and came out, waving Catherine'.^ passport 
wildly in the air. 

The officer began to question Catherine, and tried 
to take her by the chin, as superiors do to peasants. 
She resented the familiarity, and thus betrayed that 
she was no peasant. A wicked flash shot from his 

"Where are her things?" he shouted, turning to the 
trembling host. The man thought his lodger was 
accused of theft. As he had seen nothing new in her 
wardrobe, he answered, "Your honor, she has no 

" No things ! What are those ? " 
He pointed to the heavy packs in the corner. 
"Oh, those are her own things." 
"Well, those are just what I want. Bring them 

The packs were dragged into the middle of the room 
and opened. "Ha ! " cried the police agent exultantly, 
as he pulled out a handful of revolutionary pamphlets. 
"So, you can read and write.'" he said tauntingly to 
Catherine; but he had dropped the familiar "thou" 
and addressed her as "you." She made no answer. 
She had seated herself on the large wooden chest, and 


was eating lier two apples with perfect coolness. She 
felt like an unconcerned spectator looking on at a play. 
The officer was beside himself with excitement and 
joy. He seldom had to do with any case more im- 
portant than tracing a runaway hog or a few stolen 
chickens. It was a great triumph to have caught 
a revolutionist. Meanwhile a crowd had gathered. 
Outside the windows, in the yard and in the room, 
men, women, and children stood looking and listening 
eagerly, full of curiosity and fear. 

His eyes almost starting out of his head with ex- 
citement, the police officer began to read the manifesto 
of the revolutionists aloud to the crowd, with violent 
intonations and more violent gestures. Whenever a 
passage excited his particular wrath, he would swell 
his voice. Then he sent for the District Attorney, and 
the District Attorney read the incendiary document 
aloud all over again. The priest was summoned, and he 
too read it aloud. The officer sent for the judge and 
the chief of police. Meanwhile the peasants had 
been listening to t^e manifesto with very different 
feelings from those of the officials. As that simple 
but stirring proclamation of freedom, equality, and 
love was read, they supposed in their ignorance that 
it was the lost "original pages", the much-longed-for 
proclamation from the Czar. The good news spread, 
and the crowd grew larger and larger. Then suddenly 
the chief of police arrived, glanced at the wild, joyous 
faces around, and seized the document. 

"What is this.?" he asked Catherine roughly. 

"Propaganda," she replied, "with which the District 
Attorney and the gendarme have been very viciously 
inciting the people." 





"Search her/' said tho chiVf „f ,K,Iice 

W fH^asHnt wornon took CaHuTi,,. Into tho little 

She ha.l noth,n« about h.r l.ut tuo rubles, a "a, k 
'•nvelope, and a !vw burnt inatehrs. 

She was taken unchT guar.I to the sinister Icmkin^ 
>";I<.nK about whieh she luul wonch-r..! u M^as 
led (loun into tlu' Black Hole. 

"As I went <lown," she says, "two besotfc.l wretches 

sank .1„„.„ „n „ p,,,. „f „„,„ „„j '^ * I 

l«t,.r I wa, stun« sharply l,„<.k ,„ c„n«.i„,.w " n.l 
spnitlR up coviTcd with v,.rniin I 1 ,"""•.'''" ""<' 

wall, anJ f„„„,| ,1„„„ J, '"'f, / '""T' '"-'"I"^' ""^' 

he came baek. In K,Vv thU w , "^" "' 

hj.he. ei.i. or the n„,:„i:^-;,:r :— .;: j^ 

wrote in .He ^^'rX:'"iZ't: ,^!rP 
andaddressed it to the lady in Kiev. ' 

a.on„dthe„a,K xltr^lietLe'rir^h^ 


call.-' to one of tl,..,,,, „n,l k„v,. l,i„, 1,,., |„„ „,„ „,,,|.„ 

».i.«- ... K„.v ,„ „,„ ,„.,v „„vi„ .i,„.io„. .,:„';|,. . 

" •.<Y..-.l. a„.l ,ra,.k ll... oo,.spin„ors to ,l„.i 2 
pii//i.,l f., ... T|„,n ,i„, |,,„,,|,,_| .| I , 

-...- ....,.ak... I, i., ,„„ u ,„., „ „„„;;■;,; 

with meat present." Tlie l.nv f,«.l i i.i ^^ 

I .1 . . "".^ took l)ack tile inesx'ifro 

not kaow what to; a„.|, a, tl„. Ia,lv was „f |, I 

tio t» of l" """"' '"• """"*"• "" "• "" "'<• "■vol,,. 
t,on,.sts of her aor|„„„,ta„„., „„d within twenty.four 
hours ,t ri.arh<d Stiphanovilch 

Catherine w.,s l„.l,| i„ priso„ ;„ Petrog^J fo, „ 
Ions tnno, awaili„^Mri.l. Shesavs: >'""' '<>' "■ 

f.^t hkh'"" irr""; ''■"' '"T' "."■ '""' "*'"• »"'' »-™ 

of air Vv h r '""• '"."' " '"•''■ "'•""■ »■""■.• plenty 
of mr My be,l was an iron bradcet with mattress 

n i p, ow of straw, rough gray ..lanket, coarse shJe 

ami p,l|„w case. I wore my own clothes. This eel 

I never left for over two years. 

clu7" '""""'^ '=»nfin"ncnt? No. I joined a social 

Jf ^ !'"" ^'^ "'™'"« ' '">■ ■■" ""= <'»'■'<. telling mv- 
felf that our .struggle must go on in spile of this calX 
.ty, and yet fearful for it, as we fear for things we love 
I lay mofonless, and soiitao' confinement began to 

I fcl. .■ 

I) ^ 

ti<k, tickitv, tick. tiVk r f..i I .. **• 

*iciv, IKK, lick, tiCkltV fil'lf f I... I 

'.-..r. a e.1.. p,,.„„.^ „» „ „,,,,!;;^ Molt"',™"' 

on„„tN,„.,heM,.rrrjp™ [n^rri" 

"•spon,.. AK„m. .slowly „n,l . i ,i,„.,lv Mv he,,r? 
n-ior The guard ap„ro«ol,..,| an.l p„,,.,<.d „„ jj^' 

ncK, ick, tick! -and tlirouKh to Ihirtv-fiv,. 
Then slowi, ,p,„^ ^^^ ^^^^ tl,i c uLv 

code the sw, ter code wa. taught me. Aft ■ thatZ 
three years the pipe was ain.ost alwavs ta k L H 

fast we tiitlf...! I Tl. • "'"".vs idiKing. How 

last wi talked f The pipe .sounded like this." 

H" gray head bent over the table, her face was 
flushed, her eyes flashed back through forty yL" 
danger and prison, and her strong .,.Z> T 
rolW out the ticks at lightniVlp;;!:,'. '"""'•' ""«- 
Our elub had over a hundred members in solitarv 
confinement; some in cell, on either side of mh,T 
»ome below and some above. Did we tell storir' 
Yes. and good ones- Young students - Let""; 
--h[ghsp,nts.." She laughed merrilv. "How some 

clls,°"' '"T""" ""'"'■ '"'■'•'■ A mere l^^, To 
cells to my right, vowed he adored the young girof 
nmeteen, five cells to my left on the'aZat,:' 

.;.^,J i,mz 


wlimn he. had never set eyes on. I hH,M.«I tick his 
gulhtnt .s,K.eeheH un.l her re.s,K.n.se8 conlinuully alone, 
ihey passed l« the cell lu-low h.-rs. and were tiek^.l 
U|. the pipe to her hy a .smi htth- woman who 
was Kn,.v.„,, f„, ,,,, ,,„,,.., ,j., „^^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Ah Siberia .s as hir^e as the United .States and France 
an«l hnKhmd and (Jerniany ail toKether 

"Our eh.h was not wholly a club of pleasure. Son.e 
of the uu.mbers died of eonsun.ption ; others killed 
t»..'.nselve.s and others went insane. So.neti.nes the 

nnT Tu 'u'""^: '"""^' '*"' ««"*J-'»>'--^ t« Wives 

"fid eh.Mren. But the pip,, was n<,t often so. for a 

revolMt.o,ust must though the heart be torn. 

We older ones confinually urKe<| the youn^ «irls to 

be s iron, for they told u.s how they were taken out 

and brutally treated to make them give evidence A 

very few broke down, but there were many yonn^ 

girls who endured, unshaken, months of this brulalitv 

Prom new prisoners we heard cheering news. The 

fare of our Idea had spread among workmen as well as 

peasants; in the factories many were arrested; some 

were imprisoned here, and joined our club for a time • 

hut they were soon condemned into exile. Still tht' 

Idea spread. In 1877 came that tremendous demon- 

J ration on the Kazan Square in St. Petersburg. 

Hundreds were imprisoned; again many joined our 

c ub and were condemned, sent us last words of cheer 

along the pipe, and so were rushed off to Siberia 

In 1878 we were tried. Out of the three hundred 

imprisoned more than one hundred had died or gone 

msane. We one hundred and ninety-three survivors 

were packed into a little hall. Over half had belonged 

to our club, and I had a stran;^^ shock as I now loc'^ed 




at tli..H,. c-IulunaJ.-. will, whom I Im.I lalk..| ,.v..r.v .luv 
Ihvy w,.ri. wl.ilr. Jlii„.aml .•rjppl.'.l, hut sJill Um". same 
stout hrarls. \\v „..rv,.| nuh otIuT to nfus.. to Im- 
tru'.l. for 11... trial su- knrw was to hv a farrr. will, a 
HjHvial j„ry of only sov..,,. of whon, Im.I oi.r was a 
FM'asaiit. ami will, ji„|^.rH a|)|H)lrilr,| |,y lli.' C/ar. Thvy 
ilniilvii m Into groups of ten or lifhvri. '11,,. trials 
last,.] half a y.-ar. Whru my li.rt. ra...... I protr^tr.l thofarcr. I sai.! to thr j„.|^,.s: T have tho 
h.M.or to Ih-Io,,^. to ||„. Uussiaii soi-ialistir a,,.! rrvoh,- 
tuM.ary parly, ati.l cons..,, .ontly ,|o not rwoauhv thr 
authorily of thr C/ar's co.irls ovrr inr.' For this I 
was at o„or takon out ar,.| my prison t.rm was N-nKlh- 
;'m;<l to fiv,. yrars as » hani lal.or conviVl in thr nnnes. 
Iliis IS the pumshnw.nt ^'ivon to a nmrdrriT. I was 
th.. first xvonum to bo .senti-nn,! to the nuno.s us a 
imiitual otfrrxhT. My ivnu sorvocl. I was to ho an 
oxilr HI Sihcria for somo yoars longer. 

"Sorrotly. at ni^ht, to avoid a domonslration, ton 
of us woro lo,I out. Other tons followo<| on suooossive 
niffhts. Fn tho stroot bolow woro olovon 'tolo^'as' — 
hoavy hoovlod vohitjos with throo horses oaeh. In 
one I was placed, with a stout gendarme squeezed in 
on each sule, to rotnain there for two months. Just 
m front of my knees sal the driver. We wont off at a 
gallop, and our .5()00.nn'le journey began. 

"The r.rea* Siberian Road has boon feelingly de- 
scnbed by !Mr. Kennan. A succession of l)mnps of 
all sizes. Our springless lel,.^r.,.s j„U(.,| and bounced; 
my two big gendarmes hirclu.d ; „ur horses galloped 
oontmually, for they were change.l ev.rv few hours. 
Often we bounced for a whole week without stopping 
over ten minutes day or night. We suflTered that 


pecxiVuir ngtmy that vumvs horn Io.ik lack of nltvp 
Our olficT onhrrd Hi,. nvmUmuv^ uwvr to l.-avo us 
At tinirn wr woiii.n h. |.| >|,auU l.rf «.v„ H,,. K.-ihlamu-H 
mul our fri.riWv Thr.,. wiv... who Inul ,.,,,1... to sUurr 
Uifir ■•' .'xil.. wrrv in ||,.. satnr wav 
Wv wvr all .ln.HM.<l in ronvi.t Th,. mm ha.l 
also hfuvy rliains on fnt an.l nriHtH. Thrir 
uvn. partly .shavi^l. Our ..tficvr k.'|.t tlir n.onry 
Kiv«'M linn l.y our anxious frirmis at Imuii'. and k'ivo 
us racli th,. K«nvrnuuiil allouaaco of four aiul ono- 
najf (Tilts a «lay. 

"For .sltvp. uf wm- placrd in tin- rfaprs (uavsiM,. 
F)ri.s..n.s). Mr. KVnnau lias well .loscrilM.I tlM-rdU 
— rt'ekiiiK. rrawlitiK. irif.cltMl will, scurvv. consuniii- 
tion. an.l typlanM. Tli.-y Im.l In^ walls roii^hlv covmsl 
with piaster, ofl.n rcl with vrnnin kill...| l,y tornu'uti'il 
HlcoptTs. Tlu. air was invariahly n..isoinV from the 
opon < tuhs. 'I'h,. h,,,^. |„.,uh on which we 
s opt had no l)r,|c.|otlM.s. Throii^di tlio walls wv Iward 
the endless janj^Iin^. „f f,.ft,.rs, ihe moaning of women 
the cries of .sick Imhies. 0„ ||„. walls w.-re u mass of 
insciipt-ons, names of who ha.l pui.. 
us, news of .lealh an.l insanity, an.l slirew.l hits of 
udviee for outwillitiK the ^'en.larnu.s. Some 
freshly cut, but one w.)rm-eaten love poem looked a 
r.'ntury old. For alon^ this r.r.-at Silurian Ro- « 
over a million nu.n, women, an.l children have dra^^'cV 
2.50.000 since 1875,* peof.l,. from everv social class; 
murderers and degenerates side bv with tender 
girls who wer.' exiled through the jealous wife of some 
petty town official. 

-TOs wa« .pokeD in 1904. The numljers have increased enormously 
since UKD. ' 



"You kwp nikiii)? mi- for Hrrnw ami HtorUn. But 
you H.H. wr wtr.. thinkiiiK of our Drnon. ari.l .IM not 
notice HO Muich tin- life outHJil... Di.l „„y ,|j,. > y.-k 
one l.y typhoi.I. Our ofHrrr nislMMl ll,;. Huffm-r on 
ut full Kallop. until hU .Irlirioun cnVs from thv juU- 
u\n v«'hi<l.. «o rouMrcl our imAvsU that he wan left 
in the Irkutsk prison, where he .lied. W.r.' there any 
r nhlren? Yes. one littK« wife ha.l a imhy ten month, 
ohi. hut the reMt of u. <li,i all we coul.l to h(>l(> her 
an.l the .hihl .urvivcMl the journey. Frh-nds to .nay 
«uo.l-l,vt..» Ah. let me think. Yes - as we pansecl 
tlirou«h Krasnoyarsk a .student's old nuifher had 
«orne from a distance to sch- him. Our officer refused 
to allow the lK,y to kis« her. She cau«ht hut a glimpse, 
the «en.l«rme.s jerk«| him hack into the vehicle and 
Jhcy Kallop«l on. As I came hy I saw her white, 
haggard old face. Then she fell beside the road " 



On rrnohinff tho ininfM <»( Knrn. she* found that 
the prison year wiw only v'mUi tnonths, and that Ihf 
forty nionthn j»he had .HjH'nt in f)riMin wouhl he (hnhicted 
from hfr Henlencr. Sh«' found, also, that the |M)litic'«l 
convicts were not ri>({uir('d to take part in tlu' actual 
hard hihor of tho mines. Thoir punishment, which 
to some of them .seemed even wa.s that of en- 
forced idleness. After .staying ten month.s, she left 
Kara, as she then ho[H>d, forever. 

She waa taken to Barguzin, a bleak little group of 
huts near the Arctic Circle. In an address given 
while in America, she told some incidents of the journey. 
She said : 

"Picture to yourselves, on a cold day in autumn, 
with the ground frozen and the wind blowing hard 
enough to take your breath away, a long procession 
of hundreds of pri.soners, traveling on foot acrcss the 
steppes beyond Lake Baikal. They were a band of 
convicts who had served out their terms in the mines 
of Kara, and were on their way to the places where 
they were condemned to live in exile. 

"I was one of those prisoners. I was on foot like 
the rest. I always walked ahead of the column, fol- 
lowed by several soldiers of our guard. The women 
who were ill and the children were crying and lament- 



♦ ?^--*K. 



ing in the wretched carts that drnpftcd them niong at 
a foot's pace, joltinj,' them and throwing,' them about. 
Every one was shivering with cohl ; nobody spoke; 
anc' ♦he silence of the desert was broken only by the 
blusis of the wind. 

"Then on the horizon we saw a black speck, which 
grew gradually larger and darker. After half an hour 
we could make out a crowd of men, hardly able to 
drag one foot after the other, staggering, thin, with 
livid faces, barefooted, and in rags. Among them 
there were no songs, no words, no sound but the rat- 
tling of their chains, which echoed like mournful 
bells in the cold air of the desert. The soltliers escort- 
ing this immense mass of peoi)le prodded on with the 
butts of their guns the weaker ones, who c( nld hardly 
keep up with the crowd. They were runaway con- 
victs, who had been caught and were being taken to 
the mines to serve out additional terms of hard labor. 
"Our band halted, and I approached the unfortunate 
men. In Russia the ordinary (non-political) prisoners 
are always proud to have among them some persons 
who have been condemned for noble reasons. They 
look upon the political prisoners as superior beings, 
the more so as the officials with whom they are bruiight 
in contact are the last persons in the world to command 
any esteem. So I was surrounded by these convicts, 
these thipves and brigands, who made haste to offer 
me their services to carry letters to my friends at Kara, 
and to perform any other commissions with which I 
would entrust them. And it must be said that they 
kept their promises faithfully, regarding it as an honor 
to be of service to people like us. 

"I asked them why they looked so wretched, and 


why so many of them were ill. They answered, 
'Because bread costs twelve cents a pouiul, and we are 
Riven only six cents a day to buy food. There were 
two hundred and fifty of us when we left the prison at 
Irkutsk. Now there are only two hundred and ten 
left. Forty have die<l on the way, of hunger Jind cold.' 

"The sohliers, who had drawn near our group, 
complained that they had not carts enough to take 
up the dying. They said we should find six corpses 
lying by the roadside, in the twenty versts between 
there and the next halting-place. The gloomy faces 
of the vagabond convicts showed that a similar. death 
awaited many of them on the march of hundreds of 
versts that they would have to make before reaching 

"Most of these men, perhaps, had been made vaga- 
bonds by the horrible conditions created by autocratic 
oflScials, accustomed to look upon the common people 
as chattels to be exploited for their profit. You can 
imagine my feelings whenever we passed a dead body, 
gaunt and almost naked, as we continued our funeral 

"A few days later, we arrived at another halting- 
place, near Verkhni Udinsk. This time it was a 
beautiful day, with the sun shining so brightly as to 
rejoice one's heart. The great gate opened before us, 
and we entered a large courtyard full of women all 
dressed in white, with their faces painted and their 
hair adorned to the best of their ability. For some 
days the soldiers of our escort had been laughing and 
saying that we should soon meet a band of women 
condemned to imprisonment on Saghalien, to which 
place the Russian government transports women eon- 




victs that are young enough to have children, in order 
to increase the population of that desert island. But, 
as it takes a great many months to get there, moving 
from halting-place to halting-place, and as the convicts 
in Russian prisons are regarded as having not only no 
political rights but no human rights, the Siberian 
government conceived the idea of transforming the 
bands of women destined to Saghalien into bands of 
prostitutes, to whom every officer, every functionary, 
every soldier, and all their friends and acquaintances, 
could have access at will. 

"I knew nothing about it, and was greatly surprised 
to see women prisoners, on a journey, adorned as if 
for a festival. But at nightfall, when I heard cries, 
sobs, shouts, the coarse voices of drunken men — 
when I rushed to my cell window, and saw horrible 
scenes, impossible to describe — then I understood 
it all, and I thought I should go insane. When anyone 
has survived such sights, how can he ever forget the 
misery of his fellow creatures .' How can he do other- 
wise than swear to devote his life to the leliverance 
of his people? Next morning at sunrise, when, worn 
out with sleeplessness and mental torture, I went out 
to get a breath of air, I saw before me, going away 
through the great gate, a herd of wretched women, 
clad in filthy rags, their faces pale and drawn with 
suffering. They were the unfortunate women prison- 
ers, starting out for the next halting-place, there to 
be subjected to fresh degradation." 

Catherine reached Barguzin in February, with the 
thermometer forty-five degrees below zero. Seeing 
a few forlorn little children, she proposed to start a 
school. The police agent showed her the police rules 

r'*'*' Kft^:"^-^ II ,4- 

w- ^)r *.'. 

^W 9. 



sent out from Petrograd. They forbade an exiled 
teacher to teach, an exiled do<.tor to cure the sick ^r 
uny educated exile to exercise his profes.ior. in Sibena 
The government feared that if they were allowed to 
nnmster to the people, they nnght spread their revolu- 
.onary ,dea.s. In Siberia ex-statesmen were often 
forced to lure themselves out to the Cossacks as com- 
inon laborers at five cents a day. 

In Barguzin there were three young students. ThW 
wore admrnistrative exiles" -that is, they had 
been banished without trial, by "administratix e order" 
because they had fallen under suspicion. CatherinJ 

She sa s ' "^ *^"''' """"*' ^"^ ^'^ *^ ^'^^P^- 

thousand miles to the Pacific. We found a bent old 

wTh'him "f "•'^'^^ ''^ ^°"^"^^ y-- before. 

With him we set out one night, leading four pack 

horses. We soon found the old man useless, "^wt 

had maps and a compass, but these did little good 

m the Taiga, that region of forest crags and steep 

toward the regions below. Often I watched my poor 
stupid beast go rolling and snorting down a ravine 
hoping as he passed each tree that the next would 
stop his fall. Then f"or hours we would use all our 
arts and energies to drag and coax him up. It was 
beautiful weather by day. but bitterly cold by night 
We had hard-tack, pressed tea, a little tobacco, a/d a 
small supply of brandy, which was served out in my 
thimble -one thimbleful for each. We walked and 
climbed about SIX hundred miles; in a straight line 
perhaps two hundred. 


"Moanwlule the poliVo hnti searched in vain. The 
(lovemor hud teh'<,'rai)hed to IVlrof^rad, and from 
tliere the order had eonie that we be found at any cost. 
The phm adopted was characteristic of the System. 
Fifty nei^'liho. iiig farmers were seized (in harvest 
time), and were exik'd from their farms and families 
until they should bring us back. After weeks of 
search, they found us in the Apple ^fountains. Their 
lea'der shouted across the ravine that unless we gave 
in they nmst keep on our trail, and escape was im- 
possible. As we went back, around each of us rode 
ten armed men. 

"The three students were sent in tlifferent directions 
up into the worst of the Arctic wilderness — Yakutsk. 
"As punishment for my atte'mpt to escape I was 
sentenced to four years' hard labor in Kara and to 
forty blows of the lash. A physician came into my 
cell to see if I were strong enough to live through the 
agony. I saw at once that, being afraid to flog a 
woman political prisoner, a thing for which there was 
no precedent, by this trick of declaring me too ill to be 
punished, they wished to establish the precedent of 
the sentence, in order that others might be flogged 
in the future. I insisted that I was strong enough, 
and that thf- court had no right to record such a sen- 
tence unless they flogged me at once. The sentence 
was not carried out." 

On getting back to Kara, Catherine was overjoyed 
to find about twenty other women who were political 
convicts. At the time of her first imprisonment 
there she had been the only one. In spite of the prison 
hardships, this was one of the happiest seasons of her 
life, it was so great a delight to her to associate with 

^ ^ fc- og . 



SO many women of I lie nohlcst cliaractiT, all of tht-in 
devoted to the cause of Uiissian freedom. 

The women polilieal convicts lived together in four 
low cells. She says : 

"Our clothing was a chemise of coarse cloth, a 
skirt reaching to the ankles, no drawers, no stockings, 
and a huge i)air of coarse sho«-s. Each of us had also 
a gray dressing-gown, with a yellow figure on the hack, 
marking her as a convict. We had plenty of clothes 
of our own, hut they were stowed away in one of the 
storehous(.s of the prison, and we were not allowed 
to have them. 

"After a few weeks eight of the male political pris- 
oners escaped, leaving dummies in their places. As 
the guards never took more than a hasty look into 
that noisome cell, they did not discover the trick for 
weeks. Then mounted Cossacks rode out. The man- 
hunt spread. Some of the fugitives struggled through 
jungles, over mountains, and through swamps a thou- 
sand miles to Vladivostok, saw the longed-for American 
vessels, and there on the docks were recaptured. All 
were brought back to Kara. 

"For this we were all punished. One morning the 
Cossack guards entered our cells, seized us, tore of! 
our clothes, and dressed us in convict suits a'lve with 
vermin. That scene cannot be described ;ne of 
the women attempted suicide. We were into 
an old prison, where we were lodged in a long, low 
grimy hall, with little cells like horse stalls opening 
off it on either side. Each of us had a stall six feet 
by five. On winter nights the stall doors were left 
open for warmth, but in summer each woman was locked 
at night in her own black hole. 



••There wore no ,vi„.|o«,,. „„|v ,„„ ,,„„„ ,, , 
Kla-H, l„Bh up ,„ ,l>e wall. At each en.l „f ^he Lu 

food. Ihe ku,l,l,„„ wa, „l,l, fi|,l,j., ,.„,| ,|,|api,|ate,l 
-.<h gap, ,„ ,1„. ,vall,, ,l,r„„«h «,,;,.,, t„e ,„'^J .„'i 
«. came ,„ „ „„r , ell, ev.Ty „i«|„. 'pi.e r«.,f |cak« 
ami the ,e,ele, f.-ruu-d ,t,dae.ite, „„,| ,.alaK,„ite, 

At hr,t we used to atUek the ieiele, with knive. 

.V".K o clear our cell, of them, hut it wa, of „„ u^i 

hey alway, came hack. I„ „ Siberian winter 7he 

and ..t Kara the winter is eight month, long. There 
are m,ly two n,„nth, when it doe, not fr.H.,.e at night 
1 he pr„on wa, literally swarnnnR with vermin 
They covered the wall,, ,he floor, the Ik.1,, our cltl"' 
for hree months we did not u,e our bunk,, but de- 
voted our,e ve, to fighting the insect,. VVc smear,^ 
the wall, w,th tallow from our can.lle,, and the^^rt 
the tallow on fire. VVe u.,ed pail, of .scalding water 
After mouth, of incessant warfare, we succeeded Tn 
exterminating them. 

"Our food was a little black bread and twelve 
pounds of meat a month, with which to make soup 
T^ meat was bhie and smelt badly. We had no vege- 

th^niT^"" ^"T"" """'^ "^°^*^^ y«""« ^o«ien of • 

bred ann'^'/r "•'"[. ""^ "^^*^"^'"^' ^^' ^^'-^tely 
bred, and not physically able to bear such hardships 

bh JwrH ^"' ^^ ^"^- ^^''' b«d'^'^ became 

blue with scurvy. 

"In answer to our entreaties for vegetables we 
were finally told that we might have poIZpianT: 
- not the potatoes, but the tops which had been 


chopped up, slightly salted and [lacked in a silo as for 
cattle fo(]der. We tried these potato leaves in our 
soup for three or four days, hut we could not eat them. 
"We sent for the dcntor. lie came and inspected 
us, but told us he had ortlers from the government 
not to give us any medical care. Aly companions 
grew more and more ill. We made a small riot, battered 
on the hall door, and demande<l tlie doctor with a loud 
noise. The ringleaders were bound hand and foot 
and shut into their cells. 

"But the Russian government has not enough 
strength of character to stick steadily to any one course, 
even a course of cruelty. After refusing and refusing, 
if the prisoners persist long enough in keeping up a 
protest, being noisy and making themselves a nuisance, 
the jailors will often end by saying, 'Very well, the 
deuce take you, have the doctor, if you must.' 

"The doctor was at last allowed to visit us; but 
my companions died one after another till hali of 
Ihem were gone." 

Catherine herself did not even fall ill. She says 
she was too busy nursing the others. But her friends 
in America were impressed by her broad shoulders 
and deep chest, which sliowed that she had an un- 
commonly powerful physique. At the time of her 
visit to this country, out of all the women who had been 
her fellow prisoners at Kara, only one or two survived, 
conipletely broken down in health, while she was still 
active and vigorous. She says : 

"For three years we never breathed the outside air. 
We struggled constantly against the ill treatment 
inflicted on us. After one outrage we lay like a row 
of dead women for nine days without touching food. 


until ctTtain proniistvs wcro finally oxaohMl from the 
vvanlrn. This Mnnwr .strikr' was nsr.l rriMaUMlly. 
I<. thwart It w.' xv.rr oft.'n hoiiiul han.l an<l fool while 
Cossacks trird to forc-o foo.1 down our throats." 

After serving out her tern, at Kjira. Catherine was 
taken to Sch-n^nusk. a lilth' Buriat lwm.l,.t on the 
frontier of China. From Kara to SelmKinsk was a 
jourru-y of a thousnnd miles. They made it entirely 
on foot. They ustd to walk about thirty mihvs a day 
for two days, and rest every third <lav.' 'I'here were 
two women in the i)arty. ami about a' hundred men. 
most of them oniinary (i.e., m.t political) convicts! 
Ihey were guarded by a s(|uad of soldiers. 

It was at Selen^insk that C.eor-<« Kennan saw her. 
In his book. "Siberia ami the Kxile System", he 
describes her as follows (Volume '2, pn^es Hl-b2^2)': 

"She was perhaps thirty-five years of aK<\ with a 
strong, intelligent, but not handsome face, a frank, 
unreserved manner, and sympathies that seemed to 
be warm, impulsive. ;.' d generous. Her face bore 
traces of much suflTerinK, and her thick, dark, wavy 
hair, which had been cut short in prison at the mines, 
was streaked here and there with ^ray; but neither 
hardship, nor exile, nor pemd servitude had been able 
to break !ier brave, finely-tempered spirit, or to shake 
her convictions of honor and duty. She was, as I 
soon discovered, a woman of mucli cultivation.' She 
spoke French, German, ami English, was a fine musician, 
and impressed me as being in every wav an attractive 
and interesting woman . . . She had been sent as a 
forced colonist to this wretched, (^od-forsaken Buriat 
settlement of Selenginsk. where she was under the direct 
supervision and control of the interesting chief of 


polico who arr«rn,>anuHl u.h to the Biichlhisl hunn.sory 

of («K.M. Lakf. 'VUvrv wa.s i,«t anolUvv ..luralril 

woman, so far as I know, within n hun.lml .niles i„ 

any d.m...on; she. rm.iv...l from the K,>vernment 

an allowaruo of a dollar an.l a r,uarter a week for h,T 

support ; her oorre.spo,„,. was im.l.T police control • 

«he was .sepa.ate.1 f,.r lif.. from her fan.ily an.l friends;' 

«". .she ha.l ,t s..,.,ne.| to n.e. ahsolntc-ly nothing to 

ook forwar. to excvpt a few years. „u>rc. or less. „f 

hardship ami privation, and at last burial in a lonely 

jrraveyard beside, the Sc.h.n«a ri^•..r. where no'- 

thet.e eye nn^ht ever rest nr.on the unr>aint..d woo<h.n 
cross ,|„ , ,,, ,,^j,.^,^, ^.,,^^^^^.^.,^^ j^^^ j.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

Ihe unshaken eo.ira^^e with which tins unfortuiuite 
woman contemj.lafed her dreary future, and the faith 
that she manifested in the ultinuite triumph of liberty 
m her native country, were- as touching as they were 
heroic. Almost the last words that she said \o me- 
were: 'Mr. Kennan, we may die in exile, and our 
cliildren may die in exile, and our children's children 
may d,e m exile, but something will come of it at last ' 
I have never seen or heard of Madame Breshkovskaya 
since that day; but I cannot recall her last words to 
me without feehnp conscious that all my standar<ls of 
courage, of fortitude, and of heroic self-sacrifice havt. 
been raised for all time, and raised by the hand of a 

Catherine pave Mr. Kennan a letter for her former 
fellow convicts at Kara. When she had been serving 
her term with them, she had often said to them, in 
joke: 'America is a free country, and the Americans 
hate oppression. Some day some American will come 
here and help us to escape." Everybody understood 

Likll^ 1 



lli'u ""•' """'^ " '"''^ '"'••• •"" '•' ""'"•^ 'he 

Wh,.„ Mr. K.inmi. at K„ra. I,.. f„„„,, ,„o 

,;""■" ''""""■" «^"'« ""'.'i.l- .1 in.., in i ,le 

Iir »l,ko>sk, „M,I ||,„| |„. „.„, „„j|i . 

I".t to r,..„| , ,.. ,„..„, „,., „.,|„^,^'' ,„,|j^^..7' " 

insl „ ink,." • '"'■' •^•""•'■"""- TLal i» 

u,l a j„k... It „a.H not until a «Tn„.l a„.| „ ,i,i„i 

wm. stm i„,.r...|„k,M,. and „„,„.,, ■„„„ "I "'m^' 
"■" ;•■""- rus i„« l,a..k in „,„„L,„.,,„ ,„ „„„ u„^ 
that ll,..r.. r.-all.v was an tl,.r,-. 

It..- vlKht ,-,.ars l|,at CallHrin.. s,,..„| „, S.|,.„„i„,k 
«-.T.. II,.. ,„r,l..», part „f „,.. ,.„ ,„„„ f';,^'^ 

.Mow ..„,. , „ ,,.,, ,„ ,„„ ,,..^ „,„ .^ ^__ ; ^v 

.Itch r. s7 "'."':","'"' ''- I'""' <■'- to'the 
.natch. In .S.|,.„Kinsk ,h,. ,.a„j.|,t ||„. .„,^,„„ ,,,,.„ thai still air.vts her. SI,.. .,av, : "' 

II... «<.v,.r.,„„.„i „||„„.,,| „„. i,„ ,,- , , 

■n wa, 50 ,...„,», w„„,| .»,,„, f,„^, Mv ^ il 

at ho„,.. .,,.„i „„„„.,. ,„, ,„„ ,,, jy n l» 

"1 "™; » '" J^--™. At l„„« i,.t..rv.,l/„„e j ,,° 
'l.e »..ow »h„ut,„B Pa».i«nat.. orations, or even X™ 









J|H- prinm .lonr.a. h.mI Hlrt^in^ ,,ra,ul ofHTu arian lo 
thy l.|,.,,k laiu|M.«,M.. H|,j,.|, ,H.v,.r u,,,,|a„.|. d. 

My hoart iMinu.l wiU, a paH,i„„at,. ,lr>,n. |„ omuuh. 

uig.. IImt.. wan „„. u .lay wIumi I ,li.| „ot think of 

-;«(>.»«. «,Hl I was rnuly , on.,, any ri.k; hnl ,1,,. 

U.m.f waM .n„>„,k.. Tho.- .iKh. on.ptv year, n 

M;.« huyj. as a .r.y voi.J in n.y .....nors-. 

Only the IhonKl.J of n.y ron.ra.l.s' .nirrrin^ ...a,!,. 

to IM. to s,.n.l „,y ,.„n,inK. |„ H,,. ,|,„,, j,,,,, „ 
jnowhop. wa., tin- h..„^,y. for^oU.n co.urmK.H. 
I mul .n. stujln..!. .n or.l.r to know how .nanki.ul 

forming" it "" "^ """'' "" "" '"^^•'•'"'•^- "' »''""- 
At hist sh.. hr.amp a "fr.v rxi., '. U, .h.. rrcriv.-d 
a pa.sH,K,rt p,.r,niHin« h.r to travel all ov,-r Sil„.ria. 
H«T hralfh ha.l luvn n.uch irnpaiml. In.t .sIm- so«,n 
Krcw .strong a^ain. Th. last fonr years of h.r Ic-rm in 
S.hj.r,a vv.n. s, in,^ fron. town to town, talking thy proplo, yonntr an.l ohi, „„,! prrparing then, 
or revolufo,. At Irkntsk, Toholsk. Tinn.'n. wLrovc 
Hhy sojonrncl, th*-,. ^rcw n,, aronnd hor a nrcl. of 
de or„..n,d revoh.tionists. Sh. n.ade allies uf «omc 
of the leml.nff c.tizens of Siht-ria. 

She still prrsishHl in giving away to those more 
needy than herself the n.oney sent her from home. 
Somefmes. wh.-n she had hnndre,|s of rnhles in her 
bucket, she went aronnd (to nsr her own words) "as 
hungry as a dog." She wonld walk the streets and 
make ealls nF>on her fric^nds, with the s<.eret hone that 
sonu^ne might offer lu-r a enp of tea or a hit of bread 
bhe earned some money by sewing, but this also she 


i"i«w.ri-.J. Oh. «Mt. .lay - wim, ,,, „,^^jpM 
A« h..r tmn of cxil.. .Ircw lou-anl « Hok,. «h.. k„,.^ 

ilnma that n... woiZnTl "Vr "' '*"•'*•" '^'" 
18»0. her term expirtHj. and .he- went hofnc. 

M V 

' ft -^ 


AfTER hi.r rrturn to Riw.m. Catherine «ponl thr^ 
month.-, in yisHiuu rvhUvvH ami ol.l frirmh. To I cr 
Mirpn.,.. «h|. fonml that her ^urvivinK .inter had «««! 
niuri more ra,»i,||y than she \ml She drew the 
roneh..,„n that ntron^ mental .Kvufmlion and inter- 
e«t u murv eff.vtive in pren^-rvinK health, even umler 
^•at hanMnps, than a life of eo.nfort and luxury. 

"iHHit their eoir,r: they w.Te worric.l aln^ut their 
Kurden: they ^vere worried alH>ut evry thing. I had 
h«d no hawag.. for V ty years, and I was not worried 
"'•out anything. ' 

Harbara TehaykoA w.ote in after vcari,: "I 

renienilHT how when she .stay«| with u.. the sight of 
h«T tiny handbag, containing all her worldly .Hwaes- 
H.«n.s. mad. me«m«l of attaching much importance 
o mere personal comfort, while men and women were 
being tortured." 

Her son Nicholas had been brought up by kind but 
conservative relatives, who had told him that his 
mother was dead. Educated in the ideas of the ris- 
toc-racy, he had no sympathy with her aims. She had 
erne interview with him. ami then with him. as 
he supposed for he, or until the coming of the revo- 
lution, for she could not keep up any communication 


.-!..»«■ . lK ,«^... 


pition from the ^^'ovcrruiu-rit 

;"« tl.<. p..„.,anU. SI,,. f.,„„.| 11,..,,, ,„,„,|y ,.l,'", 1 

I Ih.|,I m....t,„g., on rivr boat, l.v nij-l,! i,t Wtv w 
unhk.. th.. „1,U,„,..,, ,|„. ,v„j. ,„., „,„.„v, .«,; ;,„''^^- 

fin.l,ns .hat she was s„.,p„et,.,l, ,|,e di,;":!^ ,,, ^Jf 
*t auixtf,s. ihe peasants loved her anA 

«H>m, »he got iuto conver^aUon with a parly oVnZ 


and their abbe.,,. The abbe,,,, wa, attrae.e.1 by her 
and mvite, her to vi,,it their eonvent. She h/ th, 
at,„„ ,„ the,r company, without .,u,,piei„n. and p „ 

hectvTl '"• ■ "*"""'• "'"'^' "■'• Pol'"' ^'O""-'! 
me city for her m vain. 

Once the police surrounded a country house where 
she was visiting friends. It was the cook's day out 
She put on the cook's clothes, and stood in the kUdien 
cooking the dinner while they searched the house 

Once she was staying in the south of Russia' dis- 
guised as a Frenchwoinin Hn 

,. ^ '^luinvonian. (jn some rumor, the 

pohc.. came along, e.xa„,i„i„K pa»,sp„rls i„ every house 
■» the block. A» they e„t„,..| „,, ,„„„ .ijj""^^ 
«l.ppe.l out at the rear, ami iuto .he back door ot the 
next ho„»e. which they had ju.,t |..f, "' '"* 

At another time ,,he wa.s ,,tayi„K i„ Kiev with a girl 
of seventeen, an active revolutionary worker, who Ll 
been suspected and wa,, under police surveillance 
They slept to,.e.her in her tiny ten..,„cnl room. The watehmR the win.low ob,-<,.rved that there was 
some one w,th her. The next nirf.t suddenly a r™ 
darme knocked an,l said. "There is ,,„n,c one'sleepfn. 
w, h you. Why have you not announce.1 i, t7 he 

tTme" T. ""T"'"]'- '^""■"""" »•- <"" »t he 

rih .' ol"'" -'"■••"' ""■\f"«''<.n..d, but „,a„a«ed 

Z'^T^ •' "'•'' f ""•'"'"'I"'- «l." has come to see 

me. The moment he ha<l gone she slipped out into 

told what had happened, crying. "Oh. Granny. Granny" 
hey are on your track, they are on vour track'" 
Do not he troubled." said Catherine. "If they hid 

dTd ""•' i' "■"' '• •'"■•^- »°"'<' '-'■ broken he 
door down and come straight u>. They only want 



to know who is staying with you." Her friends im- 
mediately dressed her up in silks and fashionable furs, 
and sent her to the railroad station in a carriage, in 
style, as a great lady. 

During her visit to America a woman of wealth made 
her a present of a trunkful of handsome clothes. She 
was at a loss what to do with them, but finally accepted 
them, saying that they might be useful to her some- 
time as a disguise. This suggestion <lelighted the kind 
heart of the giver, who had been much disappointed 
at the pre pect of her present being refused. 

When hard pressed by the police, Catherine could 
change herself at will into an old peasant woman. She 
showed us how she once did this in Odessa. In a 
twinkling her shawl came over her head, her hands 
were clasped in her lap, her head nodded. A bent, 
decrepit old peasant woman looked from under the 
shawl with a vacant grin. When she wanted to evade 
the police in the streets, she would often kneel down 
before the sacred images in some outdoor shrine, and 
personate an old peasant woman praying with bowed 

Catherine had begun as a Liberal, but long before 
this she had become an ardent Socialist. The aspect 
of the revolutionary movement in Russia had changed 
also. She said : 

"Our old 'People's Party' had become the 'Party 
of the Will of the People', and had died when thou- 
sands of its leaders were sent to exile or prison. In 
1887 the Social Democratic Party was formed, work- 
ing mainly in the factories and mills. Here they 
found ready listeners, for the laborers, who had formed 
unions to mitigate their wretched condition, were 



often lashed to death. It was against the law to go 
on strike. Once wlien a lalior leader Imd been ar- 
rested and a committee from the workers came to 
the prison to ask his release, they were shot down 
by the prison officials. Several times men were shot 
for parading on the First of May. Among the work- 
ers the new party gained strength until about 1900. 
Then all its Jewish members seceded and formed 
tlie 'Bund', which favored immediate revolution. 
Others too seceded." 

About this time the party of the Socialist Revolu- 
tionists came into existence. Catherine Breshkovsky 
was one of its leading spirits, with Doctor Gregory 
Gershuni ' and other fearless souls. They concerned 
themselves chiefly with the j ,sants, who make up 
140.000,000 of the 170,000,000 inhabitants of Russia. 
Like the Social Democrats, they believed in the gen- 
eral principles of Socialism and worked to bring in the 
Socialist commonwealth. But they held that the first 
step must be to overthrow the autocracy. Freedom 
by revolution was their s.ogan. 

In 1900, the government issued a general order to 
the police throughout the empire, that three revolu- 
tionary leaders were wanted — Catherine Breshkovsk- 
Gershuni, and Melnikov. By this time revoluiicm y 
circles existed all through Russia. Scores of secret 
printing offices, in Switzerland ind in Russia itself 
were working day and night, pouring out revolution- 
ary literature, and the "underground mails" carried 
it from one end of the country to the other. The 
Socialist Revolutionist party was teaching the peas- 
ants the old lesson — that the land must be owned 

*Sec Appendix. 

Ky J a". 


by thP poopi,. „n.l Il,„t 11,,. sovern,n™t „f (he Czar 
m,.,t he „v..rtl,rown. Fn „r,l,.r „„t to take nn,|| ' 

nil thro ikI, R,,,,,,,. i,.s .n,.Mil>er.s ,,.l,|o,n mot b„t 

constantly pl,.„„.,., „„., .,,■,„.,„, „„. „,„k,",-„" ', ttt^ 

he prov,„..,„ eo,„„„t,„..,, „.h,Vh ,„ turn pas 1 "* 

h. w„„| to the .,„,„,| ,,H,,, e„n„nit,„.,, an. so dow" 

» that ':;rr ^ ■' ',"."• '-'"""" "' '""-"■'» ■■■•■• i"°»" 

"1, ' T '■ 1'"- " '" '■""""•y '"'•- »•"' <■">■ tone. 

Ws pZ: """ "' "'"• '""^ """I'^^'l another took 

In 1901 the FighhnK I^'a^ne was orsaniV, It was 

to L"-^ ^oml/ ''r™"'"- '" '"^" ' -•- '» P" 

to <i am olh<-ml» who were -niliv of partieularlv 
«tr«,.,ous onnu.,. ,„ the hope ,1 at their fate wlu be 
a «.,rnmg to others, (atherin was in full sy,„pathy 
With this movetncnt. "I'^imy 

Bnu'n" rI,""'1"""'"" '' "'^'"'' "'•'""™'' '" America, 
justice bj huv evn for the n.ost monstrous crimes 

ana the (zars irresponsible power was ,lelecate,l ,„ 
a whole army of police and other sul»rdimate*<;t, .Is 
who oppressed the people at th.-ir pleasure The 
»nn ry-s noble.t men and women w.le X-n^ed 
mpHsoncd. and e.xiled; and the officials w*oTea,ed 
thm worst were thought to .leserve best of the 
in till Caucasus, a convention of women teacher, 

Ws f„ 'I'^'-W-^J ot teachers holdins meet- 

mgs for any purpose ordered the assembly to dis^rse 
Two or three of the more spirited teachers went to 



^"^ Vl 




him to protest. He was so enraged by the remon- 
strance that he said to his men. "These women are 
yours", jiiid turned the whole convention of teach<Ts 
over to the sohh'tTs to he oulra^'ed. IIt« rould not he 
brought to justice. In the eyes of the government, 
such <h'eds were a mark of zeal, and were Io«)ked upon 
as deserving promotion rather than pimishment. 
The Colonel was assassinated. So was Von richve, 
who as Chief of Police had started outrag<«s against 
the Jews in 18S1. and later, as Minister of the Interior, 
had caused the KishinelF massacre. IV had also 
revived the use of the knout to lash tnen and women. 
A number of other officials of the same type were con- 
demned by the revolutionary secret tribunal and killed. 
The Fighting League, however, had a comparatively 
small membership. It was a sort of guerrilla force 
auxiliary to the great revolutionary movement. Revo- 
lution by the whole peoi)le was the object for which 
Catherine and her friends were striving. 
^^ "In l<)0;j,"she writes in th(> "Xeva" of Petrograd, 
"the Socialist Revolutionary party suffered great 
misfortunes. Wholesale arrests and searclies robbed 
it of many of its leading workers, of its best printing 
office.., and stores of literature. It was necessary to 
replace all that. By this time the work of the party 
had grown strong abroad, thanks to our talented and 
zealous emigrants, who bent all their energies to the 
publication of party organs and popular books and 

"In order to recall these young people to immediate 
activity at home, in Russia, I went abroad for the first 
time. In May, 1903, I boarded a steamer at Odessa 
and went, by way of Ron mania, Hungary, and Vienna, 





to Geneva. Switzerland, fhe cvntre of .». * 

m scattered in Paris i ' , "^'^''^*^^ P^^y work- 

this conference we we^ "' T'* ''^^'^-^•rland. At 

kuvsky. ' ^"'''»««, Lazareff. Tchay- 

to enter upon a J ti" '; ^.T"- "•'''"'"'' """'^ 
«'cri8ce tluir live,, for a ' „ ."''^""■' "'"''y '» 

back to Ru».,iH, ea'X w tlTh """" •"«"" '^ «»" 
the booklets -In Battle ShllTl^n?'''.'''"'''"''''- "'"l 
were distributed althrouI.Wr.P'' "'"''''•>' «'«'"'' 
of directing the forces of t '"""'■■''»''• Tl"" task 
wholeyeariof my Hfe" "^ "^ '''''^"' "«="P'«' '"o 

In the meantime, in 1004 bK» • •. . . 
states, to enlist hel^ for T^t. ' ""' ""'^"^ 



Madame Bresiikovhky (I shall give her hencefor- 
ward the name by which she was known in America) 
was warmly received in the United States. She ad- 
dressee! great audiences in New York, Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, Chicago, and elsewhere. The meeting held 
to welcome her in Fancuil Hall, Boston, was typical. 
The following account is taken from the IVoman's 
Journal of December 17, 1904: 

"Seldom has Faneuil Hall seen so great an audience 
as gathered on the evening of Dec. 14 at the meeting 
called by the society of 'Friends of Russian Freedom' 
to welcome Madame Catherine Breshkovsky. 

"Nearly 3000 persons thronged Faneuil Hall, 
hundreds standing all through the evening. There 
were many distinguished persons on the platform. 
Hon. William Dudley Foulke, president of the Friends 
of Russian Freedom, occupied the chair. 

"Addresses were made by Professor F. C. de Sumi- 
chrast and Professor Leo Wiener of Harvard, Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe, Abraham Cahan of New York, and 
Henry B. Blackwell. In additioi Mr. John Romasz- 
kiewicz made an address in Polish, Mr. Philip Davis 
in ™dish, and Dr. Shitlovsky of Berne in German. 

"Madame Breshkovsky can speak English, but not 
fluently enough to make a set address ; so she generally 


'"■;' 'r- <■;• ..v: ■:,:;,::::i.,r'' "■ ""-■""• 

Kr.-. a,..ii..„,.,. ri r, „ r'-^r ;[" ",'.""•■"''• "'- 


« «,u„.r.v 'and of Lr, ;,:':"'' ""' 7™"' °' 
what have voii to do wif I. fi, i '" "*«ton, 

..n.i wi,., i,,.. .i:;!;';,f;s,'7""";'" «■■-•». 

on for ,„ many v.v rs h, ,„„.„ ' T ''"''"« 

Russian p„,„|; „■„„ ,„..::„: Z^!""' "' "'e 
""•nt? It i, ihov „v... ,"""''; K'lssian «,»•,.„. 

in^', arul that the cLmnl/ 7 V"'''"' "''^^ f""" 

" You will be askeu what their fate is to vn,. 9 11, 
years aco. as T «nf in ^ • "''to you? Many 

. ufew, as, 1 sat in prison surrounrhvl K,. „ i 






in Switzrrlnnd. Then I was hnppy. My .nlrffifrfh 
was rt'viv«J by tlu- cHinsnousiu'ss that oiitsMK. Hi,. 
priM.n walls thm- werr friVinlly hrarts that inuhr- 
stcMxl and .syin[>athi/.'.l. and lonKnl to h<>lp nu.. Tlu- 
F)rlson walls opriuMi l«.f„n. 11,,.. and my mind soarcil 
fcarh'ssly Ui uu'vi iww dan^rrs and sidTtririKs. Frit-nds, 
nil Uussia is an ininiciisr prison to ivtry Rnssian of 
IiroKrcssivo ideas. It is worth ovrrythin^ lo Ww men 
and women who are working for freedom in Russia 
to know that free and «ivilize<l nations sympathize 
with them and wish them sueeesM. 

"The party of progress in Russia Is tlie more inter- 
ested in having friends in all other eounlries. hmiuse 
it sees that the time of d.liveranee for the Russian 
people is connnf? nean-r and nean-r. All classes of 
the population are alike diseonl«'nte<l with autocraey, 
all are longing to he freed from the yoke of dispotism. 
and perhaps the happy day of our eounlry's deliver- 
ance is not far away. 

"But every political party that is in earnest, as 
ours is, wishes to secure in advance a frien<lly atmos- 
phere, and to win auxiliaries that may help in case of 
need. Everyluxly knows that the struggle carried on 
by the progressive elenn-nts against Russian autocracy 
is not only difficult, hut dangerous, and not only 
dangerous, but also very expensive. The autocracy 
has at its disposal arnu'es of gendarmes, of police, and 
of spies; it spends millions to hunt down and anni- 
hilate all those in Russia who differ with its views. 
On the other side are only groups of pe(jple without 
money, and persecuted even to death. We have 
scarcely time to get together and organize when we 
are attacked, arrested, i iprisoned, and exiled. In 


^H^j' " 

! i 

'" '"^ •""N-'M'^THK,. or u^,,s «.votmo.v 

'»™' -'.. I.-. ...:.t .1 :.;:,•;':•' ,::"••"•, "- •-"• 

"•"»« »<>im.. niUnu «ll,.rl i '"' ''>■ '"'I'"- 

'or u...... ,., .„.:y!';";;::- t:',;"""- " '»-"»"« 

»n.l «ll ,.|„,„^ ,„;.;„' ' "'" «7'»'"K -lay l.y <l„y, 
in it. Th.. .v,n!.f,r !"■'"' "'"' ""••"*•"• l»rl 

it Imv.. I,r..u«l, ,| .i '""'"'■•''"«-"-» r,,„lhnK fnun 
no on... .•«r»l „ " ""';'" .""•v-rK- -f r„i„. ,„„, 

™n..„u... ATicr'z; '',7 ; " ""-■"• ^^•'""■• 

effort, ,o „«,!, out ov..ryU,L „, «"v-rn.M,.„f, 
nation com,. I„ nolhin^ „„ '."''" '" ""'•'"'•>■ 

■iou. march of pr,^!;;."! , ''""''"1 •'"■'■'' ""' ^'•^"'- 
i"K even ,hc .I.Vrr„ T' r,""''' ""' J^'^-"™'- 
Thi., is also „l,y I , "" "t , ",""""" P«-»»«ntry. 

cause ..|,i,|, nololCTtlr,- '"""''''• '" ''-'P « 
. brilliant and not r^ZXlV ^""^ ""'• ■"" "•" 

and it, ,u«xL ;imo 1 ™ '"-f™™' of „„r work, 
ol.liKo» u, to a Jrt ^■^°"'' ""V^P-tations. tha 

'or (heir help Zhl ho .r„fTT '^ °' '"■" "«""'■"• 
the victory will I, !,„."" '"'^•'"'••"trUKglc, where 

."fferinK 'oun v ' We' ~a\'° "'" "'""'' •" "- 
ourselves without ™pp„ m ! r ™''/"' '° '*''^<- 


and happin,.,, of oiir |HH>p|,.. You know that <n-,.ry 
MriiKKir IS carri...! on Uy nuan, „r two kiiwln of UmvH 
moral uruj iiiuUriul; and wo u.nk you for lulp of hoih 

• But, you may ask. wlim. ore IIh' mIkum of thU 
ronaissane*. of tl». HuHsJa,, ,H.,p|,.? WImi assuranc.. 
have you that tUvnv iH^.pl,.. „u.i„|y ,„i||ion.s of ,H-a.H. 
ants, .lull. i«norant. ami brutaliznl, chu make u 
rational u.s«- of tlu-ir fr.rdoni after th.-y «.'t it ? 

"Th.' Russian KoviTrmu-nl itsrlf has answer."! the 
first «,u,.st ion. Hy Us present .omliict. at once timid 
nn.l hyiHKTitieal. it has firoved hoth its own w<.«kness 
and Its fear of the proKressiv*. inovem.-nt. whieh it 
hopes to turn aside l.y promises an.l,M.nements. 
By allowing the ndliuK together of tho ^-rmslvos. the«n Kovernment has frankly confessed that it 
has not streuKth or wit en^.u^h to deal with all the 
cireumstanees and events that in these .lays make up 
the life of the p<H,p|... The shocks that absolutism 
IS reeeivin« on all si.les have made it staKRer so often 
that It has lost the habit of stan.liuR firm on its Uh^I 
lhi8 very war with Japan ~ this murd.-r, this car^ 
nage, this suici.le of the Russian people - was it not 
the act of tt ma.lman. who. seeing an abvss op<.ning 

"1 "'*!"' Jr'; *"■'''' *" '"'■"'^ everything above .lown 
into It? Ihink of all thesorro^vs. atrocities, and losses 
resulting from this war - a war that nobody needed 
and that is hated an.l! by the people, and then 
say If a government worthy of respwt, and convinced 
of Its own righteousness and strength, could have 
rushed into it, and thus revealed to the world all its 
corruption, ignorance, and contempt for its people's 
happiness ? 


IW urn, ORANDM<m.W. „K «l«M.v MvottTION 
lorlnr .l..niin«ti«i,. Tli,. Ih.,1 „( i, J ^ *" 

/^ner ihw, can you a<«k wlioil...- >i t> 

could „..„a^. ,fc,,j „„;1; '' :., "^^ «'""'»-; p"'p'« 

on...- tl... R„,,i„n n„,„|, ""'""'»'<;«? M.)r.. than 

fin.1 that it w«» ih,™ """"""«."'"■ I>"»l. yu.i »i I 
as ul the northi-rn n„,.f r l^ ^"wTin 

more i„l..l|,>„t than th."^Var I '""" '""'"'' 
for him ,„ understand, a hevll ,7" 'T""','" 
and by their work fee^ .he wh Ri; '^ "'''°."°'''- 

without Th -T" ''"■™ '""'' ••■'■y »o"W 1^ left 
without the.r only means of getting a living, XI 



UTTiK ciH.»M,M,rnir.K or riwi.,x bevoution iit 
Ih..... «ho .Ii.l nolhinK ».,„M m^|v,. ,he Und. which 

••Afl.T««r.l,. »h.„ Ih- .li( .lUlrirt, ol.Uii.c.1 
II"- r.Kh. I.. h„v.. .h..i, ,..„„,„... «„, i, „.„ „,„ 'j;™ 
«nt, who ,h.,w„l hy Ih-ir ..„.,„,.l,. huw Ih, money ,,..| 
"lli.r r.^,,m« lh„l en,.. fr.„„ ,h, „„,k „, ,|,^ /, , 
..»Kl.. ... U. ..„..n.l..|? T., .hi, .h.y. ,h. Iw., ,H»J 

""'•';•"• '"■;••; ""■ ' »<''"<'i». n.- 1"-. r.m.i,. ih,. h.™.... 

or al kirul,. «„.| ,.„.„ „ n,.»-,,„i,«.r |,„l,|i,h.,l by the 
»-n,.v,H .,„ p„r,K„, for ,he ,K.a«.nu. , thing Lnd 
n.)wh.T<' else in Kiir<i|M-. 

th." «.rfl ""."' /'"-'y y™"? -ino.- the- emancipation of 
he ..rf , thirty y..„r» .ii„,. ,,. worker, «mon« th« 

1^^' '"••'' '"W" ••> .each th,.,n, An.l now what . 

. ff.r..n.v! Th.. ,.„,„„, have improv.., I.ttu 
"I". I Inl h...v „r,. hanlly r.,„«„i^„|,h.. Kxp,.ri..n« 
ha, .,,„.„.,1 he eye, of .,ur „ifferi„« country. Sh" 
"" ..M«er l„.heve, in her Cmr: ,he know, what he i* 
worlh; ami, con«iou, of her own .Irength and her 

Sm s;" ' '"T """ "■""""• "'" '' -'"■"« '"' 
t. the wiir '■ '" "" '""'"■ "■'"'"" "• «"•""" hiindiy 

III. to the nation-, real interest,. The,,. »ame peas- 

,C; :: '° '""""'-^ "•"'•' ?<" "■■">■ or .mderstand^he 
» at, .,f thing,, now rea.l and un.lerstand perfectly 
he h,«k, ami pamphlet, ,hat we distribute among 
lh.m by,!, of th„u,an,l,. to ,. , v them the bes? 
way to get r,.l of the yoke whiVh ,. eru,hing them 
lK.dy and ,oui. An.l now that the happy time hTs 
come when the p..ple read and listen to usf when they 
welcome our hterature. our advice, and our presenc^^ 


we find ourselves still eonfronted bv R,.««;„' i 

ffeniiis »Ii« ....♦ *• ""«itu oy itussia s evil 

genius, the autocratic govcrnnjent wh.V.!, ^ 

ro«f Ar, I *u * . ^"^^^ ^"^*»»« »it whatever 

cost And therefore, feeling „,„t n., t,.„,^ ^^ ^^^ 

what the fate . oTlh^^n^ ^^ ^ ^^ ;^;; W. 

t: t:; "wtL.:!' ^r;:;' «-t -'--i rj 

tain the auth^ity : er?w::jt:df T l^f '° '"'"''- 
justice and of the general Zfr; ." '^'' """"■ "' 

^ ..dp us as you L":::irjhr;:r„' 'rs 
bv"M!;;"e:Bzrer '« "^ "n*'"" *"«' •>-» "««''' 

a seore of the bes tun ' "'"' ••''''•^' '«»"*<' ^y about 
workers, wht^aa: ^"uleT Tll^t ""ITT' 
he had attended many poiuL 1 he^h ' buf n '' 
one so enthusiastic. ^amenngs, but never 

"Letters wishing success to the meeting were re- 


ceived from Governor Bates of Massachusetts and 
''om several labor organisations. ""* 

M ' .e close Madame Breshkovsky rtveived an- 
other .^at.on. Hundreds pressed up to the front of 
h^. platform, reached up their hands o chisp hers and 
m some cases hfted up their chihlren to ^^ 'her 
Even those of us who had been famihar wit^ F „eu , 
Hall^ meetmgs for many years had never seen such a 

Madame Breshkovsky addressed various other meet- 
ZeZ '"' "'""' ^"■^^^"' -^ ^^^^^ -t WelSy 

She was welcomed by her own countrypeople with 
even greater enthusiasm. In Phil-.deh.hf^. r 

to fhp Pl,;/^^ I L- AT . "'''•«uHi)liia, according 

LltnCtl 'f'" ^'"■"' '^""'"™"' t™ thousand 
Kus.un men and women made her the object " "a 

demonstration almost unprecedented in Am, . a " 
At the eose of her address in New Pennsvlvania ■ all 

mtut:rMr;h'""' r '^■^-""^ '-'«' fo:Te 

liiiiuies. men the audience surged towirH tK^ 
platform took the aged martyr for nberrTn their 
arms, and for nearly an hour carried her aroind the 

no mo^e P "" *'''^ «*"''' ^hout and sing 

no more. Every one in the crowd tried to reach 

frienS who h H f ""^ T"" ""■"''y ""■" »»• ""d ">« 

feal of w W -^ ""^ u*"" ■"^""■"S '^"'•'^ that the 
zeal of her admirers might cost her her life. These 

friends waited till she was borne near the plat orm 
we crowd. Exhausted, but stUl enthusiasUc, she sat 





dom was organized wifh fh o ""ssmn Free- 

h«iiiMu, with the RoveronrI Mlr^^^ i 
Savage as president, Profes^sor Robert Fr.ti^ ' 
secretary, and a long list of dJ r u ""^ ^'^ "' 
dents. ^ ""^ distinguished vice presi- 

In January, 1905, she went on tn Ch; 
again she had a great recepttn ll T""' ""^''^ 
to Boston for a longer vi!u ' '^" '"''"''"^^ 

The impression that she m-irl^ ;^ • x 
deeper than that left bv hem M- """"'^ "^ ^^™ 

■•»..': 're^.:^"nt::,;:!t.:;rr-'"^'-^^^^ 

inward calm are superb h!^ ^"'■'' "'""''"•'' ""<' 
their delicacy andTefinem™ H '^ ^'''''■■'"' ■" 
Siben-a. Her' voice ;f,rr„d 'Z^,' , T •'" 
nmg and childlike. Only her eve, brtnv T ff "' 
uigs of the vear«! Tr, - .>^^ oetray the suffer- 

iron. The:hal^:;ofherTs\p:aV:r.' ''""^ '*« 
We sat together in a lit.l ! '"''^^ ?"*•««• 

one n.ornfng'f-^^r.rrBrX:^^^^^^^^^^ 

was tellinTuX; ^ndSlrrihT "T "'"^ t^ 
yet the things she told of we^ '^ tf^ ^rth T^ 
made our heartstrings quiver. ^ '""'^ 


"Suddenly there came a sharp knock at the door 

thriurirHrT "' ""'''"- "«-' «'^PP^d L Th e 
Ihreihold. His black eye., Rhstened like jewels a, hi 

^tarled towar.1 Madame Breshkovsky. He toke a 
ew words in R,,«i„„. „„.„,. „„ [ "^ Po^- » 

Iheir lives and with an exclamation of joy she st^ 
up and threw her arn.s about him, kisiin« him 6^ 
on one cheek, then on the other. Thev had \Z Zt 
as exdes ,n one of the pri.sons of Siberia." 

Mrs. L. A. Cod.ilcy Ward wrofp in th^ nu- 
Common, of March, 1905: "^ ^'"•'*«° 

Pn',',f rM."""?-, l""^' "«° ' ^'•■PP'^ ■■-to a nursery 
Four httic children from two to nine years „"d sTt 

lTZn'77 '"""T-' P'-ly-d--.^ woman 
with short gray hair combed back and waving over 

a massive head. Her brilliant eyes were f^H If n, ' 
™ent as she tohl the story of a winder do . 11;;." 
danci; Tire'^f,;'^ accomplishments, even to t 
evervthl J , ''" " "•""■""«" ^'^ '°^t ">e sense of 
everj thing external except the charming story-teller 
and her ascinatmg tale. At its close she seat^ W 

^nsranU^mtf *", "'^""'" °' '"^ ^^o^; 'l |Ung 
constantly, most entertainingly, while she cut and 

all'Tl '?|, '"""^""^ ^'■"P^^ - cocks, 1 ^' 
Baskets, dolls, following m quick succession In « 

r a"ndr ""^ ''' ""'"^ three-year-old T" on her 
lap and the conquest of the children was complete 




ships and lonHiness. It was not her strong physique 
alone that saved her; it was this child-heart, conipan- 
loned with a vivid imaKination, a keen sense of humor, 
and a noble faith in the future. 

"'How is it, <lear Madame, that after all these 
cruel years you are without a touch of bitterness?' 

Ah. It IS because I b.' in evolution. I am 
sure they act according to their light, as I act accord- 
mg to mine.' 

I' 'You are sustained by a great hope?' 

"'By great hopes; she answered, while into her 

wonderful eyes there entered depths born of the world's 

ages of pain. 

"Madame Breshkovsky is an altogether delightful 
com^pamon. She is unselfish, interested in others, 
fond of books, music, and pictures, so that she becomes 
at once a part of the home life. She is impressive in 
her simphcity, hopeful, f ioyant, sometimes even 
gay. a very lunnan woman, and a winner of admiration 
and of love from every one who comes in contact with 
her rare, beautiful personality. 

"Sitting in the twilight by the fire, with her shin- 
mg eyes her noble face, her melodious voice, she seems 
a splendid sibyl bringing to our modern materialism 
the simplicity, the poetry, the devotion of the mighty 
past, with its primitive virtues and its prophetic 
mspiration." ^ 

Madame Breshkovsky soon grew sufficiently accus- 
tomed to speaking English to make addresses in that 
language with only mistakes enough to add piquancy 
to her talk. "^ 


stayed for some time a thrN r '^"'""r^^^' '^''« 
265 Henry Street, New York a ^ ^''"'^T^^' "^ 
Boston, and ut Hull Hon " .^^""•^"'•' "»"^e in 

she lef behind h! r T '", ^^"'"^'"' ""'' "^ -«^h 

HelenV^ n ''"'''''' "^ '^^''^^^ f'"'^'"^!''- Miss 

Helena S. Dudley, who wa.s then at the head of Deni 

lasting friends ^ "'"' ''•^'""<' «''™ "»<! 

n u, ^, Russian National Antlii-m. Mailm,,. 

Br«hk„vsky put l,,. hands to her ears, with a " 
She explained to her astonished hostess that thTt' 
une was always played in honor of the Cza and 
that the revolutionists held it in horror ' ^ 

Emnm Goldman did her utmost to' help Madame 




t it ■ 



*■ ^ 

124 LITTLE GUAXDMOTHER OP RUSSIAN REVOLLTION allhouKh their opinions wore at opposite 
poles, Miss Gohlnmn. us an anarchist, believing that 
there shouhl he no Rovernnienl. while iMadanie Bresh- 
kovsky, as a Socialist, believed that the functions of 
|?«vermnent should be Rreatly extended, and should 
inc ude the ownership and operation of the railroads, 
factories, and mines. 

Madame Breshkovsky conceived a very tender 
friemlsh.p for me. Perhaps this good fortune befell 
me m part because of my long-standing interest in 
he Russian question. My parents and I had tried 
to help Boris Gorow when he lectured in this country 
on the iniquities of the Russian (Jovernment somewhere 
about 1884. I had been a member of the first .society 

Tn tZTn ^T"^'. "^ ^" ■ ^'^"^ ^'•-dom. organized 
in 1891,' after Stepniak's visit to this country. The 
society never had a president; but it was formed 
chiefly through Mrs. Howe's efforts, and often met 
ac her house. For some years it did active work, 
largely through the endeavors of its devoted secretary 
and treasurer Edmund Noble and Francis J. Garrison 
The society led the movement against the proposed 
extradition treaty with Russia, and obtained from 
Governor Russell of Massachusetts the appointment 
of a relief committee during the great Russian famine. 
A monthly journal. Free Russia, was published for 
several years, with Mr. Noble as editor, and L. Golden- 
berg as manager.! It was finally discontinued for 
lack of financial su. .port, and the society's wo^k was 
gradually taken over by sympathizers in New York 

bome years after this organization had gone out of 
existence, the reading of Tolstoy's "Resurrection" 

* See Appendix. 


««nts to practiw .on,., pi,.,,. „r ivra„„v „„ ih.- „„|iii,"^ 
nnght be useful ,o ,pr,.,.,, „,.„., ,„„.,., „„.,,., ^ 


While It too came to an end Rnf ,» «... .11 • . 

«i..e„ee at the ti.e orlr,.,"!: 'b^:. .l^T:," a 
to Amenca, and was able to Rive her .some lu.ln A 

izedlat"; '■'""'''""•^^ '" New York, was organ- 

But the most helpful of all the frieud.s whom Madame 

|le<^h, Madame Bre.shlc„vsk.v. then in exi L at Z" k 
m S bena, wrote the following account of her fir-, 
meetmg with these good friends "' 

York' r^h '""""■'^ ""." ""'' "f '»»*• I ""•» in New 
Vork, with no acquamtances, quite lost in that citv 

« was wholly strange to me. I could harfb^ 





»p«'ak Enffli-h. and ha.l Krrat .lifficultv in fin.lintf my 
way ahout that moiU'vu nabylori. t'hat a^ t-hill of 
lanffuaKrs. nationalities. nist„M,s, and religions. 

"Wo Ku.ssian.s aro inlim'ntly tiiui.l. in-Iinrd to dis- 
trust our own jd.ilitics. our own knowlrd^f ; honcc 
who,, wc fi,.d oursolvos in a stran^o onvironn.ont. wj 
nro hllod w,th unoortainty. and our wish for a potnl 
dappui, a porson, a oirolo. a honovolont institution. 
inrroa.sos htvauso of tho on,harrass,nont folt hy a 
IHTson who is not suro of his ground. That was just 
my cnso whon I arrivod in N.w York. In s,,ito of 
tho hirffo numhor <,f innni^rants wf.o o«,„o to moot 
mo ,n tho kindost an<l „,ost afroolionafo way. I noodod 
to mak.. tho acquaintanoo of tho r.^al A,norioans. I 
fano,o<i that to in,,.ross a sooioly arct.stomod to rospoct 
peoplo ,„ proportion to fh.'ir woalfl, and outward ac 
con,phshn,onts. it would tako much Kr<'ator gifts 
than nuno; that it w.,uld bo nocessary to have a groat 
roputat,on, and ho ablo to carry one's self on the 
phitform ,n a masterly manner and with full assurance 
Alas ! brought up in Russia, where every free won! 
IS forb,dden. and having passed all my youth on my 
parents estate, under a rather strict and serious vL 
Kuno. educated in the habit of keeping a close watch 
over myself, I was haunted by the thought of ,ny own 
nnper^ect,ons. the smallness of my knowledge, my 
total lack of talent. Although conscious of my inner 
power, and longing to act, and to spread my faith 
and my ,deas. I felt bashful about appearing before 
an unknown public, and had no hope that I could do 
as well as I desired. 

"So imagine my embarrassment when my friends 
the immigrants, proposed to introduce me to an Amer^ 


ifun family (Kcupylng an official poMtion aiul t-n joying 
H 'iikIi r.putatioii! NfVrrtlii|«'.,.s, um I had my own 
mission, which was .har t«» m.', an<l which I wished 
with all my soul to mtvc, I mmlc an effort over mysflf. 
••\yhfn I raiiK thr lull at Mr. Harrow.s's office at 
1M3 Kast 13th Street, ^reat was my .surprise to .see two 
youuK women, mode.stly and .simply dres.sed. writing 
an«l casting up accounts before Iouk tables, evidently 
fn^a^ed in serious work, but not at all 'businesslike.' 
Their honu-like dress, their cjuiet and trancjuil air, 
without affectation or constraint, upset my i.leas of 
the office of a man of business. It tcK)k me some time 
to realize that an American's office could be carried 
on like u family, where not only did the regular fre- 
t|U.'nters of the place feel as if they were at home. 
I»ut where all comers were looked upon us possible 

"I did not yet feel sure, however, of beinfi welcome 
in this iimer .sanctum, where a group of a.ssociate-s 
were working together for lluir common aim. Per- 
haps they would not like to be disturbed. Rut I had 
oidy to pass through a library and enter another little 
office to see that the two ladies who were writing 
there were not displeased by my coming. The elder, 
who was Mrs. Barrows herself, rose to meet me with- 
out the least sign of surprise or impatience. It was as 
if she had expected me, or as if she were .so accustomed 
to meet all comers, at all hours, that no apparition 
could take her unprepared. Nor did the young lady 
show any surprise or curiosity upon seeing a person so 
awkward as I. arrayed more like an Indian than a 
European. All this convinced me of the high humanity 
of the master of the office, and I thanked God in my 

f ''i -^ 



my w ui;:ri"""" !." ■"•; " •« •'«• "»"«''"--i 

tZ'3' ' !• •-'••»' '- - '..r.iKn..r i't" 'r 

"ho «uHl.-.l „„. ,„ r,.K„r(l t., ,„v 1,,,,.^ vi,i,, ,,,„| ' 

;.;""".,.„....,; „„., a w«, ,,,.. wi,.. ,„.r.: . , r; 

I>.rt. I, . „, r,,, ,„.f„^,. , ,____, 1,^^ 

fn h "',;"''T '"'"'"•""•-'■'-I A,„..ri...„.,, ,„,,.r.. r^ 

^ «-«» fr„,„ „.i„.i c. „„„„„,, „„„ , „.„„.,,p; ' ; 

!":.r 'i;"!'-" !"„--v"''<"" '•■""'- '"'o An,..;;:,: 

who,.- f„.,„. ,l„„ w ,„.„., ,„„,,„ „ Bu Wd 

th, I Kr.-w ,..||..r ««„,„,„,.,| „.;,„ Alic,- Slono B ..^k 

d,.n,.« the l„„« J«,, of „„ i„„,„„„„,,,, ,,^;.™ "" 

l,v hriTlt ."""',"'■• "'"■™"''- ' '""' »'"«•"' «l once 
Pit! of h' " T" "'?"'•• ■^'""■«'" ■"■•' «™™'"' in 

h-nm h- l™,.vol™c^. „ l,..,K.v„lenc.. inseparable 

rom hH exqu,„te nature. He n.ade an e.vtra„r,Hn„ry 
mpres.s,„n on me a., one who would l.rinK peae and 

love mto the h.^rt., of those who knew him wjl 

I admired hw beautiful faee without ever darins 

to .say how much good hi., gentle look did me. A„d 

my t,m,dity lasted throughout the four months during 

11 :J 

whul, I l..,l II,.. ,,|.,„u„ „, ^.i.j,i 

U. fruKul lun.. , „r,,.ar„l l.,- ,1„. ,|,i|,„, ,,„ ,.|, „, „';." 

u. ?r. r" "■' ""• "*■" "■"'"• '"" ■' ""» »'"v.^ '"; 

.TV . , V """"""• '""""< '""■-''"I l-rort. 

-<"P|..nK ,„,„..,]„„, «.|,.,, „„y „„,.,, ,.,„,„,,.."* 

XT ''"7"™- It «»« "nl, lu...r ,1,... „„ 

Ihut h.. valu...l „l,.,l I ,ai,l, u„.l ,lu.l ,1,.. liur , 
knew ..r „... |,„.| ,„„,,„ .. .,.., •^" h 

How „,u,.i, , r,.„H „„„. ,„„, , „,,, ,;,„ ,,„,,„ ,i„ ;■ 

«n.l frank..„„uKh to ,p..„k l„ „ „.,.„ ,„.. r...,„ „|,n r,! 
of who ., l,u» l,v„l in „,y |,..„rt for ,..v..„ v..r, 

n the ,t,|,. lHK,k -A Moral CiUuM: i, « rofresl,,,," 
to ..... ,„ tl... hour, wl,..„ I Ion, ,„ ,;„., , ,^,|, ^" ;'^. 

Mr» Barrows. ,l,ro„Kl, 1,.., |,.,^„ „,,.„„„•„,„„, „„, 
■lb '. to ur.u, , M„.|.„„e,kov,ky will. „„„„ 
vuluable .ntro-luctio,..,. an.l ,1,.. ,,..|,H.d ... „„.k. ^ 
work w,<iely known ,l,r«„Kl, ,.r.icl.., i„ „,, ,„,,\' 
She and I aUo aete.! a» infrprcters. on variouVX 
eas.on., when .she ,,wke in Fre..<h 

Madame Bre.,hkov,ky not only gave her American 
f .end, « great deal of fresh and first-hand k..owTX 
about cond.t.„ns in Russia, and especially abourthe 
peasants, but she enkindled courage and idealism 
wherever she went. She made the deep Imp e" 

ZZ" ""•■' ""' "" ''^""""- ""'"■" 

She was convinced that revolution in Russia was 
actually at the door. "Our workers are alreaT 

Horn. Ill pItt,.,, of » IV, . umJ tt■a^tl.fl. J * . . 

«lrmi.. «f fr,v,|„,„ •" * """*• ""*^ '*^'' <»»« 

^j^^ ^^^^^^^ . fourul flu. Muall r.M,m. crowded to 

>»'•• 'M.'ki.l to mo of AinrnVa hm.I »I. \ ^ 

vir .. , / "»"K>«. Your writtTs are too mii-r^o. 
Write txMiLrv thnt ^mi- . ^^ narrow. 

I would ffo from ritv ♦« •* . .. " America, 


crn'm,!!"'. ■^T"'"" '"" '"-" '••^>- •"«"' "• -'• But I 
11... I,„l .|„v, ,„ A,„..ri,.a „,.r.. r.ill „„.| ,„..,„„r„|,|,. 

fi ...1 ...,tr.,..,i.,„, ,., „,.. ,,,, ., „,"';:„'! 

[:'/:;; :"!'""'' '- ""• •• .•-. «..«.■... n.. , ,; 

iwr..«. .v..f..... ,,;::;,:, „;,^!;,7,. '""■"-"• ^t-- 

y.'..- .. ,K,ii,i..,.i ,,,•„.. , „„.„.,, ,,.,„"s,..r,.: 

"■...•h...l A,.,..r,-,.wi,l. h.allh ,|„m..r...l r,.r lif.. PI, 

uciivilyr she was uskt'd, 

"Certainly," she nnswercl quietly. "It i, „n1v hv 
-nany persons .loi„« ,|,u th„? our poor UplewiU 
ever l™r., and h.- free. m„, ,|se ean'^e do ' Ma"" 
go to bibena; why not I?" ^ 

k.::%M Wm^f^WLl^ 


As the three stood together on the deck. Madame 
Breshkovsky in the centre with her leonine head and 
the other wo on either hand, they seemed to DuZd 

llJ^otTo'r ?r^°"'^^ *«ok back with her about 
f 10.000 for the cause, most of it contributed by the 
very poor Russians living in the large citTes and 
through her influence Arthur Bullard and a number 
of other young Americans went over to Russia and 
took part in the actual fighu^g. "^ 




t/UBA«m Bre8Hkov8Kt'8 expectation of a revolution 
m Russia was almost fulfilled in 1905. The great 
general stnkes throughout the eountry. and the uln- 

fted the C^ar into grantmR a Douma and promising 
freedom of speech and of the press, with other urgenUy 
needed reforms. It is now a matter of history how aU 
those promises were broken. The Czar had at fir,t 

basis. The first Douma chosen was too radical, and 

still too radical, and he narrowed the suffrage again 

make the Douma representative only of the rich it 
was allowed no real power. Its derisions we^^,,^ 
stantly overridden by the Council of the Em^re 
The autocracy was preserved intact. Freedom of 
speech and of the press were soon taken a^yTthe 
prisons were again crowded with the country^s b«t 
men and women; and the procession of pohtiell exiS 

Natur'rtr'""f ;•"'"■ ''" '»"'"^^"« "-"- 
Noiurally the revolutionists resumed their work. 

freedom, Doctor Nicholas Tchaykovsky, were arrested 



in 1908. They were kept for a long time in the fortress 
of iDt Peter and St. Paul, without trial. Doctor Tchav- 
kov«ky was finally released on bail, through the efforts 
of h.s friends anions whom Mr. and Mrs. Barrows and 
the editors^of the Outlook were esrH^^ially aetive. But 
Madame Breshkovsky was still held in the fortress, 
and word came secretly that she was failing and likely 
to die. Mr. and Mrs. Barrows were to sail for Europe 
m the spnng of 1909, to meet the International Prison .n Paris. It was suggested that Mrs. 
Barrows should go on .n advance, and try to get Ma- 
dame Breshkovsky admitted to bail. Mr. Barrows 
said : If you can help Baboushka, go. I would lay 
down my own life for her, and think it well spent." 

Mrs Barrows sailed in March. She had barely 
arrived m Petrograd when she received a cablegram 
announcing her husband's dangerous illness. She 
hurried home, but did not arrive in time to see him in 

provded with al sorts of letters from influential 
Amencans to dignitaries on the other side 
Although she almost went on her knees to the Premier 

R^IZ'"' V r'^ "°' ^'* '"^^^ *« «^^ Madame 
Breshkovsky. It was not until two years later that 

Baboushka even learned that this faithful friend had 
twice visited Petrograd in her behalf 

Mrs. Barrovvs found that a request for a prisoner's 
release on bail must be made by a blood relation. 
Madame Breshkovsky's son would have been the ob- 
vious person to make it. He had become a successful 
novelist; but he was still without any sympathy for 
revolutionary ideas. He was mortified that his mother 
should be m prison as a revolutionist, and he was not 


,~.M*Mr%^ ^ 


Willing to sign the application. Mvs. Barrows thought 
of appealing to an aged sister of Madame Breshkovsky's 

Tchaykovsky's, offered to use his influence with the 
son. He mv.ted him to dinner, told him of the earnest 
efforts that Mrs. Barrows was making, and said to hm 
m substance: "To-day your mother is old; and he e 
js another old lady who has twice crossed the ocean for 
her sake; yet you, her own son. will not even lift a 
hand to help her." The son's feelings were touched 
perhaps he was e little ashamed. At any rate, he 
signed the request for bail ; but it was refused 

He went to see his mother in prison. She wrote him 
the followmg letters while in the fortress 

hof h^ IT ^"''7'' ^"^ """^^ ^" "« P^'"^""^' affairs save 
her health; to d.scuss no politics ; to make no reference 

etc!. Itc?"^'™""'"* ' ^"^ '^'"'^ ""^ "" '''""* publications. 
„-_ , "January 22, 1909. 

and I thank you for coming. I wish that I could always 
see you looking so well. I appreciate the need of unity 
between soul and body when one has singleness o^ 
purpose, and I know very well what a tremendously 
deep break is made in one's life even by a single crisis 
It may alter a man's life completely. Preserve your- 
self, then, from every base and unwholesome thing 
i^t pure motives only enter into all your actions. Good 
motives beautify the human being, and convey to the 
IZ lu '^P'J'^^^^- I wish you success, my 

kZ th ;r T^*^^"^ th^t ^^-^^ to your perfection. 
Kss the others for me. and tell them my joy in seeing 


■ J|j|y^|l| "■■■1^, \ _ 


•vo: ai::&r„'';rzrtT '" '""' ^t "■•"" 

Lave heard what v,.,7 h • * '"'*''" "'''"■ "''"»* y»" 

.vou know: I never couMr™.™ v^"" '" "'"'"■ "° 
"f anything adver J . T '"'™ '" '''■■•'"iptions 

thinKrwwfhllT^ .""f '""''• '■•'P™''"^ "•« horrid 

'-f rhtvrn„?,tet;:,™;':,*;rir 'l."-^' 

reading Dickens for the first fL 1 x ^^'"'^ ^^''^ 

to skip whole pages V™. r ""^r ^'^^ "^'•>*' 

mvself 'Clh i\ • K reachng I often say to 

the d-eripK tr : t"°I' '■'' f" ?-""<" -J 
books you write I .^[1 i, "'"''"'' "'at in tlie 

but Ic» oT ; .^"""i^^'V^P ,-- pages too. 
without reading 'the holrlr! "^ ""''"'"'"•* ""^ P'°' 

hol^°Tr,'^"°"' "'"" P''"^'*"y '''•lighted me ? 'Ivan- 
noe. That IS a novel of novels' If »lll.: . • 1 . 
were written in that way"' W ^^^^dttaTv'^^ 

vioien e tr larrVt^-t •"'"""^ ™"- "e 
think it Jr. \f ®"* '* ^^ *^ wonderful book I 

tt." ':.ri?rtS''ris''ti ! ^'-'A''- 

youth, and delightful L: P""' "''''"*"'« '<"• 

wasalwaylf r^y:, ,f»™-"P- '-' ■■■"<•«.•»«, I 

motl^ inspired JStistr^ ^— -- grand- 

autumn fe r I Ih"' "'"*/«a<^l'e<l me as the 
leu. 1 embrace you and bless you." 

"Mv A^. XT r, "March 2, 1909. 

-wZtdsWir?'™ '■' f" '^ '™ -"""ths since I 
you, and st.II I have no books from you. Probably 





shall not see each other any more. I constantly recall 
our mterv,ew an.l always rcRret that I could not see 
you clearly, but I remember every word of our co" 
versafon. What you said of the Lake of Geneva often 
comes to my memory -that its beauty has been worn 

mv dearTviri!""'"'''""' P'''""'"'"'- ^ut only think. 
Zure 1 •, • ; i"" T"^"""« 'h"* « beautiful in 

sky the stars, the sea, the mountains, because they 
have been sun^ by so many p«,ts and drawn by so 
many pencds, for so many ages? Shall we therefore 
cease to love them? Shall we think that it is not be! 

t.on. „mply because there are so many photographs of 

her on every street corner? No, my friend, thfs ll 

pre ud.ce, and .t often prevents us from taking pleasure 

n things which deserve to be enjoyed. If it wee 

rue, here would be nothing left on the globe for a 

efined taste, b.-use the crowd has look^ „po„ all 

these things, on a., .ides and in all sorts of places The 

7Z r"\ ''"' '" ™^'''^^'- ""-l "hen it is strongly 
developed - hat is, when we are capable of noticfng 
and apprecjatmg the very slightest fea^re of beauty - 
then everythmg that excites admiration in the crowd 
seems to us still more beautiful and more wonderful 

another T "■'"* '" P'^'" °"'= '"'«' 0' beauty to 
f„,Tr' ■ ; '"''"""'• ^'""'"'' picturesque and orig- 
FrenclfT" "t' ' "'^" ''"'"" P'^'" "'em to the 
of th. P u""" "I" """^'"^ '^P'"' 0' 'he hidalgos and 
of the French people stands as one to a hundred in ability 
to create m the spheres of science and of art. And 'he 
Frenchman shares the fruits of his researches so willingly 

wj^:^,. .9B 



b.-«u,e one c„„ Lo W ' f !. T ""^Z ■"" ^'"''8^ 
Every one feel, l„ms,.rf . i *'*^ ""'' '«' ""•^'""y- 

to ev^ery.,..;";,:;;,-: f »"'";;:: :: ti "■- ">^; 

labor, of Ken.-,.,, of talent. ™ '"^'"""''"' J by age. of 

"I should like it v< r v mi,,.!, -.t 
Madame N.|„ the r-ik^. of r ^°" """W '"k^ 

the small vilh J „f J- , "' ''"'";? »"'' «" -vith her to 

the white mZt:„s;„ il'^ri^''"''?',^:''"'"". -'th 
blue water at yZ L - ?' 'T' t!*""" '■"'° ""^ 
whose summits melt into the T ""' '"""""''"» 
that mountain air. so f „f t.l "'"m"' i"'" ''''• 
Picture ^. the first time, I lelVm ' J ,1™ ^ ^^ "■'' 

canXTm-l^nTr'to ^2^" 7^'"- ^ou 
embrace you and kiss your hair'" ''"""" ^ 

prised at your ^11 oTrV"'!- '^"^^- ^ ™' ™- 
first word^I und stlj whu tTh""' '"', '™" ""« 
healthy, vigorous man toTo^kattt/iirf .f"^.^ " 
thing consoled me. that t hTre 7 ■ ,'" '"^ ' 0"« 
'or you: it mea„.;tKn;e7or;rit -'- 

ri'rit'" -' "■ -'' i ^^-^ Sthe"cro:L 

I saw that It was a quarter before twelve and T 1 
tally reproached you for coming .„ uZ]:::! wS 


take cold with iuaZZ 7f.r '^'""'"•"" """" "> 
trifle with your health It'Y^ '/?^ °'"''" ""' '» 
absence spTil, li?:."' Give „';';hi::k t^' ""'' i.'" 
wr.le, for you, and he sure thTldldJ^, ""^ "'"' 
tho«. fifteen day, while you ,„y if, ''"' ■"" '""^'^ y" 

your lir I tk"rlrraV. '. ''"°" """""« '"'°"' 
a concise, and rf "l a, t ' II. .''"''''7 '^''T'"'"'' 
your quarters, whether oTiv 1 •'' "' T" '""' "' 
what your surroun, n? l "'' "■■ """' ''°""' ""e. 

what you^rS7;„:\tv™ur'';"' ' "^•"'• 

much, what your plan, ar^ I ^°" """'y 

silent for the'twennin^te. ' ""' ''^'■•'-^"' '" ""P 

qui,^°w:rfhthile''tl"" '7 " " '"^" o' -*• "-at it is 
?ors. C FSl:eTki I'lnT^h"- '""7 "' "*'»«" 
in execution as well a^^' I ' . P Tl i"' T'*^"""' 


r ine artists It ,s a country worthy of study 

ol iaZ r^rlbinT";;-"-' "'^ "-' «'"' -« book 

with illuLtrnf'Tt wSt bT' -n "■"' '"^'•^' 
unknown to me but anT?v .... '' '* """•" « ""^^ 
ten or fifteen yearslir.^ ^ ?"' '''" "PP^"^'"'' -"hin 
and has plTntn ^^^ Lt -"i^ir^ " '', ?" ''"«™ 
intrigues and crueltrel ' °""' ''" '^"«"" 

they'^wL^thfil^^^^ ^'r ""^^ What are 
ent.ely in the position of tho:rfabuK:ktt: 



that h,,v, b«.n ,,.„l,.„ away «n,l „r.. kept livinR in ,uch 

ing I... .1..., ih,. r,nK,„K of Im.||,. My „a,i w„, 

hat ,h,,, happens toward, „,v „M a^e, when a C 
-tore „f ,„,pre,,,on., and oh^-rvalion, h«,, been la^ 
away,„,,,,.,n,„ y. My whole p„„ life apiK-a^be: 

know" ,^"T '' "'"■"" ""• •"'" '••"• «"•' only 
learranlh ? T*' '™'''" '■"• »" «•'«> «•'»!> to 

road to learning, otherwise one may ro throuih ife 
without learning anything or thinking any hZ The 

•'HT J ., "April 47. 

My dear N: You told me that in about a fort 

expose yourselr • ''"°" '"" '"^^' ■«" '« 

the* U^<r?"H '"^ "*"" ^"'"^ •"" ^■■«^" "bout 

rndstudvt;^ rf '"n.''f™"^'' " ^'''*- ''^»1 of time 
ana study to it. The article is full of artistic taste and 

a deep understanding of the meaning of art. I read 


however corrwt it »...,- i •. ■ ' ""• '"»". 

.HTf«-t ,„,i,rn oVrL :^: : rvrf?;-, '•- 

prcluotion., ,.1h,v; H„. ,,,ir , «^.V *^ , '""'•" ''"""'" 
of .lomestio 1^1 f!^, "k- an ,„,..r.,t in overy bit 

to«ethor h.ppi,,.; and 1 r ; ,hi uT'' '"'" 
the large one — or in ,hT . . "''' '""'se — 

small thi„Ksl„ lifTvl. '""l" T- ''"^- *''-°'" 'h" 
thint r . * " """ '""'«•" »' ' le large ones r 

think I om- „,y knowledg,. of life to th»fl • • . 

2: not e^ri^ "'rr-'i >^^^^^'^'^:i:!:s 
t.P.^ o, ehrr J It i^z* ^^ ^'"^ -•'- 

i.« and LminV t^Tand i'l ruTl"'' '" «~*- 
remnant. of the oM l',,!. a ,■ "''"'""8 "" "«' 

tw „ho are'':i;'":L:r--j^^^^^^^^^^^ 

m themselves and in others Tf .'c tk u • * 

those who understand m e'o Jol^^^^lZZ "' 
who are cli^biBg up out of the^cereLel'":;?' tit 'ptt 


'% I, *" 


You have a ,foo«I heart. [ know it An 

»vt my bltH.,ng. «„cj „,y ,varin «„,| |„ving ki«,. 

**Vour Mother." 

on with th,.,,. wl,„ i„i,.r..„ ,,,„';. 7'"' '».«"'"« 
«...! n.oll„.r „rol,„.,lv , ,i,?k I o „„m L "■- '""'" 

in -mall ..^y.Uy\m.. U^l^^^r^ \"T' 
M„n-\um,i most of ,|„. „•..„,, 1T< ■ ^""^ 

ji;:, „:':7/- '"•-■''"' -'"*^^ 

atlaatie friend, i, vTry d^r loZl'"" 1 ,"'^- '™"" 
thank th™ for it hiif T h ' "'"' ' '"••'•"••'y 

thank, mv«.r Ther.,„^cT; t" ""'"i" "'•'^•"' "-"o 
to t^lt \f. n ""'fore I ask you. dear, to hcln me 

that ""■.i^"'-''''"" '""1 "" IKT family and all , he rids 
that I heartily greet them. So sure •.„, I nf i • . 

h<-arte.lno.„ that I sho.dd not have be™ , 1 T-r"'" 


-i contr^t with the reat o^ ^eUSr^ht IZ 


lr<». «„,| granil.. w„||,. A .mull paid, „f ,|,.. „|^ 
luokcil u|ion me." ' ^ 

M.vD™r: Aft.-r r„,.|, in(,-mVw F «ril.. ,„„ f„r I 

1 1. ■ .shawl ,.„, ..,,,,,,,1. ,„„ i, i, ^, , j^ 

fimi « ,.r.,,H.r ,.l„.... f„r i, | , ,.„,„ „„„„ ,,„;^ ^ 

t<. k.;y a l„ ,1,.. ,„,p,r „„,k„„,, f,„ , <,,„„./,„„|, . '" 


chiWr, „. h,r lhr«. .lays „„«, I h„v,. „,,„ ,|„. ,„„ , 
lake my exorc^ „«lk. ..„,, , ^„„ „,j,^,|, ,.„ ,,., ';;-,! 

Infl>,,.„ti„||y ,i^T„,| ,„.|i|[„„, f^„,^ , 

ur;: "™''^' ':r '■"''■"•■^ '-^ ""• '- """i "-t' 

I'-H-lor r,-haykov,ky «■„, a«,uilt,,l. Ma,lum.. Br,.sli. 
kovsky wa, ,«ain exiled to Siberia, ihi, time for We 

Doctor Tchaykovsky wrote to Mr,,. Barrow,, : 

iiifrcmtKs. ^>no IS as firm ami bravo as over 

pressure of a^e and e.rcnmslances. She is not so ercK-t 
"s m former ti.nes. She was deh'ghted to see m7s 
Tchaykovsky and my daughter, as well as the crowd 
of press correspondents, and kissed them all' She 

answer to Tho dLT f ""!"" ""'' '" "" "" K"K'-'"nHn !" In 

uo not let this trouble you. I have been through it «U before " 


"""'"'' n«f""'l"rl.v I.. Im. r..,„„„,„.^, ,„ „. ... 


pr«f.«ion. ,h,. ,„i.|. .„.i,,|v ,„„ Z, ' ",v , """ :"■• 
-he made «.vrr»l r™..rk , , r ■ ,""; '"•«■••"''"*» 


lnini.|K,rt«tion for hrr th«n wni provlclH for Ihr exilet 
by th. K„v..rii„H.nt. In.t 4». r.f,,MHj. She wanhnl 
no »|Kx,i.| ,,r,viK>«c.,. Ndi|„.r ^,,^,., ,,,,. „,^ 

money ihiit ..r triviul. muI her. except „„ con.lKion 
Uml «he ,n,Kht shnn- il with the re«t. She h». hehl 
"I pri«,n t,II Ih.. larK,. pariy to \h^ iU'^H^rU^l to Silnritt 

FH^htunl „fre,uh.r.. a,u| « |.u„.,r,H| cnhnary eri.nlnak 
Ihe jounu-y l.Kik fro,,, ,,,ri„g ,,,,.11 .u^rly a,.t,„„„ 
^.rH they went fro,,. IN,ro«ra.l hy train ,t rrlct^k. 
In the pr,Ho„ there .he w«. HI for « f«rtniKht with 
«;urvy. One. ,«,n only wa. allowed to .h*^. her and 
[Tiv-e her Honie of the „,cmey that hml Uvn raine.l f„r her. 
but nothniK vIm- wa.H allowed to pa..s fro,,, hi. hand, to 
hem. not even « lemon for th.. scrvy. Then the 
pr..mer. walked for two days. alK,ut twenty-five „,ih. 
a day to Thence they .start..*! in 
carts for Kachn^. The train w,.s made Ip o" e ghty 
poimnt carts e.jch holding thr... prisoners. Ih-mMc. the 
dnver. I he only extra con.fort that Madame Bresh- 
kovHky wonid accept wa.s ad<liti«nal hay in .he lK,ttom 
of the cart, and probably that wa-s for the benefit of the 
«ick woman who wa« traveling with her. an.l who died 
on the way. She herself stoo<l the journey well 
Another |H>li.ical exile «aw her when the convoy .stopped 
at IVWurka. and wrote in a letter dated September 

" VVlien Granny pa.s.sed here on 14th .she a.sked 
with c^,dent sorro"- about .Joseph. 'Oh, what is going 
on .n the pnsons! it i.s in,po..sible either to remember 
or to .speak of it.* Her face darkened, although a 
moment before slu. had been quite lively and bi^ght. 
This thought of her unfortunate comrades pains her 

^ ../■ 



like a terrible sore at her heart ThJo 

y™« old and had just „,„ .1 , , ■ ""'^ •"^™"'y 
» half year, of Jti:;'r„Cm™,''" aV'/^ '"" »""' 
"-y face (r paid .p,-.uT"lZtL "^ """«"'■ "'"> 
wrinkle), ,p„|,li^ an,l.™ri~ r.""'' "° 
imder her hood nn,l /'.""" K"'y ''a.r showing from 

train ,toppXZd oZ'v"m '""" ""L' '°^''''-'- The 

wa» quite a eam^ of r u""'. "* "'"'"*^"" ^'°"''- ^ 
1 'It- u camp, of two hundroH nnJ fin u 

bo;nR, surroundcHi by a chain o^e^rt ' ' ^""'"' 

immediately "it t.mXr*' "i?'"" '•'""'' ^'^ «- 
I had seen her LX1,1^ "' ■""''' "'"'^- "■•■™ 

in goo<l .spirits. A crowd / ^ " ^'""'«'*''- «'»' ^"^ 
her. This brightened Tl ""'"'' """''"^^ accompanied 
the impressio" that Ihe nrT"?*-'' ''"' ""'' «>'"«< 
was after five days o„7 ,',?"' """" "'■ ^nd Ihi., 
time under a pouri,« r^;:™ ''' "7' '""""'y- "" 'he 
nights passed inba racks„;n ' 1'"^^ ""^' "'"• 'he 
persons would havrbtn 1,1? "'T '^'^^ '^'"^^ 
Granny looked a.s if .1, ^ Prostrated, but our 

"we^eretd™- H „:;d:i''ch"-''™';'r'^- 

so that we were able tL st her LT °' ""^ ™"™^- 
home surrounding. She ^.s .k """■*■• """"' her 

escort to our destinatiint A JrilT"' ''"^"''"^ '""^" 

^^ us. 'WW is or^y^x':-2;,T-^'z 

^w ^ -n 



herru/ h?' r'".'" ''^"'^'^ «'«^ '^^^ -meeting 
her The whole of imprisoned and exiled Siberia was 
waiting to see this 'miracle woman ' 

"Unfortunately the train stopped at Manzurka 
only a little while. There was hardly time to .peak to 
her. so many wanted to see her and pay her their 
respects. She was joking almost all the timel 
kissed us all - was very glad to see our Volodia. now a 
grown-up youth -kissed him. We had hardly time 
to exchange greetings and remember common friends 
yourselves amongst others, when the guards approached 
her and said. Please. Baboushka. get up on your cart ' 
and ac^companied her to the telega. Pointing to another 

she'I^W ''Th' ™ *T''"f " *'^ ^'^"^^ ^-* -th her. 
all the way. There was a third passenger in the cart, a 
feeble woman, so exhausted that she could hardly sit 
up and lay down at once upon the hay. 'A Dissenter.' 
said Granny m an undertone. 'And this is our dear 
kind Starosta. pointing to a tall, bright student, the 
deputy of the party. 

.hl^"" ^^,7^a"ng a sort of dressing-gown of superior 
shape and cloth, and a peculiar hood." 
From Kachug she made the journey partly by boat 

27 im '"'*' ""^ ^""'"^ ''''^'^ ^^"^^ «° ^"^ '«* 



we^TU4^r er .fat "'" '"•-• ««>- 

money : ^'"^^ ^^^^tion, and «uppJied her with 

"Dear Brother; The dav K«f 
at my destination. I shall nnf 7' r*"'^"^' ^ «"^>ed 
^y ioumey. but shaJl tlon '?" '^ '''^ ^^*-^« «' 
w approaching. ™^nt»on my needs, since winter 

left beWnd^MheTZrdl ""^ ''''°"«'"«^ "Wch I 
have been received ^7"^^uC7'' "' ^'^ ^^t^'*"* 
Wul warm blanket that y„u^ ' ^ 'r™""" ">« ''»<' 
the moment of my deparw r **" "> ''""' "^ at 
have in addition two b^!r' ^ "'"" y"" »» let me 
two pair, of warm le^r^s r™,f*»"«l »k.>t» and 
*awl and a light wate™3 IT, '^ " ™™ ^'^ 
cotton sheeting, out of X^i 21, ''''° ™™« y"* of 
ing I want. ™ ^ ^»'l o>ake all the cloth- 

"Living is very dear here- l-^i • 
growmg expensive owinet^ '*'"«' especially are 
■ncrease in price with "efv new -""■;""«■'"«' they 
engaged for myself ha^^f! .r?"''^''"'^- I have 
three small „H,ms. b^ro^L iff >, ""' "''"'''''' ■"to 
'oomf with a separate7nwl f'^'lf''' "'"' '^Pfon 
(about two dollars and a hSf ) ^-'k ' ."''''^^ " """'th 
water, and cleaning. '' "'""^ '"eludes firewood, 







now'iitr:„'':::niu"''bu°i7''"' t "^' ■""• ^^ 

wii very unie, but I cannot eat rouffh fooH 
My monstrous swelling i» g„i„g d„„„. ""^"^^^ 
to be severe mflammation of the kidnevs ,n,l I 
ordered bath.,, for which I hope to ar^I^ge^h Z 
assistance of kind friends, nkd it not be^n^ h! 

"Au revoir. I am waiting for money and books 
novc^.^,_ser,ou. ones. I embrace siste^ M.'a^rji 

The first letter from Madame Breshkovsky received 

9.«^r» """ '•""^ September 89-October^3 
1910 (the Russian calendar is a fortnight behind .hn, 
of the rest of the world. The date islJln , 

to both calendars). *'™'' '««"-'''"8 

My good and lovely friend Helena Dudley ! years and a half ago, when you asked me to 
~ with you in America. I answered thaTirfive 
years, when everything was restored and put in ordir 
m Russia I would come back. In my mind "sto^ 
and put m order meant Russia renewed and S 
"orkmg for her further progress. Certainly when I 
sjiid that, I did not evn^nt ti.™* """>• wnen i 

exactlv fnlfiiui T 1 "^ , * "^ "■'*<'^ "ould be 

ciysms do not take place without 'fiux and reflux' 
of success and mischiefs, without many Id manv 
new efforts and battles before the end !,«» " / 
But, dearest friends. I did not fortee ttt ht "1 
men«ment of my relations with you would fXwZm 
the place where I now am. Your old acqualtl™" 


7'i,*,v I'j* 


wo UTOE OR.NO„0T.,EB OP Rl«s,,., „,,„,„„„^ 

nation can tr^n.ponL^.lTXl"''' T"^'' 
fesenl to us all the scene. «n.i • "" ™»°«'' and fcp- 
and love ? So I ..Hn 1 "^ '".""f ""** ""^ ■'emember 

-vcryd„y Ii,e. I p ZT^Wsit aH ;h°"1 """'""''"' ""^ 
•hat made ™e Itemri: , t p^/''^ ""' '^'",^ 
feel myself always amon». ,h \.'7' ''"'"« ^ ^ 

world. ^ "« ""■ ''«''' company in the 

'*^"^ I'^"P'e who have access tn «i« j / 
take care of my small needs. Tw^ e.ikd f T^° 
antNipate my material wants A v„,2 , ?"^' 
me to walk around the llttl.. ; l' i T * ^"'''^ '*''«» 
the soK-alled town of Ki^en r '"■'^" '^ ^""»'«'' 
rivers, the immeni n^,. M , ' ^^-nded by two 

Kyrenga. TheZ^Tette^rr";' ""^ '•'^^ '^'^"'^ 
make my few purch^^ Th! t ' ""^ '"'^'' """^ *" 

months in the fortr^s ofst. Pe er ^d^P "ll. ^'?''* 
impa red mv health tk. *' "ul having 

me, for mTgaU ,'„t ^T* ""*" '^ °' ^"^'- ""^ to 
take some «meb„rL'' /"*■'"'"'«''• «"'' '' "ill 
back enough^ let "eTf '"^'' T"" "^""'y «'">'' 
The winte? is s vlrT Th 'u"^ '"=' "'*»"' '"^'P' 
Reaumur, and JrL/^ ■"'''' """'"'' "> "ver 58 
I shall not be abkt, ': tTT" .T ,"'"'' ™™"- 

.eatlyirerst— I„----e.^ 


I shall always believe in the coming of progress, mental 
as well as moral, and in the capacity of my country 
and my dear people to go forward. 

"During my imprisonment I wrote a great deal, 
setting forth my opinions on various questions of 
social hfe; concerning the education of children and 
young people; on the destiny and vocation of women- 
some psychological questions; on the arts and on cuN 
ture in general. In a word, I explained at length my 
thoughts and the result of my experience gathered 
during my whole life. There was no allusion to pol- nothing that could arouse prejudice on the part 
of the government, and yet all these writings of mine, 
more than six hundred sheets, have been taken from 
me. and my request to have my own work given back 
to me has had no result. I am sorry, for in it there 
are counsels and opinions worthy of being listened to. 
e pecially by the young people, who among us are 
always eager to learn the opinion of their elders. 

I am not sure that you will receive this letter. 
It IS quite possible that I may be deprived of the jov 
of corresponding with you. A watch ' kept upon all 
my doings and my every step, day an. night, and my 
position in exile differs little from that ui ,.n'son. The 
guards are permitted even to wake me in tl « night to 
see If I am safe. There is always one of he spies 
watching me from a distance. But all this caLt 
transform me into a miserable creature, for I find every- 
where some good souls that wish to be useful to me. 

Tell dear Mrs. Barrows I sympathize with all my 
heart with her sorrow in the loss of such a noble man as 
her husband. Her daughter, her son-in-law, and the 
estimable young ladies I saw working with her are 


before me. I remember every on. »;.l. u . 

the settlement in New vLk „,• i '^'"' y"""* "™ "' 
" well as Mr. Ely." " """"" *>* '"Wtten. 

To Mi. Blackwell. ^J^mb,, ,,_ ,„o^a„uao- 

^e::3!rr;cxrrra,tLf^^ -• - 

from George Ke'nnan Z Z ^ ? 7' ""-^ ^"<' 
>"»<ie me .,o prond of mZu ?l ^"1 '''""'"^- ""<' 
have the confidence of SL f""°' ""P'""' "• To 
dear Helena, it iH „'» '^^"'^ '" ^'"' '«'"'• »' my 
Only .see h,;. happy I am ' ^™' ^■"fort 

an J yet beloved 'All ,h j'^"*','""'' banished, 
have had so many w" tl^"!^"^'' '<" '■"'*«»«■ I 
the corner., of the ZTt'T 'T"''™ '""^ "" 
that during the whole w^kSld^ ,"7 "' "'"■<'*• 
to write, to read, to bralon™ C m '""°"'™t 
fmall. but if one desires to be usrful 7 T J"^ 
■n some way or other Ti ' ' '"'" ""e "lone 

in need of b^k» and pape^^rdT;**" "•^'""^ 
various kinds of iTSurf.^"' ^'htr"°°V"' 

makers, carpenters, locksmith.,. eTc ^TnJ" '?"" 
tney live are so smnll on^ / • *^ P'aces whore 

•nd shops thrt:othi:"''::'"'"™"!'«<»<l markets 

there. The want „f ^ ■ "*"'* " '» be found 






perienced, I ran sometimes help the poor boys to ar- 
range the.r htt e affairs. Many of them are without 
clothes, t^pecially those who have come .straight from 
prison. They are not allowed to take their clothes 
with them. All their helongings are left at the prison 
and have to be forwarded to the owners at their plac^ 
of destination; but the prison officials are allowed to 
steal all they wish, and only about a quarter of the 
goods are restored to the owners. One may plead 
and write as often as possible, without rcK-eiving anv 
answer, and remain naked and hungry. How many 
deaths take place as the result of want, of despair, 
and of alcohol ! for there are natures that cannot sup- 
port such a way of life - the solitude, the daily pri- 
vations. the lack of hope. You understand my situa- 
tion, -- that of an old mother who wants to aid every 
one of them. I help. I scold. I sustain. I hear con- 
fessions (like a priest). I give advice and warning; 
but this IS only a drop in the ocean of misery. With 
all this, I feel myself strong and ready, always ready - 
perhaps because of this. 

" Write more about yourself, Helena, and the boys and 
grls whom I saw through you and with you. Is the 
New York settlement as interesting as ever? There 
were a dozen good young people. Some of them have 
^sited Russia; I read and heard of it, but had not 
the opportunity to meet them. Very sorry. Give 
them all my best wishes. You may read all the letters 
enclosed in yours, my dear Alice. No secret that 
you would not know. My life is very open now. T 
am under close surveillance. I cannot take ten steps 
without a spy at my heels ; but up to this time my 
correspondence is safe. It is only in the prisons no^r 


iLt.t'^ri^^T V" ^ ^"'»^"'- B"t th^^y neve, 
hesitate to break their own rules. Your friend and 
second mother, Catherine." ^ 

To George Kennan. December 29, 191(Wanuary 

11. 1911. ^ 

my \de your attentive goo<ineM.,. I would like 
the Woman's Journal,^ and one of your l^esroamrs 

write. For books. I would like your works about 

tions that are occupymg the attention of the world 
Now that I am out of prison, the classics do not aUract 
me, and my imagination keeps traveling over the whol 
world around all the earth. - even' farther ut 
ong .t will last, who knows! Often and often I "JI 
in the papers how many of my old friends have passed 
away/orever, but I myself feel as if I were fifty ^ 
not sixty-seven. So glad, so happy to hear of you 
to see your writing ! ^*'"' 

"Yes, our dear old friend. I remember your visit 
us well as if it were but yesterday. The fi^t timri 
read your book about Siberia 11895], I Lghed much 
over your saying that I should finish my day, n 
Selenginsk and be buried there. Many Ld many 

was so eager to see you, our dear friend, the celebrated 
author of your beautiful book. Even the young t>p' 

about the writing and the author himself. And now 
notwithstanding all the horrors we have survivedTn 

• A woman suffrage paper edited by Miss BlackweU. 

•f^^.viSii^^'l-. yik^ 


fnTih *■""" '•^'' '■" «'»■>""»"•' «nH read evwywhrro 
•nd tho,,. who kn,.w ,„„ p,.„o„ally ,u-v„ l.„k ' 

you an. m young and mTgaic a» you were." 

To MiM Blackwell. J„„„ary M. lOH-Pebruary 

7.1011. ' 

J'.?*" """^ ?''■'""'" »""' "™' ■"- ■"»'!'• « (treat 
^n.™i,on around m.-. for. «f,„ looking at thm for 

amonB the chddren. „,„„y of „ho„, vi.„t my pZ 

about all the town a., a p,.r«K-ule,l p,.r,on. Only two 
pcure, I kept for n,y«.|f: -Hello„,a ' ' an I a 
v.ew of a villa; Mh pleascHl me much. Six le"t -r! 
f~n you wo card, from K., and one letter fro J Mi." 

»LnT • K ''^- '■">■ '"••''>■• '"■■ I "m now quite 

alone without my young boy who u«.d to ,erve me 
and o nurse me. Miehael Bor«,h ha, been arrest^ 
imprisoned, and «.„t „way to another dijet a^it 
not permitted to quit hi, abode. What had 1; Sot? 
Nothing except to visit the old woman every day a„d 
do her housework. It i, the .^^cond ea.,e of a man 
bemg bamshed for his acquaintance with your dd 

every one that approaches her. 

"No news, no theatre, no festivals. I avoid all 
sorts of routs, for the government is lying rwa" 

we«^™f 7 ""'■ """'■'^'^ ""^ '•""''''• «nd there 
were some of us present at the cemetery. Now the 

pohce are making capital out of this token of ,vm! 

pathy, though not a word was spoken, not a song sl^. 


Tl.<- n,m,. of rvrry onr ,m,cnl h«« h»-„ wriltrn down 
•n.1 two young »■<.■ wm- nrr..,l.,| M.,r,- ll„. fu„..„|" 
M .f to ,,«.y..„t any .li,t«rh,m,v, . . . Nol^nly i, ,u« 
<" livinR m th,- ,a„,, ,,|u.,. ,.„.„ ,,„ ,,„|, ^ ^, ^ 

How many hav, „.„|,„ .,„,„ ,„ ,,%„„ 'J^ J' ^^ ^ 
undtH^un loworkand t..,.«r„ l,r..„d, and ...d.lX 
without any la„«il,l,. ..„„„.. ,|,.,v hav.. 1hv„ 1 rt^' 
«nd ,..„t away l„ „ „|a.,. „,,»,■ l\,„.. i, „„ work „„r 

17Z '" '"'■ "'™""""""' ■'"- " 

"But you, d™r,.,,t. can wrilo ,„ often a. you will 
wthout f..„r HM, to .... arr..,..,!, In.pH. , and .^w j 

not iff 7'''—*", ""•' «' '«»»• My cahin do.., 
not suffer too mu<.h. hut out ..f ,|,„r, it i, too sevor^ 

" Z,T /'■' ' T "''""' ■""^"•^ '•' '"k" Va h 

or my feel ,uff..r m.hout hot wat..r. Half a mile 

to Ko there. «„„(her half mile to come hack. Up to 

U»» Ume my bodily ,tren«th ho, not entirely fo,*IL» 

, "January ««-February 8. 

Yesterday when poing to take my bath. I waa 
aceo»ted by the pctilion. with a pack,^ in l"; han" 

and handed ,t over It wo, a beautiful book, -^^ 
Tragedy of Pelie', by George Kennan. My [hall 
to the author How i, hi, health? Hi, littfe pholo^ 
^^ would be welcome in my cabin. I am very 
»orry my boy ,, not with me ,o 0,at we might read 

aTd ?ftte?r'r "'ru"'"' ■"•^ ^^'- "•■wspaper,. 
and letter,. Many of them are full of good word, 
and make me contented with my destiny " 


JBydf 1^1^^ '^JliL 

.If JUT 



With a pirtiirr iXMtrard ; 
••Ev..rytl„„„ i, „„.,.„,, „;,^ ,, 
thrr. ,„„„,|„ „ ,,„,,^ „,,.„ ,,„ ,__j: n°»- In 

p.<t.m. .how. wlua ,H.,,v i, „„. ,,„.,, „, \h"[^'^, 
"...ntry. „„.l „h„, „„• Ih.. w.,lk. ,h,.t Ihi, ..|i,„,„.. ..ffl, 

Ml.l... S, «.n« will l„. „nr„,«„i,„l,|,.; |„„ „„„ „ g , 
i.m wil. It I,, how .l..«.r. „„.| r,.„Kh ! It i, ^^^l .JT.^! 

Or ... that ,h.. ,«.„.„„„, „.,, ,;:., i,,i .r:^°:i:s! 

I.™rt«l |)fopl,. a...l do not nu,l..,t any one." 

To M,« Kll..n Starr of Hull II„„«, Chicago. January 

10 M, Kill. 

ihJ WvlTri^If 'r""" "■T"''. "■'"•" ' ""■■•' •""■ •"'"I'l '"»« 
,,.' """"'.v of ,„„r f,...|i„K ,„„.„„, , , 

fneml my ,1..,,^ kII,,, S.„rr- Tho Amoricfn woni™ 

are not «, ..x,„.n,iv.. i„ „„.! ,„.n„,.^Z" ZhZ 

^rLtlmlvU^ 1'"""'"'"' """ '-^'"^ "•» «■•« 
m,.„ !^ ^ oecupiwl, working «, hard for a great 
many people, „, yo„. „, „„ kind Ifelena DuS 
couhl have time to think about „ f,.r-o(r fr^'ml bS 
■n R.,,«.a„ prison., and .Sl,..ri,.n fore.,,.,. Tl'' b"tt^ 

.h„r\ "-Tr -'""■' '"' '''^•- ""'' fri-nd.,hip f,^m 

^Zt^ZL"! ■"•"•;"•• ''"'■•■ "''-''-" "- - 

woH,l !!^^K 1 r' "'"' "■'"' "I" "> '■'"''™« the whole 

for It. But she did too nmeh for her human slremrth 
and now she must rest a while. strengta. 


♦ f 


«ncl. „tt,„^ so far ont* from «norh.T. we «H.«k wi, 
Hate « i, we wo. U^..U.r. For ln-t«„c.:7l:; to know aUmt the 'dev.r' Imly that n^l to *it 
«t th.. po.t ,n the fimt room of > „„r ^-ith-ment. About 

with you. AlH>ut the „.,thor of the lKK>k. 'The S<,„| 
of Black IN..ple' (if I an. not nuMtaken). Ife nle^^ 

ahout Dr. \ttrro«. whon, n.y -ympathu. were 
«row,nK every clay. She and her frien.l (« teacher) 
wm. HO ho.p,t«hle. HO ea^rr to be „.,,.f„I. I ,lo no 
a.k alK>ut M..HH Acldam.. beinK .»re .he will «lw«y 
remain m ChuaKo a. the head of Hull IfouMe. sur- 
rounded her ohi and new friends. But the life 
of many other* is apt to change often, being more 
dejH.ndent on various oircum.stnnces. 

"As to my young man. who continues to be my 
devotwl nurse he is so much pleased with the flattering 
words with winch you and Alice gratify him. that i? 
» to h.m almost impossible that he should be so 
highly apprmatH He is very mo<lest. Each of the 
ktters from America I have perus.l wiU. him once 
more for h'J «mcere satisfaction. He is a Social Dem- 
ocrat. but the difference of creeds (of programs) here 
.n exUe, as well as in the pri.sons. is very often an- 
nihilated by the nt^.es.sity of sympathy and friendship. 
Ihe use of personal capacities, and often the want of 
dulJ^ ^1"' ^""T*" """*•'' '^••'■' P'^f-'^nd* mainly .mong the in- 

tL^ntl\J^ So«a«t Revolutionary party worked chiefly .mong 
^e pea«nu. and mph.«««i the imr>ortana of enli-ting the xJLnU in 
Omi oommon struggle agaiim oppre«ion. P<«mU io 

i ^ 

ume oHANDMrmiER or m *.ms revolition ijo 

rdr d;ir'" •'"'"•• """"■ •-^""- '•- '"•'-'■ 

and f„ All !,«. working l,„,.| (.,, ,i, living; .11 

cnc.,„n.g..,„,.,„. Tl.«. ,„„k., „,. r.,,K.„,il.|c fo, J 
c....»..l..r th.. young ,h, (.,f ,.,,„„ „,..,.. '„„ ' ' 

Mt..f..|..rv -om. „( „ .„ «.„„|,, ,„. ,„,„,,^ ., , 

rr T;;, "'•.'.•• ", """ »•• '"Vhlfully l.«rd to 

° ,„,'."""'"'•» """'•• But ,1,.. lK.,.rl of 
. »>;'"-. ." ■.ir „l. .\.rt„i„ly I cl,oo«. M„. better 
but th. .. ,k .! Hid; ih;. ,^ "•""• 

"Thank v , .. ,f,.„r,.,. f,„ j.q,,^ ,,^,,^^ 
Uve not re.,....! „r i,..„rd „f ,1,.. „,„„,.,. ,!"';„,' 
And yet .t would do well here, where the n'e,^ ,» 
gn'at tha many b„y, |,„ve their feet frozen for want 
of .uitahle boot,. How often n.y heart overflow 
w. h «,rrow, «.eing and hearing about .,ueh nuWy ' 
} do my utmct to spen.l as little a., |K.s.,il,le: and yei 
I cannot keep my expense, under ten .lollar, a month 
for my own want,. Even rye bread i., Iwiee a, dear 
« m Ru„,a. My health do.-, not .n-rndt me to ea 
meat and many other thing,. Milk. tea. white bread 

And yet I feel myself quite at ea»e. „nd strong enough 
for my age and all the o,ld,. I never f«.Uny df, 

long time hke a beggar, without my own shelter 
my own bed, my own table to write a letter, nevei^ 
writrng letter, when I was living •illegally.' Tnd 




now I am «. rich .« n queen. „„,| w„„t „„„,i,.g fo, 

"Oh ,h,, Kllen ! forRive me my Knghsh But 
I hear,! ,., ,„,.„, „„,e» i„ (-...-....g^ 1., f ^^X^' 
el»e such wonLs ,„: .Your l„ul KuRli.,,, ,-,, ,J,u'2 

hand "■ "'^ """"« ""■"•''■■' ''y -V"'^ ""'^'We 

"Thu,, fur I rm.ive all the l,.,ter., ,e„t to „,v a,hlres, 

to wH.e „„,Hu„t Xini^rzxzi;^^^^^^^^^^ 

.loh,; U ""' "'"■"" "'"' ""•>■ -■ - - t.>ed o, 

"Now during the Chri.slu.a.s fclivals. when many 
young p™p|c ,.,„. ,^k „,„,„„^^ ,^ n ™„y 

selves and goinR IhrouRl, the town i„ ma.'k, mv 
keeper, were afraid I .should e„.ape in tluTt mInnTr 
and th,.y ran about like lunatics, .seLhiuR andTrk""; 
after ev..ry one. intruding .he„,,elve, into eve 
.si.eete.l to be the place of n,y vi,it. And I wa! 
».ttmg ,„„,,. cabin, rea.ling „r talking with one oflv 
friends Kvery path I t,d<e i. „,„cLi l.v Iw 
figure .shrou,led in black furs from hea.l t^, f.« and 
standing immovahle near the house I viVit w- uL f" 
me „ return. Wi„,„ut pernu'ssion I ca n X 
on the frozen river, for it wouhl be rcgar,le,l ■„ . „ T 
;->Pt to escape. All Ihey keep ,« k «;". to 
the windows of my den ,.s„ |.,w ,md blin.I it isran '? 
do no hang any ..urtains, to k„.p ,h™, fr„„, , .rf,, 

yoJT"", '7 ''"■''""* '^ ''""^'«' 'hanks for 
your desire to soften my fortune." 

To Miss Blackwell. February 4-21,1911. 
"What a disaster, what desolation! I never sus- 
pecttnJ such bad things of you, my dear friends. Ahce 
and Helena ! You are both ill and overi>owered with 
your everlasting efforts to do the best, the most; to 
be always working, and tired over and over. It was 
your mode of life all the time I saw you. 

"Pray, both of you, conserve that health which is 
so necessary to many and many of your friends. You 
ought to ftH-I that people have acquired the habit of 
addressmg themselves to Alice Blackwell, to Helena 
Dudley m all their needs and sorrows, as to their 
legalized officers, always ready to act and to aid. What 
a disappomtment to them not to find these two inval- 
uable ladies at home! Think of me. too. You do 
1 know. ' 

"My best time to work at my table is the morning, 
but there are many who want me and Uike up my 
mornings, when my strength is fresh, my body strong. 
The days are very short, and shorter in my hut, with 
its small and badly arranged windows. 

"I confess I am tired to-day, especially because I 
could not be as useful ;o some persons ,us I wished. 
«ut my uneasiness will last only till early morning. 

Your father has passed away. Oh, my daughter, 
how many good people we have lost ! In every news- 
paper I read an obituary concerning one of the best. 
And all these people are younger than I. How glad 
\ rr^m ]'"'''* ""'l^rstood my religion and accepted 
It. Glad for you, for me, for the world. -Now, my 
mmd IS full of belief and hope, and this makes me 
quiet and sure of the future. Here I have to do with 
many and many unhappy boys, who (some of them) 


\' -if.V 

m urnx CHA>™,„an„„ op russun kevol^on 

e"wr ThTuLi" '"t/""'- ^ "'-^- I -rite' I 

to read bT, ": no t Tk/"''.'';''^'' "-' ™<»'«'' 
only ,orae E„R|i,h tn.^, J 1 '"«;»<«<ion.. but 
Some newspaper talkin,, li . " ™ originals, 
very interesting ""'' '**'"' """W •« 

"TI,« «,!, I I . "December 4-21 

with everybody fo7l if"' f ' ' "•^ '" ^ Patient 
than others '"'°" '""' '""•^'' hWer I am 

whe'eZ tfandt; ^h': f ?" "•" ■" ""^ '•"'Pitai. 
dirty, and poor. The dll ™'"'™' ''^ ''""'''y bad. 
of the Sov'^menl is'*: ::^ rhr^ -;« fe officers 
receives very la™, nnv „„ in. ""^ "ame. He 

fare of his patS We T. " ''" """"■"" '<" ">-= "<■'- 
food and cfothL t s« th^m „° "''"7 ""^ ""^""^ 
For shame (How bad ewrv,! • "^ '''■«'''"" »tisfied. 
She encloTertwo ^,7 ^ '" "" """""y « "ow ! " 
of Kij-ens.. oXr^ZT''- ''"^'^^ ^'- 

be bdU on? Wgtrrnd':*"'' *"" ^^'^ '^^ "■<>- "> 
its current from thl h " ' ^ ■"ounlains accompany 

Then it ," v^^wtde a?d"fl"r h I'^ '°™ "' ^"''"'^'^ 
lowland, coveL wfth a shor e'n 7"" ""' """ """^^ 
times with grass, where^he Y Cs pTsTurrr- "'"^- 
and horses. Farther nn-ii. ... P''^ture their cows 

moss that satisfie the huLh ^" "?"■'"« ''"' "-e 
are the hvelihood of ti e Y«l "> T'"' '^^'' "hioh 
the far north. ^"'' *"'' °ther tribes of 

"This beautiful islet with its town, viewed from the 

1 St 

next mountain. The diameter of the place is litlle 

rtautaof mixed population. Most of them . e de- 
acended from the eonviets (ordinary malefactors) 
«n here for many and many years. ^Some ™m^: 
their own w,l . Two or three big firms, having mU- 
hon. at their disposition. Telegraph. po.,'offic 

a^torl rw"^,;Ztr7a "' ™""" -""• 
opoly). two elubs. ^L'-XZ^tTZ:;!--, 
every size. You will see the site of my dwelliJne^r 
the dark park belonging to the little ^oidnltstey 
with two or three monks. Before the tow,^ Z ,« 
the river Lena, and behind the river Kyrenga bott 
are equally large in this place. All provi.^ns are 
tram,»rted here from the west, and are twice rdel^ 
asm Russia. The culture is very low." "" "*" 

To Miss Helena Dudley. February 17-Mareh 2, .»„. 

You are all too kind to me. This makes ine forget 
my position as an outcast, destined to a solitary ex 
«tence, and always apprehensive of a miscM f tit i," 
awartmg me or my nearest comrades. 

The book sent by George Kennan gives me the 
best moments of mv evenm» .„ • -ji . 

„ . , . y evening, so vividly and ho *>n 

teiis n [. ..' r""'",* '""'""■- """■ """^^ ■•"- 

M^sal- is l7 n" T\ "' ^^'- ^""'"S- '»"»^«'» 
Bu- ari ' If r -n' ^^ ^'"^^"^ "O" ""y Arthur 
hi ., l- ' """ ""' ^ '"^y '»•• a long time let 

tzXs\:T'' '"'r «"-"'• p-ted'in r;e!:5 

magazines. It is a great satisfaction to read the 
wntings of people whom you knew and loved It il 


1 1 


'" """ «='"''«M<m,EB OP RUSSIAN a.vOLtT.0N 

J'ke a conversation. When T r. 

° P'l^- I an, ,„ ,h. ,!^.f;,: I, ^, f.^ 'Tragedy 

him. I linir l,i,„ I ,..,,„,:„ /' ' ""' "'"^ '"end- I see 

otluT day I ;,!^ ";h :'>7 '";■ ''""-t men. The 

claimed: -fv,.,, lT7„ T'"' .P"" "(R,... official, ex- 

.vour .L'slinyV- , itTrT", '"•'; '"'"• "" '"'"™t in 
">y fri..„ds fr„,„ all ,i,, . •„, .t "'■""" -'""''■.d by 
my Ko„,l for,,,,,^ i, .,."'', "' ,"• ■ U""-™... And this 

!>•• by all „rouI,d I r Tl"" [ "l-V"'- «^-"'''" 

■signs of b..„„v„|..„oeTver "" '"'"'^ »" "'»<' 

f- about i,„;:,;:i^ ,r; tt;: tv 't' -' «-"- 

'.eautiful it is, l""„l 7"'' "^ "'^' «*"• How 

up. and ov..n if death shoul.n" t """' ""'' '''«'" ■"" 
you, my be,t fe-linB, mv „""" "'""' '"''°'' ^ ^ 

"Fortunately o"'meTh:s,r "":"'" "'"' ''"'■ 
and soft that the inhlftln, T "'"'" '"' »» ""a™ 
one like it for many jt t' '"^ '^'^ <'" "ot remember 

"A» for" cfothir"alT":r ""'^ ^•°" C""'""- 

"se.Ihaveo^ henel ° " "J"!"^" "' ''°'"«'«-- 
All the surplus isdrvwTf^' "",'' ''" ""' ™"' "ore. 
of the colony bu m^evT'fh^' "^"'■*'"'^ P^P'^ 
to apply to L delX^ trlXn."^"""' "^"^ 



do nothing ,.x, vpt road ,,„p,.r, „n,| |„. ii„,| ,„ ... 
with the v.s,t» of ,„any boy,,, who. MU,^ , .1 "^'^ 

and ™w.,h. nu lu'r.;.;;^::!:! ;;;;•: 

attempt to ,,„pr„v,. their „„„h. „f „i,„,.„ee Son,, I wonder, al.ashed ,.„.] terrified hv tl" actio^ ,i 
the government t„war.l» the pohtieai ex le" tL 

To Arthur B„ih,rd. .U,o„t March 2-,6. 19,,. 


in ZC:^'-^ '■""'""■"^- ' "" ■^'™"«" ""•" "hen 


'«« urn, o«.N„„oT,„„ „r „,,s,,,, H,,„,„,„^ 

To Mr,. Barrow, «„.I >,;,, BlarkMI 

America r:/:^!;„ 7,, ^"t't' ^'"^^ ~<""> 
inhabil. after „,y „V„ 't„r '^ ' "°"''' '''«"- *» 
America. ™„,,e my pre«'L „""" ''°""'" ' '"•^" ■" 

I n.ust a,ld „,y Jutu K , "* '^''" ^"""^ "-em. 

part in the idea ha^^ ■""" *""'"« ""■" "I-" "»k 
have friend, «^ ! " ■ f ' ?", ,""""' ■""' -y heart. I 
have known r^;,"f:°'"' '"'■''•'«• ■'• ««»-». They 
ral to see th"„re<^LT.,lT '''""•""'""' "•"'•^-""^ 
But with you /Zedo T"""^ ""^ «"»">"• 

enjoyed, only e„C,f v li? " "T ??""""' '""' ""'y 
«rity, my earnest wil to I ^°'' ,'"■'"■'<'•' '" "y »'- 
youare,Lereand^i;k;:,^oS,"" '"'■"""'• ^°' 

''•irrZwrr" '^■^- «"--■' -""«'")• 

Breahkov,!^ wrtTn ^n'T' ^'""'"■»"'" Catherine 
life, and you will™" frlT' """" '«»" •>" <>wn 
■«>n>e it I to crrelrre "T"™"'.''"" '^'■•"- 
we encounter marching uZltht "'^^"T'^ ">«t 
cjrcumstances accomptnylTthe- ''"'''' "' ""^ 
'he way we are thrown 1 Sh '","T """'"'^ "' 
and strong because she™ aTwavs fli.hM ,''T" '""•"' 
which bids us love our hZTi J '"' '° ''" '•e'teon, 
a^ we love ou^Xes."'' '^' '"""W"''. «» dearly 

f L"^irr '""" '"""'^ "-■'--■"« ." old y.k„. ..,„., „„H„ 







To MiM Dudley.' (Undated.) 
for !h?"r' '"■' •''■"i' ""' '"""■"■ ""y !»<" '»y». oven 

"ieiirr:,"' rrzxr ""^{"""•^" 

stnnd me, and love me no less T «»« „ »i. 1 
.ar... ,an.i,y. „H„ «. oclt J tT^ re'^d^vl" 

b«d t^it't't ""' "• """^ "■' »•"'- "-'' ^ 

^ra jh!; ; ; ::; z' it '^ "-^n "■" "-• 

k..» II au ♦^••••"ui ner! Not only mv bovs hnrp 

Tbrnken pi; ? i" "■"' «"'"<'n«'th" would 

Inn. »r ^" f "• ' ™"''^»». »"ch a life (for a 

^ng a, you desire for me would be difficult for 

Jea. comfort we^Zt rr/atf JTi^ t 
mendicity of the budget of our people for every 11'^ 
needs. And think of tK« t r ^ 'or every day s 

and one of th'r ji • 'T d„ T' ""^ ""'' ''''''• 
"I iijcni saia. 1 do not conce ve it ' A= t 

understand it, that was not merely mv nJ, • 


with it, habit .,, r :;",', i::;7""'""y<'"«. 

it, wvice. I l,„v.. „„ ,,r., """^ "»rt «t 

But my Mm„|, . , Z,!^^ ' *"" """' """ y"""-"- 

.n.i ^^>..,:;:^,Z'zrzza!:; t"" "r 

to our Ideal. .^^: ^;;^::JT - - 'uiti-fu. 

ToMi,,BI,„.U-,.||. March ...O-April ,5, ,»„ 
Heienr-rt^uT, •™";°"V7'" '-'"' ""■' one Iron, 

my health in overv .wllr'V"''"'""' '" •'""'''« 
yourself when , ^y !l,„ " thaj^ /•"''■"" '"' 
alone. moWnR about very sloX t "K '" •""'" 
do all I wi,h exeent to lift ,. '"",''""8 "We .o 
walks, to bring muer „^ L ' ""^ ' '" <^'"'"' "y 
not wa,h my ctth:^ i, " ' l,ru:" "T ."T ' "" 
'or it is very little. 1 never dl ir. , '''' "'*''''"- 
Tea. milk, white l,rei,l , „ 7 ** ''"* ""' <»ok. 

day eating. I tZ t- ' .tZt T I'" '"^' "■"•^■ 
provision.,, althouKi, ver^,™h ,'.''■'• '">■ "'•^^ 
First, my health re ,u res t ';,, ' '.''"" ',"'»'• ""•"'• 
I <lo not want to sn !d I, " "''■'"■""""■' -'i-l, second. 

amund me hunl d "if'tngrV"'' ""''-"■ """'•"' 
and exhauste.1. Cerfiin v H ""'' "'™- '''o''™ 

evory-day re^ime^:? , ^-m': "T «""' '" "'-^ 
exiles, we cannot imuRine 0,71 ?• iH" ' "' ^"''•'"'' 
full of privation. The,!^^^ore an! 7'^' ""•" "" 

situatcHl (comparativel) as 111"'° " "' ^-'^ 
complain. I receive fo^ JyJ^u': iTotlZ;"^ 




woiiM mak.. n.e ricl. „n.| ,-,„„f„ I enjov a larw 

know „lH.„, „,... Tl,i, lil„.r„|i,,, «, , ■,„.„,,;,. 
Im.s «l«r„,«l ,|„. ^...v..n,„H.„l, „„.l ihr «|<,rv of „,; 
. .-,««« , on ,o „m..l,.T ,,l„<... w„» mv..„..,| l„ i,„,rr„„t 
the- exohanKo of „.„, !«.,»■„.„ „,., „,„| „,, ,„.,.„,, 
And It w«» ,.„„,„..| f„, ,,„„, „•„„. „,„ „^_,_,^, 

otlKT ,,„,,. .• who wrol,. .!»■ irulh. «n.l now all i, «„!„„ 
as before, to my Rrcal joy. 

"Certainly it wo„M 1„. U-tu-r for n,e to have a yo.m« 

. evote. eo„,r„,|e at „,y ,i.le. who w I I,.. ,,„, LZ 

.nd wdhnK to serve ,„e. Y..,, ,„ ,|,at eannot be 
hero ,, an old ^.hlder ,„ ,„,|i.ieal exile t.H.). a Ud' 
drunkard, but an honest and devoted nun. sZ 
rea..,nable when sober. This P|,„o„ „„„e., ,„ Z 
me every two ,lay,. drinks tea with „,e. and speak! 
«bun.l„ntly on the .l„.ds of which he was once , w" 
ness or an aetor. He loves and reveres the n.en.o y 
of many of our comrades who were exile,l twen.y.five 
md th.rty years a^o, now dead, or old „n<l crushed,.r. Nou that he know 
he .s to y,s,t me once in .so often 1„ fulfill his duty he 
refra.ns rom drinking, i, always polit,, and Zs'hi 
best to please and to be useful. "u uocs uis 

, "April 1, or your 13 .Vil. 

1 wish to be polite too. and to answ.r a.s well as I 
know how .vour question as to n.y health. My ehr^ic 

roubles arc: (,) neuralgia through all my ^rRanTnr 

«e feet, the an.l the back, i„ch„li„„ the head 

(2) rheumatism in the feet and the shoulders- (3) kid 

ncy trouble, which made mc very ill during mv £ 

.mpnsonmcnl, and was not cured at all. for Uie doctor 

:i. A^i 

■-»•'• ' 


ITO UTTU ClUNDIIOTni!!, Of «,^mk R«o..,-nON 
(intmlion«lly or iininl«,iioni>llv) took . . 

...pporUbly r„„u«h ; wt: t^™ ,™ "I^-r;^^" 
to provi.1.. f„, urgent „„,, ,!"'"',"• »' '"'K'Hwiff 

""t «o much M> M I „ T 1 1 ■*■' '•"'">'• •"" 

Be,,-...., u,..."lj,,;: ;'';;,i;; ;7'- •".; to »,. 

or twice « month vi,il.;i „''.?! . 7"'" ""<* 
/eebl... unable to do th X;' I '""i;'/";' ">'" - "" 
•«• over and I feel better." '™*" ''■'*"• 

To Mr,. Wbel C. Barrow,. March iS-April ,0, „„ 


n.e th^UKh the 'hZ':, a'^^uTeatrl.'Ta" '"', *.° 
me only to^ay- You wrote ,t Z^W ,7 Tflro 
and I received it April 10 inn i. ' '^"'• 

from one board to anoth.- frim one .""'• '""'""» 
many other, till » r^r admmistrator to 

II .■','""'"• t"l a policeman brought it to m« i:»i 

^^T^iytij -^ L^y :r • £ 7- 

c eitiirhiirwr;!: ^ ^i?n^' 


(only ,uppo,;d al^Ml'u''te'rrbuTn'"'"'''r "• 
mterest that your countrymen took in my fate, j 


urru,M.xriiKR „f r.^mn rkvolition iti 

•m quite ,.f „.rh ,«mfi«., „ y„„ ,.„,,ert«,k 
for ...y «.ke. My «„u| i, «„„, ,.(,1, p'ri.l, .„. Zt 

iZd™""""-' •'"' """ '"^ "' •«■-»« -h d.v:M 

"h, yc, the boy« keep cominR to ,«• ,„o ,„d to 

••Iter without int-Truplion. Now I ,m «, u,„iZ 
lo know if , hi, letter will reach you Ne'er to h^ 
-ure of the ot of „„e-.s .■orr..,,K.,„l™ee. oMo „.orrow 
- to he a lh,„K in ,he hand, „f other,, - it TaZ' 
JJ«ree„l,|e panition ; especially when we wi,h .™ e«g<rW 
to got our f„.|,„K, lra„,,H,rl„| there where ourS 

.end, are. It would he a wouml to my ,„,d [f y"u 
though, me ungrateful. And what do /ou meanZ 

7,7 Tn •"': **" "'■' •" '""«• "" »'"'« ""-t again ? 
I <lo not think «.. On ,1„. „„„„., ,„ 8«^"' 

Wliy not? Only 8i,ty.,even year, old I am. and you 
are much younger. My, if not „rong. can v^" 
endure for «,me time the unea,ine„ of the life Ih^ 
nwa.t, me or .«,m year, longer. I hop,, to see you 
(our) grandson, the little June Barrows .\Iu„ey. who 

Ivhth'' r '" ^'°'" ""'' y'""" '"'»''»»<'•••' descendant, 
which make, me ,ure we ,hall have in thi, young 

man a brave, an honest, a beautiful boy, alwav, 

ready to serve the interest, of humanity. Kiss hh 

hands and little feel for me." 

To Miss Blackivell. May 8-?I. 
"Thejetters fr,„„ ^ti,s .Julia C. Drurv and Afr 
Lew« Hcrresholl, Bristol, 1{. I., written April l;!,' 





tii 128 







'65 J Eosl Main Street 

Rochester. Ne» rork 14609 uSA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

(716) 288 - 5989 - Fo. 




lf)ll, rcaclu'cl mo only yostonJay. I am not only 
Umvhvil, but frai,>i,„rte(i inli, quite another world of 
lnou«ht and feeling' 

"\Miile I perceive all the exasperations concerning 
my qualities and eapaeities, I understand nevertheless 
that the friendship an<l .sympathy which y«,u all. my 
friends in America, show me, are n.)t in vain, that 
there 's a soIkI foundation on which these feelings are 
built. Ihebetter for me! 

"You will comprehend me when you remember that 
for half a century my whole l.cinp been full (from 
top to toes) of one straining: to improve the moral, 
mental, and economic life of my peoi)le. It is too old 
a habit, and one cannot breakthe bond that unites him 
with the exis .nee of his folk. And what an example 
It woulii be to my youngest comrades ! God forbid ' 

"Stn-enteen letters from you. two from Isabel, two 
from Ellen Starr, three from my Helena Dudlev. one 
from Arthur Bullard, my boy. from Mrs. Kennan one. 
And so many Easter cards that all the children of 
Jiirensk and my boys too had a present from you. 

"Every one of my friends asks what comfort would 
best suit my life in Siberia. I answer : A suit of winter 
clothing, from head to foot. 

"I shall never be able to provide it myself, for all 
the money I have I destine for others, who are suffer- 
ing more than I. .Aly friends have often asked me to 
buy winter clothing here in Kirensk, but I never did 
and never shall do it. It must be light and warm. 
Boots pantaloons, overcoat, and a cap; gloves, too. 
That for my healtli : and for my soul's welfare, some 
money to aid the needy, to buy them tools and ma- 
terials for work. 


"Your devoted and u little excited and enerved 

To Ellen Starr, (rndated.) 
"Twice I have read your h.fter and the verses of 
Sophie J.uett. n is the first fiuu. I have set.i tLnn. 
I read als.> those in the New ^•ork Ti.nes,> and I an, 
ashamed. Ashanu.l. y,-s, for I ,lo not heheve nivself 
a heronu. or a saint. It is natural to he reas<.,:al,l. 
and lov.uK when you have inherited these nualili..s 
from your parents. But why shouhl we sprak about 
me. when there are .so n.any questions that interest 
me much niore.^ For instance: There are 
writings of mine that wouM hv rea<l with no little 
use by young people who desire to form, to improve 
their characters. My sayings an,l reasoning are verv 
>^nnple. and therefore very eh-ar and practical I 
have never retouched them, and .hm't feel able to do 
it, but if somebody else would go over them and trans- 
late some of the best places. I should be glad Alice 
ought to be of the council, and you, being stronger in 
health, ought to help her. As soon as I get my vvrit- 
nigs from the hands of the police, I will copy some 
sheets and send them to you. 

"I agree with you that the presence of honest and 

mspired minds is a great blessing for mankind, and 

we ought to teach our chil.lren to honor above all the 

nobleness of the soul, for there is not a greater treasure 

on earth And yet we should teach them, too, that 

his ought to become a fact of every day, and, speaking 

truly every human being must try and can succeed 

m attaining the highest grade of mental dignity. It 

' See Appendix. 

! t 



timVt" K ''"'■'■'"*' ''^ '"^' ^^"^'''^' «'"»1 have ha<l 

time to be accustomed to see it as an everyday tas 

To Miss Dudley. May 20. 
Overpowered ! Overoovvoro,? i r\ 
Nine letters, besides PosSirdinnufnlXr.'' 

was cut off for a whole month because the ^reat 
river Lena and our less great rivor V ^ 

carrying the ice to the north tZ • ''"^^ ""''' 
but I feel well and T \ f^""^ '^ ^«'^^' 

tokpn« r.r ? """^ ^^PPy because of the 

numbLs " "" """"^^^^ '"^"^« -d - in such 
"I will not repeat all my words of -ratitude Ynn 
must know once for the rest of my life that I J 
creature full of gratitude, and prize very token of 

Ttt'^^tTth'^t^^^- -^"^ *^^"^ marJL'tnd: 
a "ttle. It IS the admiration for mv charartor -^^ 

pafenee in enduring my fate. PiL H^^ ^say th"t 


people of religion ; we have one in our soul, through 
all the nation, and the worship of the beloved Idea is 
our national trait. This capacity of appreciating the 
worshiped Idea above all the rest of the material 
world makes us strong and willing to sacrifice our- 
selves for its sake. This conviction makes me bashful 
and confused when hearing or reading beautiful words 
about myself. I wouhl think it is so easy and so com- 
ortable to serve a cause chosen by ourselves ! Cer- 
tamly one is tired sometimes, and sometimes irritated 
against all the silliness of mankind, yet it does not 
continue, uiving no time to mourn, obliged as we 
are to think how to do better. 

"I hope some day to get my manuscript written 

li\l uT'r ^^'"'' ^'''^* •■' ^^"^ ^'••^"^^ly ^«'»*'. 
and the chief of police is reading it, out of curiosity 

or fear You see with what might it is endowed! 
The administration of the fortress consented to give 
It out to me. The Police Department in St. Peters- 
burg consented too. and yet the chief of police in 
Kirensk is allowed to decide whether mv writings 
ought to be given over to me. And he has kept them 
for many weeks, and will keep them for months perhaps 
I never speak with him. and have no wish to meet 
lum anywhere. This winter some comedies and 
dramas were given here many times, and some vocal 
and mstrumental concerts (thanks to the unofficial 
particpa ion of some boys) ; but I never go to see 
or hear them, disgusted to be in the same room with 
the policemen, who are always there in force, never 
paying for their places. 

TVf'l ^^T/"; ^"''^*''' ^^ '^**^"^ th»« ^eek. Lady 
Mackintosh's letter made me glad ; very." 

«' " 


176 LiTTLK c.n.,Sim,nmM or .«s..,,vv rkvolitio.v 
_ To Arllnir Bullurd. (Undatol.) 

L:.:.;:; t:; '; tz z '-;r:;r„-.=: 

«TV.. your ,.a,„.l„li,y of work for .1,. f„ r , ^ "^ " 

desire h. ...M .1 " /'" "^ ''^'^rts an uncxhaustod 

utMFt to aid tlu- worh |« (Jo l„.tfnr «,.,» • , 

-o„.. „,,„„, ..„„„„, , .,^... • C„» " -^ 
Dt'i»t people were ex led from if?' v "* ^""r 

K;t o„r counlry vv„„|.| r,,,,,.;,, .,.k.. „ j«,,^ /> ^^^V 

with more coolness - .11 ]h' u P^^^on^ena 

eluding thaTlne:! '/pet::;^.^^^" 

on, known, I am sure, that a p'err'h'o cares i' 
for h.s own welfare, and is much affected bv all W 
happens in the sphere of his own I if. ; ^ . 






created l,y our silliness nn.l ignorance, by the mis- 
chiefs that come over a„<| ovc-r in a wry wonderful 
miseellaneous form an.l c,uanfily; hut one ean get 
the habit of siruKnUun through all his existence and 
never being disappoinled. never exhausted. More 
philosophy, more cont..ini)lalion, more perception 
reaching into the future. ~- You know w..|I yourself 
low to , lo. and it is only my longing for your w.-lfare 
tha niakes me speak about cjuestions so thoro.ighly 
studied by every one interests in the existence of his 
own psychology. I wish to know you safe and con- 

"Now I have to answer twenty letters more. The 
day IS warm My window is open. The little meadow 
befor-^ my blockhouse is full of hens and cocks 
so peaceful . . . and so much grief around !" 


1: ' 


To Mi,, Blackwoll. May «.J,.„, „ ,9,, 

P«'asantry too I iL ' worknu-n an< 

««".■ force .h„, i,„w ,„.f ,':.': '-7 ''">• '■'' "'■• 

till- country WV l,„v , "' ''"«""""(!•< in 

of 'Hc,cxoI„mI:x~ ;;. rr'' '"•• '•"•"""•v 
for .ho i.ica u, „ princM T:.::^^;j z """"^■ 

of our prople. This idea is i „ . . ^ '" '""J"'-"^ 
whole faith we eonfo, n,,/ i "" " ""■•' "' "'"' 

hand a ho,ly of Waci; J^ """ '"'"" "" "•'■ """•■• 

Ru.s,sia aI.,o. a eroun „f * '""'"''''• "'"^ "• ■" 

right, whirrn'^ntr'm: 7";;" """-p"'"-' 

never ,een the pawrsTn,) V'^ ■ "'" "'™ ' ''»™ 
''U(rragi,t,. N„wT,Lm skTh'"" "' ""' «"»»'»" 
Here, the women L,l .i, ^"^ "'""« »™' nie.) 

every right and »1^ ^t '"™ "'""^ "'■'' ''"P"™d o 

«" other right, l':th, 7 1"''^''"'' "«" ''^'-e 
breathe. '"'^'" '" '"™«8l--' '<»• 'he right -o 

further thr^uSiof ;/""''•,;' ? ■•""'Vnsable to . 

firstly, the «'"„, ""e 1;"": I'a''^, "" """"''' '"'■ 
ondly, everv !,„„ J ^ ^ """^ °P<"n. and. see- 
when therei, a lonr^'"' f^""''' "»^" -■■■"ly 
« a strong group of active and intelligent 



hnids an<l nrms to nrornoff. if f i 

"f _.• i;i"l,l,v. hunmnily „,„l l,r.,ll„.rlHH„l 

< ;Tl,, r ,l„ ,„„ ,|,i„k ,|,„. II,.. .I,vlsi„„ „f „,, 

less. Ihal ,t rannol I,,. ,l,.(i„..,| |,v ,„„, ,.,„„.. ,, " ' 

h.»to„-c .,„,.„, , ..,,.,,„„;, "v;,;;;;. ;. '- h 

half Imt hold, ,„ its |„„„|, II,.. f,„„r,. .,f „„„fc,.,„ ' 

c?;.;^i T-""' "" ''•"'•^' '""' ^""' ''''-"''^ "" -". ■ t 

capauti..,. Ih..,r,.x„..n,.„,.,., ,!,.,> I.,v.., tl, a,.....„,„|i,|,. 
men ts, n,„r„| „„d ,■„„.„„,„„,. ,v, ,„a„ ha, ,„2^il 
de,t,„y ,„ „„uri»l,inK an.l k....pi„K .s„r.. |,i, """ ' 
woman must take for h..r,elf the'l,, y „ ' „. r;,.;" 

»ap!CT». All that IS love, ten.lerii..,,, ,,raee heanlv 
courage abnegation for th.. sake of ar«. ,I™U n; 
the welfare of the f,.,„re ,„hal,i,a„,s ..f U.e o J, - 
all these feelmg, „„.! ca,.a,.i(,e., are 11,.. result of our 
organism, are innate in us, ami pr..p„re ou „a „rL 
to be no only wives and „,oll„.rs, but teaehers, d^^r, 
of medleme professors, ministers, sta.istieians Wen 
«ts psyeholo^sts. Soeialists, „nd all that is nc™ 
to be known by persons whc e duty it is to Huea e 
and elevate the human race. Certa nly. women Ive 


ill ■ -'% 

'si f ,1 • 

Si J'- ,•♦,"■ 



IM um. ciM.NOM(miBH or .,«,„„ . 

"•■v" -11 •.."' ..•"::.::"•;'• *'"""" ••"•■'■ they 

'fort.-, hi, ,,„w„g,. ,..';, """'' '" •••„l.,.rr,.,,, hj, 
'Very ..„.., „,„ ,h.. .,,' '"'i^'/"" ""•'"^''-l Ly 
«';npl-.v, f„r N,.,„r.. |„.' . ' " "/ '''"y '» mu.-h m„^ 

h-v. cr.„,.,| ,,,„..,..„, i„„ "•• "-....,„„,, 

•''"•*■'. »» W..II „, .if,r .""•">■":""""••»• f.-l,„«,. 

"•P..<iti..,. , ,„.,„ ^ - 'N"..!.-.,,,, „f „,.,„« 
"■""k""! rs (,,.,.,.r, „r ,'' '7'™ "'"'•'' '"'" "' 
»"> sur.. ,|m. I„„„ l,,,lv ,;..?"" /'"• •">• I""-', t 

v.-ry muel. ,„. Zt .l.^^u.' r;.;"'""';. '-'-,.•,): 

<".«•- race «.„,i:f t;xr'' '!"" ""• '"'"<"»<•"■ 

to elevate ounehe, to lie htt, ."'"''"''''« "'""'ing 
have ,„u„J „„, „,^/*; TV:TI "^ '^'^'^"O"- I 
■' '» hr women that can |„ ,7" ''"'7" "' """"kind 
more ,nohn,Kl to it, workfm ' ""'' °''«'" '<•• «» 
«-) in th. hVhi -t Ct^Zr'''""' "" -«> 

""" " mnkes me verv an,l „ ' 
ma-ywomen. well educated „„7^ ?7' "*'■"« ">«* 
"«tead of doing this CuUt., \ '"''■"'>'>t enough 
-t men's sou* and giv L"\:t' '"»'™d «/ carvfng 
more accomplished example! are """'' """^ ""d 
not policemen, yet som^uL , . """■■ '" ^^">-- ■' 
mmistration, officers oTya"lt'>T'"'' "' ">« "d" 
cern only the exterior sideTthH 7 T' """ «-»" 
They are not trying earnest „ ^' °"' "^"""''•y- 

to improve their ow^tllenu^™""*^ '" P™^^ ""d 

tients, their own creative force. 

"I .:$f 


pru , , „f . , ,„ ^.,.,^. ,,_„|^ ^^^ ^^ <.„|,ivat,.d 
n »..<l. n .l,r,,l,m, a, ,„ ,.1,.mm- «„,| f. „r..f. ho 
"«-r. larK..,, ,.,„1 ,.|,-ar..,, i,|,.„,. .,.,„■, 'Z'Z 

;;:":;• ";""' i- '- -" '-.ny. , „;::C 

»•* not to Uv known to fv.Tvhiulv 'in. 

•'■"^r'"-" ''--.JV^^tla ri;:';;r 

....... . ..• n„,r.. ,.„,. r.,,„.„k ,,.,„, „,„.„.,, „ ..' ,•"^"„;- 
"f -l... I. .. or ,1,.. „i„„, «... .,>v..ii on. i„ oo,„pa ,.::'; 

f.'« .■.nlur,,.,. ,.v,.ry ,„„„ „.i|| k„„». ..v.-ry nook o^ 

«n<l c^olor of our ,ki„, „|„|,. ,■„.,„,„, ,-, ^^yj"^^ 
« a proKr..,, as ,„ p,,,„u „, ,„ ,„|„|| „„ ^^Z Z 
of our cun„,„y. A„d if wo ro.nam „„|y i„ liffe,. ^ 
.spoctalor, of all wo ,,^, we ,h«ll vory ^ b. ""| , 
our charaotor of i.llo .,po,,„,or,. Qu^„. „„,Xr h ^ 
whon our hoart and our mind ar-, i„«i in , 
hoy aro <-«nlon,platinK. In th oa»o wo n " I 
look no, only .,a,isfy „„, ,„„.„„ ,,^ „,„ ^ » ' - 

and all our capaoitios aro workinR with Iho do2; 
o .mprov.. .ho »,a,u, ,„„ whon it t had. or o I Z 
to_^sun,o tho witnossod. whon it i.s worth^ of it 

I am suro thoro aro nun who p„,so.s, a very delicate 

worM all the best it can oncountor. Yet I am „ir. 
such m,nd». belonging to the masculine I:,, artUi: 

■"!-< 7.:;''';:;;.;,, :i;;i;;;;:,rr'"""' ' "- '•■••"..;„.. 

"'< t..ri.., i,. „ " i ' '''.""« "" >'"-.v .1,..,, I, 

<" -«^. .....I „,..!«;,:!';.;'"""-'• •"••''7""' "- »t.i..r.. 

III".- for 111.- «„„„.„ I, ,■„,;,■ »'■•'• ' ••"" »ur.' it i. 

<•' ".» nlali I,. « , ' ' '";;■'•"■'""'"• "» <r-...or. 

•ill -. .1 v,.,„, 1 ", ,'"."■ •"•"■"'•"• '•«>• HI,., 

'"<"■>■ •>' iN KroJ I, " i '" ' '■•-" ""• >-.Ty in. 

'■"'"■'» »".i ".w .■,",,", •''';•'" '■ '""y "•■■' 

■•^■■.r .1,,. «in.,.r r ,1 '";;"""' "'■•"•"•"•""• 

Cold. r«.,.. «i„.!::i;':„'::;t:,:/'.' --j •^-li^M. 

T.. Mi,, n|....|<.,,,l. Julyl.,9,,. 

«... »« .:..::'.;;: :;r..r:;'T' ;"" "?'-"• -"^ ' 

" • "'""«l. F .anno, u' :. ^ i, "vr /"r "-"'"« 
"■■If iMi,.,„,v, r „m iir,.,l „ . , '"• '''''."K mv- 

"... "-•.uslo.n.,! ; : ""' "<• "'-rt .....I brav.. ,us I 

•"•."K. I.H,l<inK ..I h.T „l,| r . ''""■'■ ""'' ''"'"."I. 
'«'"• An.| you ,,,„•'"' '" ";y .....'•n..o,t ,,.„,,. 
m.'.-.. ..Iw,,v, ,,,.,; ,•:,."'"•■';'■• '" --'>■• I »l.all r.. 

«nd tk. habit ir;:;„;,'j,"" '""« "■ "- ---^^ d.>..ti„„. 

To Mi.,, Du,llev. June «,^,Hv. ,, ,9„ 

my...lf -U,,,, j,„i|,, „... „,.. „ ,,;;',: 

m o„....f ,l„. ,„„„„i, „ , ,„, ;^^ • 

n-«-,^..;..i ,.,..„...„ i, „„.„ ,.., ,„,,, ,.,., ,,..^ „-■;;• 

To Mk, nimkw.ll. July II-4J. ,n,, 

"Vou l,,,v.. ,,»,i|„| „„. „, „„„ 1,,^. 
th,. .„„.. r l,„v.. I„..l l,.,„.r, fr,.„, ,„„,„, v„3,,^« 
.}.n|„,tl,, |,,war.l II,.. .,1.1 ..xi|,.,| •r)„l„„„|,k„. .,.|,„ 

Ak.-» ..f \\,.,l,i„K..,„-) „„„,.. ,„.. ..,,..,.^,,,1 "^ ^' •" 
mu<.|, ,.. r..„.l „1„.,„ ^,..„, ,|„.,„,,..,,^ ' .," ^' 

Journal. U ,s „ ,,H.cial |,„l,l,V„ii.,„ f,,^ (,,.. „„ .* 
I-,z«l „, s.K,n a, „„„il,|,. An.l vou are a ,1 ! 

way your journal has „,.„uir...l a vi^oriurand wlr ke 
^ ..•.ra.l.T. „„,! ,„ak...s a Mro„« impression I „•„' 

You and I are happy m having had such cxcellen' 

L./^i. M 


rZe.- ' """^ "^ ""' --y <'«y 'or thi, «««, 

«o entertain their rlderl /' "?",'' "'" '^"'*'"'-<^ 
honal Geography; Magazine for instance ev™ .1^ 

four years old) because it ;. il, • •^ . "S,*""* (""le and 
give then, somi o Te pfc ^s " hr't^' ?'' ' '''"'" 
to attract the attentKr„nh '.at .rsSr'""' """''' 
or invention. How glad ' "n P'"" ^ '° ^•'""">™ ware 

getting such unseen tabtl"- """ '""'^ ''''"^* 

deveiop.:tf i .::rtdT:XttdZ: "[ r- 

of our mind, our soul ■ al-^^Tn ,N r -^ Psychology 
lions of the two sTxes' and to fi '"''^f ""^ '"'"""- 
ceptions there are oTLot^l ththforX''^- 
miscellaneous examples of our rle^ M 
types there are; the combin!);! T- ''' "'^"^ 

so fanciful. Ve;y .nte^:"!:^ ' " """''"''• 

answer'X'^drr''' ^1'^ "" '^"'"'■* t'y»« to 
maga.ines.Tndylr ami -tr/'"" '''^"'^' P"^'"''- 

Somebody said Miss Addams is a living proof that 



a woman can do very much without voting One 
can answer: She would do much more when the 
votes of her sisters were with her. The book Miss 
Addams wrote. Miss Starr nmst send me. 

"Soon I shall have two albums full of American 
postal cards and it will be a commonwealth object, 
everyone will enjoy it. 

•Next month I shull change my cabin for another 
one. not so old and dilapidated. It is on the same 
street, and not far from the neighbors who are so 
good about helping nie in my little wants, but the 
courtyard .s not so large, and will not be my own 
domam. for there is a house on the same yard, peopled 
with a widow and her two daughters. The owner of 
the house dwells there too. Perhaps they will be 
gooc to me. I hope so. My health is always better. 
1 take care of it. and pray you. as well as my sister 
Isabel and our dearest and best Helena, to take ex- 
ample and follow my system. Spare your forces as 
long as possible, for a life devoted long to the chosen 
cause IS the best example we can give to our posterity." 

To Mrs. Barrows. July 12-15. 
"I am sure the parents of June will not spoil the 
boy with too much cajoling and nursing. I wish he 
might have a sister. I love the girls; there are ex- 
cellent ones. 

To Miss Dudley. 5 a.m., July 21, 1911. 
"You see, I shall begin very early, in order to re- 
main alone and be able to write. During the day my 
cabm is never empty. The boys keep coming and 

«». 2Lf 




to their mental amj tnateriul intere.f T "^^«^^^^^ 

earn a ve^- poor .subsistence only, for every „ah 

an omcial. J\ot one knows what will become nt hi,„ 

«ons to depict all that we are subjected to. ^ 

1 do not complain. For my nart I ».„ . 

fate bravely enou/?h; but seeing the best vo^l^ 
the country mutilated, deformed exter'tr^ **^ 
cannot remain indifferent exterminated, one 

xiiere are many beautiful flowers in th^ 
woods and vales here, but I never leavItL^ 
and can see them only when broulh T *^\*«^"' 
in the devotion of my bovs and tF?? I ^"^ ^^^^ 
in America » ^ *^^^ ^^"^^ °^ "^^ fiends 






« : 

To Mrs. Barrows. May 30-June 12, 191 1. 

mv wfn l'"'' ^^T" ""^ '"^'" ""^^'^ ^"••^^ «'-"*«"^-nt 
Zke tt'",, r r""' ""'' ^''^" mignonette- will 
make the delight of many houses. 'The Onh-r „f 
Peace and (lood Will' (by Charles F. Dole) i a U-au 
tiful copy. Pity I am reading it alone." 

To Miss Blackwell. August 24-Septeml,er 6. 191 1. 
"Why do I write to you in English and not French? 

Helena. I very much this rich and original 
organ of expression. orifemai 

onI7°Tr''' ^'"'''"' ''^""* "^^ mentioning the 'bovs* 
only. The reason is that in the district of Kirensk 
there are a thousand boys and only eight or ten jrirls 
scattered all over it. Here in th^ town Th "e Hd 

.only one. The exiled and condemned women who 
are not in the hard labor prisons, are settled part ^ 
them ,n the west of Siberia and part in the southern 
districts of Irkutsk. Only those who were not tried" 
but exiled by administrative order, are settled in the 

region of Yakutsk. 1500 miles to the north. 

"Aug. 25-Sept. 7 
"Yesterday this letter was interrupted bv the visit 
of a squadron of gendarmes and police. Thev came 
to make a search in my lodging, and turned iver all 
my correspondence and all the papers and magazines, 
rhey remained an hour and a half. There was noth- 
mg to be sequestered, and as the gendarmes could 


M«. Barrows had sent Madame Brchkovsky a package of mignonette 


r# 4 


Ak„ „ th,. pohc.. of Kir..,„k are troubled about 
my safety; „g„,„ ,h,. chief l,i„,.,„.|f u tripping aroZ, 
my cab,,, every night now, in fe„r that I n.^ I e 
t an,porte.l to ,«>me ,,c«el p|„ee and vanish a«av 
It .» very disagreeable, for the neighbor,' hound 
keep on barking for hours after these nightly vh 

about Z., " '"""'7 """'"• ' '"•'«'> "•■•>• mu.l 


"Your songs. Alice, I sing them when alone, invent- 
ing tunes of my own. "'veni 

vkMtvUm'" T f""^ '" '■"^'""S English. In my 
viemity (400 miles from me) there is an exiled pro- 
tes^r who reads English with much delight, and the 
^mndent is appointed for him. Afte hav Lg 
looked It over. I send it to Kaehug. a village on Z 
shore of the Lena, where our profes^r lives^VnotW 

"We have in Russia a great many devoted girls 

ull of abnegation ; but their .sincere earnestnesTmake; 

them timid ; they think too little of themselves And 

-e how beautiful is the character and how multtpt 

would be a celebrity known all the world over And 
remark that her mental activity does not prZnt her 
from exercmng her womanly feelings and being tender 






towards all with whom she sympathizes. The female 
organism, as well as the hahit of ohserving and j.nalyz- 
ing, makes us women more inelined to sympathize 
with the feelings of others. The mode of life in every 
country has made the men more hureaueratie, more 
formalists, and more hardhearted. Tndonhtedly a 
reasonal)le education will by and hy modify this difTer- 
ence between the sexes; and also the female sex will 
become stronger in mind and bodv. 

I remember always how beautiful and how heavenly 
sweet and splendid was our best woman, Lucy Stone, 
the ornament of the human race. 

"My health is still improving. The rheun.j.fisni 

and neuralgia are insignificant <luring the summer; 

and my splendid lodging, which awaits me, will render 

me safe during the winter too, with the aid of your 


"I have a dinner every day now, and feel strong 
and lofty, as if I were a i)rincess. young and rich and 
proud. The calf which is pasturing in my courtyard 
has become a friend of mine, and I prance before him 
like another calf." 

To Lillian D. Wald. Ai st 29-Sept ember 11, 1911. 
"Beloved and esteemed f., nd. Miss Wald: 

"How rich you have made me, sending me such a 
beautiful choice of magazines, which now (and with 
every day more) begin to be a source of delight to 
many people at a great distance! Yesterday, for 
instance, there was with me a mother on her return 
from Yakutsk, where she had visited her exiled son 
of twenty-two years old, who in learning English 
feels an absolute want of English literature. There 



•! i 


IW UTTLK <;nAN»M,^„K« OF „, ..s.AN B,VOLrT.OV 

".• ■•» " fin., m: ' ; ; r :^r:i ' h""; '- "•*■ '^"■'- 

to forffcl Hio f«,r..i'ir„ I """*'*'• "c- docs riot wish 

wllW. ^™ "'"' "•««'» "here we are 

do not «.„.,e to r •) '""""•' ""; "™«'"'"» (-''O 
•""kinR „„-,,„k,., \, vs,.| „, !^ '" 7 '^"■- And, 

What a'n e.™" .„ , " h ^^^^ t'"" '" ""^ ^°'''- 
ad^•i«.^ what a wi,.. j:X'r rhtl-"" '■'»'>'P-">le 

."«. consenting, fancv^,, „, ° ' '"]"»"• '" ---ad- 
laugh over. The (1.1" '"•■'"'""' '° ""■"'' "'• •<> 

'"7 cover.,, «, s .™trpit:r'harr '■"'• ""■' 

and surprises to a number of eh U," P''''™'' 
mine). „ bare b7w,H ' '^" f"^™ ""^"^ «' 
what make., the ehan-^er ith L^ rLr "'"■ 


^^ get from America,' but seeing how 

pictureTorcardl't'sl'B:'"'""' " "' "^^^^ '^"- to her a bunch of 



much pleasure it «ive. to every one to have some 
with h.m. .s«,„e pretty things. I resolved to treat my 
poor guests by giving two. three, or four cards to 
every one Son., huve sisters and brothers at home, 
ami use the cards when writing to them. O.l"! 
cho«>se some subjcH-t to keep it on their wall, before 
the.r table Many of them are living five or six in 
one roon., little and <lir.y. These keep their n" 

better dothes are left at home, and the cards within 
So much for the pri,.te,l n.atter and pictures; but I 
have myself a superior gift from your country, the 
le ers showing so „.,K.h interest in a far-off old woman, 
bu KHi ma httle w.ld spot, where she is destined to 
live henceforward - I will not say. destined to die. 

1 his correspondence enlarges to a high degree the 
world of my acquaintances, of my sympathies, and 
«ie traveling of my fancies. It engages me to feel 
myself as ,f hvmg amidst a large society full of faces 

XrSr "' '"^""' "" ^'^' '""^ '^'''^'^'y 
"The little freedom left to me is restricted more 
and more. As the days begin to be short. I shall 
have very few hours to move about. All the evenings 
will be spen in my room, for I have been told that 
the fo lowing me everywhere are not to remain 
in the street during my visits, as they have till now. 
but are to penetrate into the courts of the people 
whom I visit And as nobody is pleased to have 
spies looking mto the win.lows, I prefer to remain 

unZITf^""!^ ""^'\ ^"^ "'^^'" ^^'°"^ I '^y to call 
up all that IS dear and agreeable. The mail vivifies 

my imagination, which transports me into a less rude 

"mil. Tlu. .stcHlc of nuL jl. *"■ "'"'' ^•" »><- no 
iroustM for the hoyn will fiJJ „,y ,,.,-,^^^. 

'«• .•xa,..,„„,.' c"i,;. and n!" •■■' '"'" " ""^''' '» 
tl..'l.-.s, ll,..„. ,^ " '" '.'. '■'■■'" "' ""'"kind. NVvor 

of Lord™ of Kir„/„- , ," I -?' ^ ^ "\r, " «>"«'»"«.,.■ te 

™ou«h ,0 d:.:>: ,rre!:;:'"'^,[*-'"'eni«..n? 

last sev™ vcar, „ v„, ,1 .. '^"'■»»«'' '" these 

hi.Htor;oal beliX U ,l' Tlv''f 'j*"" '""''<' '" ""• 
".!"•■'- of minds ; t :„ti;!"; ;•'«;•'"»«• of the.,e 
us. ■^ *"" mlierited slowness follow., 

n.e:?!^a.rG'rbi:r;Lr, ■:"'-'"■'-" <" -- -"e. 

To M„. B„„o„, s^pj^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ __^ ^^^^ 
"»' of"7.e:r,::^.rr„;"r- J "- .one over the 
JZ.-""^ things, too n.ueh d^ej"';! .l^nVt 


••m-« I •. '"^ntomher 30 October l.J. 

>Vhen you .I,..rr.»,..I to ,ne your suinnur walk. 

I look at .he canls u.ul pictures rouuMK to n.e fr»n. 
Amenca. Sw,t^erl«n.l. Ku,Uuu\, France, from t " 
( auca.u. or Central A.sia (Tashkend), I an, dell^htc'l 
and I wonder how p^.l.. fcvl if they live in such 
>oaut,ful places It i. i„.p„,,i,,, ,./ ,,Unin~ 
tnne for you w.l have no time to do anything else-; 
but .t ,s unpo«.s,l,le to r<.n,ain inditfcTent. either, when 
fuciUK such a Kallery of supreme pictures 

"When I have before „,e a splendid view. I fc-el 
myscU thrown „,to a beatitude akin to consternation, 
us If I were before a pave of witchcraft that turned a 
commonplace mto a nnracle. It only shows that our 
own country ks lacking in scenery. Ru.sia. except fc,r 
sotne of Its conquered tcTritoricvs. is a flat and n.onotonou, 
hind, where the eye sc-arches for a nc-w p«i„t. u relic-f. a 
more viv.d color, a picturescjue ^roup of trees. Perhaps 
tb. equahty of lincvs and tints, this c.^r-^^ray nature. hL 
macJe us Ru.ssian people rather dull, with u tin^^e of mel- 
ancholy our fancy always dwelling on a better world. 

I behove that when they are free, our people will 
transform the country into a garden. The soil is 
rich and easy to cultivate, and beautiful forests, fields 
and farms wdl cover the plains, while in the moun- 
tarns hke those of the Urals and Siberia, there are 
plenty of materials proper for use. But now nothing 
prospers. The forests are destroyed, the rivers nearly 
impracticable on account of the sands, the soil badly 
tilled, and the buildings so ugly and uncomfortable 
that one might think they had been made so on pur- 
pose. No education, no good examples. 


cm «,„v f„,.|y „„.| „p,,„^.'^ '«• '» ."•"k..., the wave. 

K..^ft:::!-;;;:!i: :;-;:■'>;•• - ..".• w , .h., 

'•-.H. „„„.|, ,!,>, if " , " » ••''•»" '""I '.r.l..rl,v l,„„„, 

»'•'. I" walk, to oat nU , l"""' " '•*""'''« to 

f'To I .lo not lik.. ih « ; 1, , ;" ''"""'•"'"«• Th'Tc 

for l«.f„re „,y „„ „J , ,' ^ ' ' ' '« "ot won.lroii.,, 

an-l rain. an.[ ™;^^.d"'!i;h "T '''«'' "'"' «■"« 
«»f that ,„™, never tot ., ""t' ■«•"'■•'• «"'y 
Pl.-a.s«l uitl, rain 3 let ,'""»■• ■ ^"'' '"^ ""^ "« 
fiercer enemv ^hieh tiM • • """ ""' "^''^^'h of a 

'--I b.v sewing Z: rn7e:Z"' r'"?" "'"' 
f"»ln„n magazine serve, them very Ihi,^ '^'""''^"" 

Sometimes she cheererl hnr /.• i . 
bit. of .ers libre on j^s/^ard" ""''' ''^ ''"""« 8"^ 

"Helena dearest, .lon't be sorrv 
Soon, very soon, thanks to ;Surg«Hi„e.. 

%( '■ 

*' aoT"" 





I have my Imtl, i„ ,„y own rcKm,. 
An I MHH, ,,««,„ „„,,.„,, ,,, ,.,,^.,^ 

lh..M«m„varw,IU„i,,,,, , ,,,,,, Z^'- 
Ami your „M fri.,,.). r,,.,.^,,,, ,",',;„_. 

Ofr|..,ranrH„f j|„. w„Hi|. 

«.i (lM.o.|HtoiMar|, JHHoframrd 

I Imv,. H„.,„ for tl„. nvsl of lifo. 

nt'an-st frirriil! 
I will Im. n,rrrif„| an.l ,„.v,.r more 
nrit.- in vcTjios. Forgive me " 

To. kHBIuckwdl. l)clol)rr 


•You JMH» im. tlnriririg, 
Voii «•«• me t»ratirin>ff 

I U' Jai'^.Ts iin- romimr, 
I nuvf thf nolicv! 

».H.n like « c«,»,, f„„, ,,.,„,, ,„ , ' Y".^ 

wool. No frost of SilH-ria can hurt Iut „,„,e.'- 

To Mks Blarkwdl. (tT„,|„,,.,)) 
" I have read 'Tlie Balla.l of the Brave M„„- 

.nd over, and wond „,,,. ,.„„ „:," r.^^rallZ 

know about your ™„, her. tha. !,le.,,ed an.l Mv woman 
m ,m,dar ballad.,? Every aet and eire ™f,:„r„; 

iu two parts. (1) a short and compact chronology of 

^JSliOhjNkJi «* 

IM UTTu cH^N„M„n,„ or KtmAs mvoLi-noM 

tmn y.„, k.n. in y.-ur h.„rt f.,r Ihi, w .,„„„ Ihn [ 
n™, .Irvoliim «n.l love « ""»■ "nU clevtr- 

" r often «Hk niy«.|f how f wo„M write tho l„Wr«nhv 
o « jrr.«t .p.>it «„., f „u,,,, ,.1 that r ot t Z,' 

of the world «„,i the nets of nl7f u''""*"*^ 

The ,H;r.s.,„,fi,.„„„„ „, ^..^y i, „ ,,„ritu7o„e 
now „nee .... prc,..„, .|„y p„h,i, ,„„ JJ^iZZ 

which ,..„„, i.yi ;!::::h™ :r;rr:„Tjh' 


-how u. the .H,| ,1,, ,„,,.,, ^„,„, „,,,, 

*»n.J ,„ h.. f.u,„Iy; ,n « ^,„., „„ ,,,^^, ^^^^^,^ 

mner w«rl.J. ,1.. n.„,.,|.., „r „,, ,,„,. „,„^ ^^.,„^.|,^ ^, 

llir n-oclcr « nu.,iu,ry liki- a wU-ntial iJKht." 

To Doctor TrImykovMky. NovemlHT 10. loil. 
"I| to writ., you n rfu^rfiil nn,l jolly iHtor 
«. Utl. th... Mat,, of ,„i,ul „r.. not for4„* t, n .'' 
On th.. cH„.tr«ry. it i, a |o„k „,„.. ,„,, , ^J^, ^^^^^ 
as much a. .,„„. n^y nturn to Ih. worM from nolitary 
r«.nrnH.„H.„t ; „,..! h.-r. I oft..„ lauKh at every i^^ 
«n.l |.K,k lovi„«Iv at the few youMK.ter. w.u/like to 
ke care of me. a.ul who,.. I |ik. to .ee alK.„t me. 
But ju. on «m,„n, ,.f ,h.... yc,»„«.,,r, , „,„ ,„ff,.,i 
a K;k.| ,K.a of .l.seo...fort at pre.e..t. no, to ...y sorron" 
from the vory he«i,„.i„« it was kr.ow,i that every oall.MK «n .m. wa. entercni in the 'InHik of life' 
, »""•• " ^•«""; »'> »»"• notice of the ,K,hVe supc-rvisor 
HO u. calle,! on me sc-Mom. others more frequently • M>me dnl not stay Io„k. others remained to chop 
wcKKi. .weep out the rooms. ,„ for provisions, or eUe 
o work at .some foreign lanKUaRe. o. sit and wait until 
the time came to the chin.ney with its heavy 
flue.plate.s: or else to take the old I«dy out for an air- 
mg, or to the and hack. Particularly there 
wa.s a young man living within a and a half of the 
own. bj.yond the Lena. s. ,p<,rting him.self by odd 
jobs, with a httle help froiw his relatives. He came 
every day a'>r dinner for two or three hours; he wal 

irJen r • ^ T T *'""^''^ ^"^^ ^«^«"«^ he had 
given me a nde ,n his bout (it was only in the beginning 

m^ lb, 



' Wl 



<»8 UrriE GnA>a.MOT.,EB op hissun BEVOLLT.ON 

S::tt ::i,r,: t: '«■'"« t"*""^ remi„ue., 

I have ulr..„dy ,"t ' lu Z"" .'" ."" "'' """ « "«• 
or those who «rr,r , " " "' '" ^'''""^ ''=«'"• 

■•"d «o ,. ,„„, „,., .„;,,:', ''"^: 7' ;!;'■"-"■ 

•look on the olher M.. „ i. "' "■* ">''■''' '» « 

Glotow-, .steun it, I tp"; "'i^''. "'^ -»* "-ere in 
Gromov-s work-shop, '" ""^ '""'" """« «■•« 

Penter at the eillwh., ^ ,7"'°^™' "' " »'- 
his trade, an.l w- , ah-, ■' '^ """'« " *"<^«'^s of 
winter hi- wouM n t ',; \T """ ''^ ""^ '"" "' 
and hou.,e-painti„g , I ' 't ^"'^r'^ »' carpentry 
" »hop of his own n ,J „ r" ?■■'"« ™"'<' open 
dose friend,, he e:ile,i 1 L "m"' '" t '-- '"' 

take his .scanty p.,;, 1 „;, '"""O" ''<■ "ould call to 
go a mile and a 1 „.?,,'" "r' "" "' ""' '" have to 
this sort of lal , ™, Hf^ w? ""? " ""P™^» "«'t 
district police cap™,; L 1™""''"" " "'"""■ "><= 
yearly one for travdHngov r H, "? ^ ^" P^'P"^' (" 
whichhe had iust obtZ,; 'the! ,'.^['7 h°' '"""*■ 
oned him, and on SaturdaV hi; 1^ I"' ""P"^' 

escorted by gendarme to the Sl'l.rT'' '"■'" ""^^ 
700 versts ,lown the rln, ^I'll^htuiskaya district, 

ing settlemenTw ere «,ere"ir„? '" ^l'"^'^-- " ^"'-■ 
own population, and mZ vUh 7 '• '''''''^ ^^ "' 
think it less dang, ou ,„ «cf, '?"^' f"'"^ who 

«u.ght again tha/to r lin fa ;« 'wi'tho f' T*^ '" 
without bread. without work and 

m.L *.: •" 


I p.ope generally, that a feeling of gru UucJe 
deeply nnplanted in me. that distressed vour iV 
are particularly affecting to me so W / ^- V 
l^-d to be t.e cau^ of Z^^J^Z^ 
trouble, I see that complete loneliness threatens me 

he-: KtlV'r' ''''\ '" '"^^ ^-"^ «^ ^ ^»^P"- 
nert m Kirensk or somewhere in Bulun, on the Arctic 

Ocean where they send exiles for complete^olatTo^ 
VVliat they are afraid of I cannot understand I onTv 

beTrlth'/ ^'";'' "'''^"^ ''^y - Bulun :ihwht 
bears than to see how. on account of me, they are D^rse 

cutmg other people and depriving them ofVread and 

of the most necessary freedom. They are even goln^ 

these co„d,„o„a during all ,„, ,„„g U!.; nol^'^'J: 
prises me nor will surprise me But vnnnc h * 
cannot feel themselves a' well, and efej rexplTe"^^ 
unreasonable blow baffles then,, and leads t" an etoi 
mous loss of energy. It i. » ,^ jh, J/^" 
that people are not angry with me. whence come III 


of foolish voter, Ih,'!" "'"T'' ''"' P'^-Ponderanoe 
less people, IX ' rw^m C:^^ '"'"''l "' ™"- 
«r reorganized in a u.or.:t^::^^Z^^r^-''y 
this mess was made b.-fore niv tin,, T I ; • 
to be responsible for it .1. ^ ' ''" ""' ""«"'' 

compelled toXl with """''' "" '" ' '''•<»''<' '«• 

The^-fore /"prel" to t riltl "'''''\r'"^^''- 
give them to whomeveTT sec ms b V ? ' ""'' *° 
and system Dn „n» .k- . .^ T '■ ""^Ping order 

personally"' I do no t} ' ' """ «'^<"'y '" "-y-" 

neeessary but voun/h '° ''"^ "'"'^''' ""'^ ''hat is 
"ivr„ .i, L ^ ^ '"■'""'' "«•«<' food. 
Now the boasting begins • T,^,|..„ ». i x 

?^"nTi:;i\rn"tV^'-^^^^ -- - : 

ceived on the r^d We f '™' ''^^°" "'"' 8'"^ ■•- 
do.en .eostum": ." lZ''L?Z: tie 'tT^^ """ " 
wealth as I have never K f ' ""'" ~ ™cl» 

was born. I have hunJ th ' •'^•'"'"''"cd since I 

tVe^-^tCTve:^ HT^^^^^^^^ 

where to purt'Lem aU T '''' 'pi ' ™"'' '""'S'"'^ 
will go for'^hir s for the bJ^^i^t '/"" «'"«•>""" 
as four out of 15 arshin' ^ ' ™'' '° '"'' ^' "^-y 

bo:7i"raveters\o''r ^'T "^^ '" -'«'«- 

is old I have kent fir T ""'' ^^''ything that 

^.-et. Which r^i':r:^—^-,« 


^■•Ji . • Mp',m^J^.Sk 



and «t night spread owr my onlinnry overy-day one has .con many ihinRs in its tin,... E«n myTj 
cloak „ about to go into retirement. I have two wadded coat, and a few warm skirls! 
m a word, enough to get married on (such a hri.lel) 
and he p™p e arc still dissatisfied, and arc alwly. 
g umbhng: 'A fur c„„,, grandma, a fur coat, by al 
means a fur coat; I will show them a fur coat ! Lon 

huff irj* r' *■"■" '"■• '"y f*^-^'- S° '»■•. nothing 
but a calf skm from Yakutsk lies un.ler mv table af 

Tn W, s'h ^"«- ."""'""""» '"V f™t, which a'rc clothed 
m felt shoes and rubbers. The hut would be good in 
every respect but that there is a draft from the floor 
tuht-rr-Xlp.'"- «-- ^-"" overcome thX 
;; Heigh-ho ! my life is nothing but a genuine carnival. 
Abundance of earthly gifts, and the sincere love of 

s^fhlVTl """^ *.''"" ""■ "'''^■''•''"'■^ of the enemies; 
so that the cup of joy outweighs that of bitterness 
Jns' now. for mstance, I hav, returned from my w?lk 
carrymg m my hands a package of pics; one made of 
hsh, another of carrots; -got them without paying 
a penny, and they took such pier sure in wrapping them 
up ma newspaper- And if ,.y clothes have to he 
washed kmd women are fou.J (from our own circle) 
who w. I take them and wash them. But I my^d 

my Idor "' """"^ ""' "" *'"^ ""^ '" '">"' 0' 

R '^''' T*?,' " ^'"'* ^■"■P"'*'^ "y hut would be to 
Bons and Marusya ' Merely the heating of my little 
stove and bakmg potatoes in it would fill up many hour! 
with the most pleasant occup.iti The tin of which 

my samovar is .aade even reflects the moonlight 





«0« i.rm.E cRAND>tonrEn op rissm>, revoution 

''"■■;."?,""■"'■?''•• ""■' "- ""-iK'-t .'hininB » the cause of 
no la I.. „,l,„ir,ai„n. And th. „„a||. qu.H..r cupZr^ 
t..rn,Ki on one «i,l... - that i, my pantry and mv' 
.mull window,, co„,i„inK of a lot if li'uj "CJ"J. 

on tl e eh>p, of wood seattered u,«,„ the ,tove Thi, 
^ole „ open „„,, ,„„„, ,,,^„ ^J^ ZougM 

how many ,|,a, «„ not known, „ol, ha, any Idea 
But ne,ther I nor anybody else ohjects, since owSi 

George L.zareff to Miss Blackwell. (Undated) 
"I was so glad that Baboushka had found in the 
Z^'Zr,'^""'^'"'^' " very useful" a'n'd 
wonen legs. But the local authorities found he was 
too earnest and too frequent in his visits to her SuS 

w:"rthoi:r,h"'r?""'' """ '» "-^ re„l:rtest and 
°"m ^ / V '^*"'^'- •'^'"^ «™ ■■" despair. 

mat for? she cried. ' Miserable executioners - 
Send me to the devil, if you like, but why dTyou tor: 

raues. all those who approach me?' 

Everybody who came to see Imr ti, j 

rrt-i'tti ""■■" -t "-"-- '^^^^^^^^^^ 

came for. It made so much trouble, not only for her 

ner. It wus for th.s reason that she lived so lonir in 
a miserable half-rotten hut, which she like I Su " 

owner - the hut standnig apart, with the windows 

-.-•'- v«v.iaS 


lo<lKm,j. Af ' 1, , "'. " """■•■ «»»f<>r<al.le 

lu-t to ,lo iV % '•"■""'"■"ion. ,l„. ,|,w.|,,,| „t 

soirip native to .spend the „i,r|,f If l , ^ "' 

«on,e. of ,,„ poor clln.nuUsi, o r J, ,f T. ' '"Y 
hor how happy .,h.. wonhl 1 " (^U^Z tl ""^ 
legal ol,j,.ti„„ to it, hut l,..r .xp,ri w" ^U h " "" 

m her last letter she writes m*. f J...f i, i i 
her \odgins at ln«K ,.'^'* "''"'''* '^^e has changed 

neatly Ssh d " w ' Ar.r;'';' i" ■■" "•^- 
tion i. f„,fi„«,; ,H,x:is ht , ';":,,'r'■b:^p^^.'•^■ 
of one „, he/ ;e«:tr„ 'iTi't'rL^str";,-' 

co„ ortahle bath-tuh, .here .she cl:,!,":l'L7'ik 
realize tliu ideal, and is goin^ to install a home-made 

*-, I 





tin bath. I hope she is now so oornipted that in the 
next letter she will tell me of the realization of this 
great enterprise. She cherishes the idea thut her com- 
rades will find an opfMirtunity to» their |K)or bodies 
free of charge from time to time, and to enjoy them- 
selves in the most American style. You see. with 
money in hand it is possible even in the Russian hells 
to get some comfort. 

•* Vou know how strictly she is watched. They fear 
her escape from Siberia. Money sent to her all at 
once in considerable quantity would excite suspicion. 
The same sum of money divided into parts, and sent 
regularly and periodically, would seem of no impor- 
tance to the local authorities. There are many com- 
mon convicts who have rich relatives and receive 
much money from them. We could easily send to 
Baboushka $100. a month, if we had it, but only on 
condition that it was sent regularly. 

"There is no person in the world who can prevent 
her from doing what she considers her duty. Above 
all things, she bothers herself in visiting sick native 
people, in giving them good advice as to how to feed 
the children, and so on. Very often she carries them 
her milk, part of her own daily food. In answer to my 
reproaches for her unreal onable philanthropy, she 
mocked at me, saying that I was greatly mistaken in 
my appreciation of her conduct. She was a very sly 
old woman: by giving a trifle to these poor little 
wretches around her, in return she got more from them 
for herself. They are so stupid, she says, as to bring 
her all the sweets they can get in that arid region; 
butter, different kinds of berries, eggs, little cakes, and 
so on. They are stupid, because she is only one, and 

■|^«4 t'"'ri:. 


cannot give them miuh. but th.y are hundred, and e .y ht.le. hit by bit, they bring her a Rrmt d"»l 
And they help her with ,„ „,ueh „.„] Id Je^„ et n 
for her pretended attention), that »he can„"t w" 
accepting the gif„. 'So, i„ the long run, I 1 the 

-md good-nat,.red character ,he i» .sprea.lin^ e"^rv 
.ngTeoa""""""""^- "' ""'"'■'"'"■ -»"« '"'■ -^- 

„ Ml L """wusiiKii, Old. Ill, and u most ilvimr 

beria." ' " '°""' """"" '»»"< of Si- 

"November 1-13, 1911. 
" All my beloved friends ! 
"Like a queen in a palace, like a princess in an arm- 
cha,r. hke a scholar before a large table. surlnZ 
by magazines, papers, letters, and a lot of beautiftd 
post-cards ,s sitting your old Catherine, proud and 
happy, strong and ,vell. All October sh; wa., lute 
cnjoymg her new dwelling, where she is as comforble 
as one can imagine. A large room, divi led into four 
chambers, represents a house that would suit a perZ 
o much greater pretensions. It would take a grea 

a ^nJlenT xt l^'l^ tn"™''"- V- 
iT„ • ifitcr will announce only (\) 

hoT'J'"'\T"f *" """' '™™ o- "-"ef of my 

and 1 1 ne 7^7 rf "■™"^'' ""« ^'"""''ers 
a Ime of 30 feet) - 1 remain at home all the time. 

1^«„:J^ %l 





h.ivir,« no .UvHirr t« inkv voU\ „„,| tc. kK the influenza. 
Ihe siune eaii.e f(,rrr.l mv to order a »mlh, which will 
stan.l HI one of my chan.hers an<| will l,e heated by a 
hltle eiiKine. attached to one „f i|s ends, mo that the 
IravelmK of half a mil., to take a bath (an la-st winter) 
i» exclnded from my iiantinie. 

•'There i. ofdy one brick stove in the centre of the 
four r.M.,n.s. It is lar^c an.l without the aid of the 
<»« cobbl.r It wouM be difficidt to «et it ready. Thi^i 
old friend of mine retunud to his olfices near\nv ner- 
■soi; with the rc-turn of coM weather. Every morning 
ht. ,.s there to brin« woo.l. to ^H water, to clean an.l to 
brush all my apartments. Many chairs, manv tabh-s. 
one comm.,.le, ami a kitch.Mi with a fire,,hite"(an iron 
disc on which all can be c.H,ke.l) . . . „|1 that .l..,,ends 
on his activity an.l zeal. We have a samovar now, and 
drink tea together, but as for cooking, we .l.>n't occupy 
ourselves with such trifl.-s. My various friends bring 
m..'^ very often .'Ncry sort of food. 

" (2) I wish to tell you what I receive.l during Octo- 
ber from America, that great and benevolent country 
that fills my existence with surprises, caresses and en- 
dowments of all Many letters were received, 
and many The magazines reached me safely 
and were much rca.l by myself and by many othe.^ 
exiles, who, learning that I have a lot of them, ask for 
them from various parts of Siberia. I send them, 
bcmg proud ami conUmt. The two excellent books 
from Chicago, with a letter from my Starr, gave me 
real joy, for I longed for news of her. All mv visitors 
are surprised to see such a quantity of printed and 
written riches^ I only smile and enjoy it in my heart. 
iJut all the Russian material, except the letters, is 




UTTiE ,.n.,s,mmiM m- mssns hkv,,.., ti,.n «o7 

.:.:;.!::"/;;: r;::;;:; ::;:;■"'••- ■•'■•- ^•••■•• 

of il H„i ,,,v i', I ' "• '"■''"•'■ ' '"" '•"I'l"'! 

pun, of K„„ s,i„.ri„. /,y,w ;„/,'■'"'' "•;'' ""'"^ 

S™ ;;v,::-r;:;:';;:: '• -■ » 

you must only survey fli.. wn'rl- V * ' ^^"^ 

hr;n„ *u -y '*"7*> I'll' work of younij nconle nn*l 

»?C:j:;J;c:;" '"''■• --■'-^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

There IS a clmnff«« roncorni,,^ mv custofJv nnw 

out. TH..e„..:.i:::;-i:-— ';™'- 

to walk out of doors. What (I 

know ! I 

see only tliat lliev ||,ink 

v are afraid of. I don't 

like a cloud before tlu 

ir I'vvs. 

nie able to vanish 

The organ of the Nation/il \\oinan's Trad 

AJice Heniy, 

le Union League, edited by 

M'^- <.i 



i;.- ! 


To Mm. Biirrowfi. NovemlHT 8-<l, lOII. 

"Do you know wIhti- lh«- crHlw iirc wintering?' 
I »ee you «io, whilr «'xi4iniiiinK my nfw wnrdrobr. 
hrouKht to nw from thr jnwt ofHw yestcniuy after- 
noon. It was n Kloriou.H iifiparition, which tmrhuntwl 
nil the »M)yM that wcrr cKcupieil with thr matter; for 
the fmekaKe was hi« ami heavy. The mnnls '-ere m 
well wrapped that everything is as fresh as if just out 
of the shofi. Kven the pajMT and tlu- eanllwrnrd are 
iafe enough to lie used by our lM)okhind«Ts. Every- 
one touehed the stuff, and everyone was sincerely ffUul 
to know that grandmother will be clad as warndy aa 
one could desin-. I am sure the whole winter there 
will be examination an.l ajifireciation. It is the first 
time in my life that I have had such beautiful things 
for myself. This very letter I am writing enveloped 
in the delicious overcoat, fearing no frosts, weather 
or storm. The old cobbler. Platon, my faithful ser- 
vant when sober, laughed and cheered, examining the 
big shoes I received. an<l did not dare to touch with 
his rough hands the exquisite Jaeger's linen displayed 
on my table. 'Oh,' said he, 'did your friemls in 
America get the photograpli of your old cabin ? They 
would be as much astonished to live in it as we should 
be to wear such beautiful linen!' 

"Everything of best material and skilfully made. 
Even the duties were paici. So I got a quantity of 
foreign goods without paying a kopek for them. All 
this, thanks to persons who not only know where the 
crabs are wintering, but who can arrange the matter 

' A ftuuian proverb conceruiug people who know where to find the beit 


•o My that the receiver ha. no trouble; he ha* only 
to tiike and to use. ^ 

"Your* for ever." 
To Mi«. niackwell. NovemlHT «O^De«n.lH.r H, 19li. 

«.I^t'^!"'^ *'".''""'*•" "' *'"' ''"•»"* '^»«t»-« «re 
remarkal.h. for their energy and ch-verneHH ! Tl.o 

ean.,.n«n ...rru.l on in California by the M.ffraKi«t« 

w a whole ^,>^>,>ie in tlu- lif,. of your ,K^ph.. It is « 

H«uut, ul example for countries uhen« the ,K.litical 

n.t.tut.o„s allow jw-ople to act with an en.leavor .o 

largely «levelope«|. 

'The ,H.rtraits of Mis., Addams and Mm Black- 
well were .such a charming .surprise to me, .such wel- 
come guests among nu.ny others, many beautiful 
women In my room, large an<l convenient. I rtreived 
them all heartily, and, .sitting ah,ne during the long 
evenmg. m a corner near the .stove. I hel.l a long con- 
versation with both girls on a series of interesting topics 
which occupy my mind. ' 

" November W. For in.stnnce. since I got the leaflets 
about the work done by Denison House, I thought 
very often of the great <lifficulty of fulfilling as well 
as one wishes all the enterprises we take u,K>n us in 
doing .so many things at once. So much hard work 
and such large outlays do not show to the world the 
resets of a sane and clever education of children. 
^ nich question is the most .serious among that 
concern our race. And I am .sure that this question 
can be solved only outside of the life of the big towns. 
1 he children that have grown up far from contact 
with country life, from all that composes so^alled 
nature/ are only half of a human being in iU com- 


«I0 UTTU: Ci«.%M,McrniKH or Mt jwiav rkvomtion 

plH..m.M. Tin. rhiMr..,. of tl... w.ll-t.wlo Unvv thr 
|H»,,i .,l,.y „f ,nml.,.K »,u| ,,.!„« ,„„ ,{,,„ ^, 
-un.ry l,r.. AndvH llMy ar. not (on U,. whol.) 
«. r» ..mloH..,| „, ,1... ,,.il.|r..„ of furnH.r,. A* 
for 1... ,HH,r r|..|.lr..„. .Imv Kruvv n,, ,„ ,|,.. laru- ritJ..* I.I I.. u,M... ..vrr tl.inkJMu alK.ut ff... hrauhful „„.! 
nu,rv,.||o..H M.,.n..ry of il... ^rral worl<|. All our ifmit 
"un (.„ Mu-nn.. Ii,..rah.r.. an.l ..n-ial llf., arr nativ... 
«f tl..- provMH,.,; all 11,,. h..., ,.|,.,,,,,, „„. ,„„,j ^^^.,.^.^^ 
H.Tkrr. ,n ..vrry kin.l of vKJal m-fivity ar. ,H.,p|.. who 
Kn.w up O...M.I.. of ilu. c.a,.ifal riri,., a„.| lar«,. town. 
Ihm. an. ..xr..p,H.nH. «. always. h„t tl^.y „r,. m. f.-w 
hut I C.H.I.I not ,.„,. an ..xan.plr. In a country a. 
fnH.aM yours, why not n.ak.. .xpcrinu-nts. why not 
.vstahl.Hh sonii. n.stitutions (.s«„|s) f«r .xmr 
c»"Mn.n an.l .^ph,,ns in son,,, whoh-som.. c.n.ntrv .lU- 
net. wluTo a I tins lar^e fannly woul.l cuistltutV one 
arnuuK a.,,.... , ..n H... i Ik. ones wouM l.,,rn how 
o work, thr l„K«...t wouM an.l work at tho «ame 
tirtu.; M.vt.ral harulicrafts nil«ht flourish, hny. The 
arts wouM he n« every-<lay luxury. Such «„ institu- 
tion won hi Im. u splonchM prcH.f of the imssihility of 
proclucu,^ a raee of n.en ahle to be useful in every 
place and m every state of life. 

"I do not say that the settlements you have now arc 
not nm..s.s«ry I o.dy wish that your women mi«ht 
.Hhow th world what is the best nu,<le of education 
while we are living under the ctiuditioris of thi.s cent ry. 

"Dm'mber 4-17. 1911. 
I have a t^.te^^ram that I am to receive a pel.W 
and a watch. Never was I so rich. 

"Pray tell Helena I embrace her from my soul. 


UTrrK .;R.»M.M<mi»!R or mmxs ii»:vi.i.itios (|| 

Hj-r ki.l.|„r« h.-,„,.y in r.,„„,^,i.,„ „„, 
P".|.lc ,.r.. ,„y«l„. „,„| , .,„„., „„,, „ J\^;^ 

xt::.':;;,:;r''-^ • '- •""-' ■«• -•• "•••■"■'"■ 

da"!'„'l' ."■"""'."•''"' '" '"'"■ "'"■•'' >■"<" »"--" <•«" 

"I ..prr h™r,l of I,„|...|-. ,„„ ,„.,.,„ , 

To Ml- Duillry. Dcwmbrr I4-«i, Ion. 
"Oiir .l,.ar Kiipherni,, «n.l you will ,,.„,| ,„c „„. 
card, V..y kNuII TIu,- ^ivc ,.„.h «re«t u„.uLZ: 

•■But ll». k.kkI,„,, of my American friend.- grow, 
\.vs..-r. ay h.. „,„il l,r„„„l„ ,„., „ „„,,. ,.„^ i„Xh 



poHxlcT. cohl rr.«,„. an.l u hot lie for hot water 
remmcJed m. of Lucy Smilh's present, which I found 
once, on „.y table when I o<.eupied her room. I ."id 

IS very angel of u girl, and 
s her over and over." 

. "December 16. 

>\Tiere w.ll you go, what new work is to torment 
you farther? Dear friend, it is enough of sacrZe; 

be .so happy to embrace th., 
take her on my lap. i d kiss 1 




you must live as long as possible, and not wear out 
your heal h. It is a desolate situation to know one' 
best fnends on the verge of peril, and to be sure they 
never w. 11 take eare of their safety! I very often fe 
to hear that your health, that of Aunt Isabel, that f 
our Ahee ,s dechning. Many persons in your count. . 

toJr I" T I?"' ^^" *^'*"" ^''^ ^^P^'^'^"^' good 
to me, and so kmdly good that I became familiJr with 

fZ ?V. ^7"- "^ ""^^'•^tood and loved each other 
rom the begmnmg of the world. I am never sure 

Don' r t7 '°"^.^'*^"'"« »'«^ concerning your health. 
Don t thmk I am m the same condition as you are. 
I do not stram I have been working all my life like 
a bouthern ox (such as our peasants labor with) that 
goes h,s pace, no faster, no slower, never tired, but 
never „,uch at once ConsequenUy my strength is 
better conserved. The work of all three of you is. on 
the contrary, a work of race-horses, with the great dif- 
ference that race-horses are well nourished, very well 
looked after, and tenderly nursed, while you three 
run without rest, and without that necessary comfort 
of soul which can be gained only by a leisure which 
occurs often and gives us time to collect our thoughts 
feelings, impressions, and conclusions. I could not be 
myself without such conditions." 


George Lazareff to Miss Blackwell. December 80, 191 1 

They are under constant surveillance ^• 

the" evil riZ' Th "' "" "™"^ •'*P"™<' "f 

«overnn.™t:tt aftXt:: trveTr'""" '^ 
;n an appointed place, tC 4 ^ | "r,'; r t 

st rf :;;tt.^c:Linnv'r is 

not allowed to choose her place of residence nor to 
travel about, nor even to go freely through tt; s Tr«ts 
of the m,serable little town of Kirenskf and 3^1 
watched continually by police spies." 


'> I • - 




Picture card • to Miss Blarkwell. Decemh.r 30. 
1911 January l<i, Hj]o^ 

"This is the. ^rreatest festival of the Yakuts; the 
younK horses u.ll he killed, roasted, and eaten. 

A beautiful fur coat and a clock with a bell have 
been received. I renie.nher Miss VVald sai<J something 
about It. Mj^ thanks to her. The Christmas was a 
merry one. Nobody was hungry nor cold, - 1 mean 
my company. 

"La Follcttc's autobiography is beautiful, - a snlen- 
d,d „,„„. •Tlu. Eleventh Hour' ' that I s ,t to-day "s 
dear to my heart. Julia Ward Howe was a wonder." 

To Mrs. Barrows. January 5-18, 1912. 
"The Surrey was received, and your article on the 
pnsons read first of all. If you knew all the truth abou 
our places of confinement, what horrible scenes would 
engross your descriptions of what occurs there, where 
many, many thousands of our best youths are dying! 

„ ., , "January 11-24. 

of n,t n f Tu ^'"'' ^*^ *^^ "^^« '-^bout the death 
of our Dur and has come to me, and this letter of mine 
.s not fimshed. Why? Never alone! never alone! 

constant vT7 ' "' f ' ''^' ^"^ ""^^^^^^^ «-* the 
constant visitation of our people is the only good that 

can be done. From 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. I musf give al 

my attention to the needs of others, afr which 

articles. Thanks to the money I have received from 

^r:Z'j::2z w ' ^'^^^ ^ --^^ °' ^'^^'- -^- .u.^^, 

» By Mrs. Howe's daughter, describing her last years. 


my AmcTican friends, I eat well, I have had many 
comfortable novelties. And with n.y J„e,.er clothermy and a y«un« lady who takes n.e every 2 al 
no<>n I go out to walk and breathe the pure, 'fresh air 
Durland was a good heart. What a pity ! When 
I sec one of my boys failing. I suffer mich. I scold 
»u'm often and hard. I never knew you had a so„ 
>.forc you wrote it n.e this autunm. How g^d I Z 
UMsagoodboy! Mabel is a noble soul. I remem cr 
her, anu her husband too, though I saw him onlv once 
E^'Ty corner of your residence in New York I remember 
as well as if I had seen it yesterday." '^'^^'''^^^ 

Doctor Tchaykovsky to Miss Blackwell. January 20 

1912 • 

"Baboushka writes; 

"•I should be quite contented hod I by my side 
always a dear female face and a kind hear[. /or an 
dd woman hke myself, often ailing, there is nothing 
more soo hmg than a caressing female hand. To help 
m he bath, m the bed, to hand food or drink, to sew 

no s'uch r, " ''"'.' 'r ^"' "^^ ^^^^'-^^ but I have 
no such darhng, and there is no chance to get one 

here. It ,s true, it would be very lonely for her to 

stay here with an old woman like me, always exacUn^ 

correctness economy, foresight, and other vTrtues 

If 1 could have her at least temporarilv. just to stav 

with me, so that I could feel by my side'one who^s 

quite near to me; some one who could take care of 

me mstead of my always taking care of others. It 

s true there are many here who remember me, who 

try to serve me or to bring me something nice, but all 

this IS done occasionally, in a hap-hazard way, and it 



often happens that I have either too much of every- 
thinK. or nothing at all. There is no constant eye 
watching how I behave myself. One often needs to 
get something, to send somewhere, to run to the post, 
to the shop, to an outdoor cupboard, etc. Of coursi 
one could do all that one's self. But I am not what I 
used to be. In short, I am too old.' 

"And again on December 12-25 she writes: 'What 
I said before about a female friend, of course refers 
to one who would not be worried by staying with an 
old woman, who would be prepared to stay here, say 
a year, or at least half a year; would forgive me my 
grumbling, and exacting correctness and economy (but 
not greediness or meanness, of course) in everything. 
Where one could find such a treasure, I don't know. 
On the other hand, it would be as useful for her to pass 
through a school of care and attention to her neigh- 
bors, for it would not be of myself alone that she would 
have to take care here, but of many others. 

"'I received yesterday twenty rubles, and at once 
bought butter and sugar — the greatest expenses 
here. It is remarkable how particular our boys are. 
Those who have work or a position will not touch food 
in my hut, but only those who are unemployed." 

To her friends at Wellesley College. February 10, 


"Wellesley College gave me one of the greatest 
pleasures I ever experienced. When I was there. I 
found one of the most beautiful institutions I ever 
saw. The establishment itself is perfect, furnished 
with all the improvements of the last word of pedagogy. 
But what charmed me most of all was the body of 


teachers and When, after the few words I 
«poke I jat with my cup of tea in the Ton where 
a hundred dear youn^ faces looked at me with f^ll 

with ;;'; y"^^*^^'/ ^^-'^ - eh..rfui «:; aX 

with a 1 that surrounch.d me. I had at once so manv 
f^elin?^ T u '""^^ '^^""^'^^'^ '- -M>ress. " many 

eaveTh . "^"''^'' '^'' '' ^''^^ ^"^ ^ard for Tto 

leave the dear society when it was announceci thaT the 

horses were at the door. ^ 

"If words came as readily as ideas and feelinirs I 

could say ten hundred kindly things. ^ 

"'I would be true, for there are those who trust me- 

I wou?d h ^P"'-^*'/- there are those whoca^e: 
7«"'d he strong, for there is much to suffer * 
I would be brave, for there is much to Sare.' 

and laugh — and love — and lift.' 

life, all i^"r^hT.'"^ '^ "^' ^""^"'^^ *^^ •^-' ^^ - 

"'Is thy burden hard and heavv? Do thv steD<, 

drag weardy ? Help to bear thy brother's burden ! 'l' 

-Be noble! and the nobleness which lies 
In other men, sleepmg but never dead. 
Will rise m majesty to meet thine own.' 

"^nV"'^^^ ^^''' ^"^^ ^^"th bm-ns low. 
And men are timid grown. 
Hold fast thy loyalty, and know 
Ihat truth still moveth on.' 

"•Kind hearts are the gardens. 
Jiind thoughts are the roots, 
Kind words are the blossoms, 
■iiind deeds are the fruits.'" 




I f 




"Theso words nro in 'Tlu' Cnlondnr of Friendship' 
received from a deiir friend. I quote these golden 
words not only for their beauty, but also I have ex- 
perienccMl them all my life as an irrevocable truth 

"After my visit to Wellesley I received many tokens 
of friendship from its inhabitants. 

"I pray you Iwth, ehler and younj? ladies, pardon 
me for my lon^ silence. I recognize my fault and feel 
ashamed. Oh ! my ignorance of your beautiful lan- 
guage makes me miserable very often. For I desire 
to speak with you, to correspond with the American 
women whom I esteem and admire now more than 
ever. Their energy in all they undertake is wonderful, 
and IS an example to the women of all the world. 
"Accept my greetings, lovely ladies, and pardon 
" Your friend 

"Catherine Bres^kovsky." 

To Miss Dudley. February, lf)12. (Written on the 
back of a picture postcard representing Jesus 
before Pilate) 

"Pilate, after having heard what Jesus said to him 
asked with a smile of doubt, 'And what is truth?' 
So many and many people, wishing to preserve their 
independence of action in things that flatter their 
tastes and the weak sides of their characters, make 
the same suggestion, in the hope of withdrawing them- 
selves from any responsibility towards the requests of 
humanity. And yet the truth is born with us, and 
he m the souls of all sane people, and teaches us to 
love our fellow sisters and brothers, and to do to them 
the best we desire for ourselves. And we see that only 


-Mil jjt,, 

'^-m ''m'- *i'-" - ¥!# . < 



UntE CRANDMOniEn OP RrsstAN nKVO,.,T.ON 211) 

Mt«.m..d, and happy ..y,.,, ,„ ,1,,.;^ ,]i,tn.^., .. 

To Mi„ Bl«ckw..|l. February «4-Maroh 8, 19I«. 

"Women-, enfranol,i,oment, afu-r the Chinew rev 
olu .on, ,s ,n „,y „p,„,„„ ,„.. «„,te.,t event "f our 
c.ntury. as reg„r.|, ,„,|Uie„| refonn. P„r anf sure 
O,.. enfranelnVmen. of „„„„.„ „„,,t ,,„ lUj^Cl 
»tore of new reform, f„r ,|.e welfare of I„,1„h7 " 

full ! '■" T"""-" ''"■" "» ''"y ''••«"""•»« '."" b«-n 

full of nnraculou, even.,. One can live „1,|, p|emv 

of sensation,, w,|,„„t even .akm^ p„r, in a| th"^ 

the old prejiulicos and evils I fhml, u • u , 
this fflPi.Ifv «f • . "'^ '* "* thanks to 

this facdty of pursuing m my inmgination the course 

around me, which makes L m^thef ^I" iS 

circulation. This state of things keens mv n„„5 
awake. I stay like a watchman on my p?t over 
seeing on every side. And when we ad^l to all Th ," 

n need nn! " T' """''"'>' '° "">'« who are 
m need, one can understand why I do not fe,.l „ . 

down or mournful. Not one of o^ir exHes t sr richt 

^h.H, , "1 ^'^"'^^ '^"^""''" '^ 'I'lilc right in saving 
that he found me in Selenginsk iacking'all LZZ 





forts I enjoy now. An<l my luxury of to-<lay comes from 
America. For my RuHjiinn friendi would not l)e able 
to semi me ho much money and such beautiful things. 
"This month is a cruel o e: cold nnd wind day and 
night. The winter is so lung and unn'let.ting (frost 
and snow the whole eight months) that we forget the 
feeling of better weather, and the summer, the two 
months of warmth, seems to us a far-off dream. 

"Professor Ely and his wife! I sw them boJi at 
a party, or a musical evening, when the young miss, 
his bride then, stood on a tabaret and sfKjke nice 
things, and we stood around her. I recollect, too, 
how angry Mr. Ely was with me, when, confused, I 
could not speak on my life in Siberia and at Kara. 
Everything about the Americans I remember as 
clearly as if it were yesterday. First. I was eager to 
see, to hear, to understand the characters, customs, 
all the ways of life ; secondly. I was so pleased to find 
a friendly reception, so pleased! To this day I am 
always surprised to be welcomed, beloved, cherished. 
Therefore every token of friendship and love is to me 
like a new happiness in my life. I have always wished 
and strained to deserve my own respect, and that )f 
honest people, but I look upon this as a duty common 
to every rational being. 

"I am afraid Lucy Smith is gone. What a sacred 
heart it was ! A very saint. I am afraid about Helena, 
too. She is always tormenting herself with the thought 
that she does too little, giving all her life for others, 
and yet imagining herself not worthy enough. I do 
not think so about myself. I look at it in this way : 
Everyone must endeavour to be useful, but nobody is 
obliged to do more than he can. 

To Mks Bhulcwfll. Murch 14^7 19H 

«iM t..k.> .imny y,,,r, „f ,„.r,,.v..r,ni( ,.fr„r , t,. T ' 

.ix or ,,.v..„ ,,';;, t "." "":'• '"";'""« "" 

cravan run, v.-ry ,. r f.l. """ " ""''''■ ^^ 
im state „f „ur roails. alwnvs Iui.I Tl... ]mi 
bel H ring f„r „„,| |„u,,, ,„„, ,;„ , ,7;, ;,.. "'; '""'' 

riwuo the same ansKiT: •Not r,.„lv i , 

treat the public l,ke m.ruders. that have no right to 

I f .. 


m I.ITTI.K c;ram)mothrr of vamKS revolition 

Houth. I forluulr hiT to ,lo it. ami ««! f.,r answer- 
^o.,r i)r..l,il„Hoii nitn,. t.H» lah'. I ha.l alrnulv ankr.! 
for your lr«t„f..r to a l,..s n>|,| ph«,.. r.-iriV,.,! tho 
nply: ''L.t Inr thank (io<Hhat .h. is in Kirmsk an.l 
no farth.T norll,.- W.. ami I ,|,i„k I .Im.uM 1... 
fartluT north hut for tho tokt-n. of fri.n.lship I kH 
If m your country. 

"In sonu. .lays it will W Kasfr. I am already prt-- 
punnK pastry an.l nu-at for ,ny fMK.r Ku.sts and mv- 
«df. N..W that my oxctllrnt Flaton is too often 
•unwell ', r have taken a youn^ j^irl into tlu' house ; she 
dwells with me and serves me. Fifteen vears old 
.shr couhl not read or write, so I am te«<'hinK her' 
I hen she .sews elofhes for h.^rself. and makes flowers 
to ornament her parents' home. She is a Siberian 
nativ*.. of SlavomV raee. But the Russian p..asants 
thnf hav,. itdmhited Siberia for centuries are very from of Russia. Here they become 
rouKh, laekuiK in benevolenc:- and Kratitu<le, and aU 
ways suspicious. It is the result of a severe struK^le 
with wild surroundings, and of the fact that ever 
since Siberia came under the Russian government, the 
officials sent to rule it have been those who could not 
be tolerated even in Ru.ssia. Those who are too bad 
to be endured there are sent to Siberia, and reign 
here without any restraint. In consequence the 
natives look on everyone coming from Russia as a 
scoundrel and a brigand ; for Siberia is the place where 
all the convicts are settled. No wonder the 'Tchal- 
dans' (the nickname for Siberian pwple of the Sla- 
vonic race) have a strong prejudice against anyone 
who comes from Russia, and it takes time before the 
best of them are trusted. Now, the number of good 

UTTU: CilUM)M„|,u:H Of lll«,AN HKVOI.ITIOX «.| 

"'" """ '""■• '""'''• " r;.v„r,>l,|,. i,„,,r,,,i„, ,„, „* 
P..|."l« ...„. ,„„| „.,. iMl,„l,i„„„, ,.„. ,,., „", ", 

'f ih- «i,„i,. „i„», .,f •p„ii,,v„u/ w.. I,,,;,. „,„„v 

X ;:;: "f- r-: • '"■■"•^- ""'"'i-.^ -^i ' 

Am.I l„.r,., „h,.r.. „.,.„|„.r „„,.„, ,.^,.^, „,„;,,,,';'■ 

ou'r":: :""":"■ •"•■ ' •'"• i- i- ■ I'':,- 

.rri?;;!i" '"■"""'"' '"" ■""'"•!■» '"'» ''""n! I have 
!"""•""' your a«,,„„i „f ,-,, ,„„, ,-, .^^ , ^ 

will, „i,r I , 1'"^"" I"'-- I Wl' her ri,niiinK 

■III, mir Ju,,,-: |„.r f,„,, „ r,„,,„„, m^ "^ 

js h..av..n Tl„. ,.|,il,| i, „ .,,,„,„,| .,f „.e ,, " „ u e 

gros^ional r..u„io" 3 . " .'""■, ""'■"^'"« »' » fun- 

K >l«™ and her scvitc cxpr,.,,,,,,, »„,! ih„„ 

1 - her among h„ tt.nd.. aLin,a,ing ,he'„'ho,: 



tIw . 



froup. giviri« intrrt.i.!iriK nrw. ami r„mm..n!,, iiunir- 
ing UuHM. ttrournl hrr with « In-nrvoUt f.vlinK tow«r.|, 
«ll hf wurKI. Now th«. I knew hH,. h«, « «,m,M.nion 
m luT Mm. I im«Ki,u. her wttlkJn« with him in th« 
roffit. With «,.Hr«hinK vyvn and iin.u,,.,! min.l. tryinff 
to rH'tiHrut.. into |h.. Mnrvin „f „„,„r... Sh.. i. f«r 
from any tnmhl,.. ami.|,l thr iHautifi.l «n.| «il,.nt 
rrcution. iind h.r i»«ul in wttn.l.-rir.K i„ CuhW rvgUm. 
• . . It wouhl \h' ho wi-II. w wtH for thr voiifh of 
I'vt.ry country to h«v.. « full ,h.,cription of' h.r lif... 
which ha> Imv„ hii unint«Truptc..| cour.M. of rruHonahlc 
la»M»r HU.I nohlr anions u m.uI full of love an<l vnvrgy. 
Ui'T («,<| must hv Hiiiint\vi\ with su.h a .lauKhtrr Such 
a wonmn in to hr chcKH*.,! h.h a umhIH. for sUv hnn not 
only i.r,.a(h.u| all h.-r lif... I.ut also ootc'd. She haa 
novtT iHvn lirnl. or m-vrr iHTnuft.-.l lursrlf to bo m 
an. ft I sh,. ,.ouIc| Kivt. away «he ha.s Kiven. A rare 
antj Klcahslical txample." 

To Afrs. Barrow.H. March 31-April 13. 1012. 
"It is long .since I ha v.- seen such a colhrtion of 
bravtN w.tty. an.l .sympath,.tic men em in 'The Moral 
Citadel. It n'joiced me the more since, except for 
a dozen excellent characters. I had n..t the oppor- 
tunity to make .so ckse an acquaintance with American 
men as I had with the women. I .saw that the men 
were so occupied with their business, always .so .serious, 
and I dared not approach them. Certainly such men 
as Profe.s.sor Kly and the youn^ students in New York 
1 felt to b<. good friends ; and I looke.l upon Mr 
Barrows with veneration, mir.ffled with fear of being 
a burden Now that I know his life of devotion 
and love for all humanity, his beautiful face, yes, his 

.._J5j£!''i I 


.^.u.|. no. ,„ ,wo:;;t..r:,;:;i;\i;:;;:"" 

"l h. V • '"• " ''">' «'""' '"""'.V of our „.„„|,, 

ing, and hearinr h ' / • "' '"°'" ""* '" P'-*'"-^^!- 

ont ha., htr rt :rtr: rJ ':"y- . f -'-^ 

an answer. »"rrows 10 tell me, and to get 


a^ :■*' 

i "' "J., 


"As for my h,.„|th, it i, gcKxl whil,- I ,,it „( homr 

«>l<l. but ,t „ enough for me to hrealhe a eol.l „irto 
bcKm to »„,,.,e and to have miserable brine" til 
It very abonnnable. but with n.ilder „eath„ mv 
health will be restored. >"U"Kr my 

"I have received this printed,l • • Tl.„ u i 
Spirit of the Spring is working sil™U- • The .^ '' 
■s done with much taste I'sh I „ri. ^ '"."""« 

si'tii; %:r '"T ^^'^'^'^^'Vi^jt 

thaUhey ean receive mail only onee a year! Wet 

Picture postcard ■ to June Barrows Mussey. April 4- 

15, 1912. 

little^'pa^rl/"'"^ r" ' '^''^ '^'^ "<■"«"'" «« 
eatmg them with great pleasure. But thev wnrfc 
very hard every .lay, and have no time to do mueh 

M^n'y of th^htr ""T '" ""^ '»'"»"•"« P-- 
iviany of the little pawns have excellent capacities- 

;»r ^'liiTol'-i^:- '-^ -"- «' '^e ^^ 

*,j ,, "June 2-15, 1913. 

1 would cross the ocean like these ducks to <^ 

Z fsZ: ^t^ 'r''^ ^"^ *^ ^-'"^^^^ *'- 

^^ " "°^- Tell her that Catherine is well walking 

^1^^;:^:^^- >- -etabies-t^t^'r 

' The picture shows three peasant children picking fruit. 

y^n V J 





To Mks Dudley. April S-16, 1912. 
"Your letter gave me great joy. Dearest irirl » I 

J"u fimi there many M,: of life which are too tJl 

K , '"vtsiigating their mode of life and fJ.n.v 
i-tio„ „, ou .«i';t'^J,r'',f,'''7'>oleor«a„. 

'the otherTa f^"';?f "'""'' f';^''"'/"'"' "ork amidst 

mind and h™!^' ^ ^"^^'"^ "'"'^- " P'™" of 

atal of thtr J' J."^ ""•' """'^-'■"''l "t once the 
nnt k„ I ?!' """''' '•'^'ations and needs With 

th ^^l Ttl^'t •»"«^'- ^°" - «-Hy Se 

world is now div^r^^- ^." """ "^ "* ""<* "«" "-e 
to makeT . '"'" *™ P""^^' '"«' *»! we have 

thaHn: part ^T*' '*.' ""'^ ""^'^ ^^^ --• «oo! 

does Zt S "'"'^o: ,''° ^"^ ""■' ,"'••" 'h^ other 

once the Zl f. ' ' ,' . """■'' '" ''o' "ut, when 

people have found out the place that makes us 

■ 4 




Therefore c,u,,e "p,!^ ^L^:::^^' ZT r""'"*' 
and workmen that need to beTnform T , '*'"'"'' 

or poesy, - a naked truth "^ " '"■■ ''"-^^ 

your' n^;::; firw-r, t" ' ""• "- ' - -- 

attention to 'riabor ' Si''"!;""'' ''^™'^ """' 
only you will „„t speedCyol/hoU/IdT' K 
your forces so that you will be.lZuT ''"■"'' 


.r 'inTrso:! tf tt - -'-^'^ '""'^-^« ™'''-' 

experienced":^:,;"hl\hrZdf7:"""'/ '■''''' 


urge a"l vo„r n ^ '"'''"' '=''°^™- Therefore I 

h"f th ZleZZlL" ^""^ ""^'^ ^"^'■«"' ''■"l 
they should be'^titHrt^'^f ^' 

't I""" K' 

#'ifU^ r' 




To Mrs. Barrows. (Undated.) 

thr^Jr ""'^ '""""f ""''y ^°°^ ^«"»^» here (exiles too) 
that take care of me Mominc « v^xies too; 

they come to make a^l riit a„7^^ ' ""^^ "'^'^*' 

r»„ • V I •^'Kni. and to prepare mv {nn,\ 

One wished to remain with me to nur* me L, }' 
was arrested and turned out of the eabTn / k„ w h 
would be so for any one must have a social nermi 

even if she had had one, it would have been the same 

do^-an^Ti^r 1 Te ttU T'^ "^- "' ""^ 
of a these villainies, fori Tn'ot aint'Xur.C 
I think how good peonlo iro to «, • . " , "^^'"- 

■oveand frieLhi;:. nht.*:hr;er;aT„:at7m;' 
enemies verv an^rv on,i tu • »»aKes my 

^y feelings, my phHosoXf ^ 'Z rr;!' oTe" 
Never mmd Verv soon T shnii k n " "^^ 

danein<r Ti, a r . " "" '^ell, prancing and 

lettos fuli?f • t '' rf ""'^"* ""' receive long 
letters full of jokes and foolishness. 

I am annoyed to be careful about my health T 
want to feel joyful and strong. It i, mv h,h,t .K 
wise I am angry with myself.^ An'd U sTms t'me tt 

disrgrS.. SuraTadTtat""^ T^ ^^"^ ^"^ 



thVne""^" " """ '"«' » ^"^ '.-" ».ttin« on . 

for the rest of n.v ut n ""^iwr, to remnm strong 
woes, „„ ' , Zl ^'^'^ ^""^ "'" '«•'"• my 

Krowmg more and more interestiL it- i. . '" " 
It. Do you wish so fn„ "'"™"n«- I wish to witness 

young pf.p,e":i;:v.™ r:\Vr f" ■"■m""'"^ 

brave, and we want ,o se:7hem acting '""""""^ """ 

JJo not address voursplf t,^ tu \ 
heart, no reason in thrtons U T' '""', ^'"" '"> 
interference make, th "^ "'" "'''''■'• ''°- Your 

I know -butt yZ oZr^'V'"' '"^ ™"«''' 
lur your own tranquillity." 

To Miss Blackwell. Juno 6-U. 1912 
"ne thing causes me sorrnn, i. • ,i 
that the name of Lnev St , '" ""^ *'«"'«ht 

young gener;ttnprou„ec™rr°"\r'' """ *'"' 
by heart, without understan^ni r"""' "*""" ""'^ 
it is. mo could heUer Xe h 1^ ^'f' ""'' '"''^ 
so clearly and sincere vh ''*' "'''° ""'''' '<■" 

beautifuU ho"w Sac .VeThi ZlC^^ ""» 
ber so well in thp nnrf.„+ • ^^* ^ remem- 

you have a wit a'lTdX'^ZnTtL''"^ '"" 

and those of t^da vv lu . t ''""f ''^ y°" """her 

ful picture of enLvn "''■'""''' ''™"<1"- 

exercised by aVomf 'thai "T"'' ""'' ^^"-''™'''' 
y woman that won her cause by her own 


i*- it 



'^ ■ ^m 






to leave the worW JthZ^^iJ^^T "" -""'" 
your noble and beautiful IZr Y™ h ''""'''^°' 
to rob posterity of „ieh ,.T .^ ''"'■"' "" "k"" 

.vet too rich in beam^uT T' "'""""'V ■» "ot 

to u» a. lar,;,; rHr^t^r ti^h^v";™ 

u. such images as can inspire ul t:l*°u!"^^ '^'^ 

..T. , . "June 11-24. 

often'o'u" oMir'arlt '""^ '"''■ ' '"'- "- 
"Once .ou'St tL'V h ;m iPrr", 
representations which arc given onlvi„ , ? '™' 
lowest tastes, our frivolities I T„ -"'"'y, ™'' 

and never would recommend them toTh'ild "'"i 
young people, understan.ling thar^wn '^^^ Z» 
go to such spectacles nnl^ ♦« * ».»"wn people will 

b ^ murbad liLt ""■ '"■''' *'■* °"'y ■•™™« there 

« healthy, i^l^K^t.^T'lT' ""f "'"■^•' 
no. would prefer what is go"„d, SirThtu^ 

fles whi^h'^ 'rc"hV" "'-'f •'-■"M tt 
progress. "^ *'"' '"'"•<' <'<'«oat« traits of 

ve^^ite"!'^'- f ""'""' " '"'« f"-^- of mine. It is 





r* i 


"The skirmish and all the wrongs that are committed 
during the election time wring my heart. I cannot 
read the description of it witliout suffering for a free 
country. Oh, if we had what you have already ! But 
it is our own fault. 

"We have had some warm days. I am sure there 
will be more, and there will be time enough to get 
strong and beautiful (!) before winter comes. Just 
now my cheeks are red and brown, my feet alert and 
gracious, my mind full of hope. A magnificence of 
different sorts of flowers are brought to me as splendid 
bouquets by our boys, who are climbing the mountains 
and searching the forests and valleys. A very rich 
flora, but for a very short time flourishing and orna- 
menting the rude and monotonous nature of the 
country. I cannot leave the town, and cannot breathe 
the air of the fragrant vegetation of the forests. But 
we have so many flies in our town, and other atrocious 
insects in all the houses, that it must be taken as a 
compensation for the want of living beings, inhabitants 
of the immense spaces surrounding us. 

"Oh, if you were as well and strong as I am, not- 
withstanding all the defects and deprivations of my 
liberty ! 

"Miss Addams is always in action, and many other 
women, the pride of your country. Certainly, when 
once we get our rights, we shall prove our fitness. It 
was proved long ago. But, for my part, I think never 
was given such an excellent answer on the sufTrage 
question as was given by Clara Barton, that majestic 
and wonderful woman." 



J ■■"■ 


To Arthur Bullard. July 4-17, 1912. 

" Le monde xe reveille** 
"Yes, politics in America, as everywhere. {^ more 
hopeful now. I am very eager to be aware how great 
IS the progress in your country, being sure that its 
example, will have a world wide significance. The 
thousands of immigrants that invade your country 
will promulgate the reforms made there in their own 
native lands, for many of them are only temporary 
toilers m the United States. Therefore all the news 
concerning the state of political questions in the 
Lmted States (the eleK-tion of the president included) 
IS a matter of great interest to me. 

"The book about Pananm is a rich pi(x-e of literature 
for people who have a poor idea of what the physical 
and social life of the place is. 

"As for the 'ineffectual reformer', as you call him, it 
IS exceptionally interesting. I am waiting for it Per- 
haps I guess the character that may be the model of 
the man you describe. I remember a figure anoug 
the people of your set, very long, somewhat dull and 
melancholic, walking like a person of a world apart, 
buch figures are familiar to me, and I have learned to 
perceive through the outward loneliness and melan- 
ctioly of their faces, an emptiness of mind and feelings 
i-ardon me if I am wrong in rvgard to your hero ; but 
1 never saw courage and abnegation combined with a 
lack of enthusiasm and faith. I think that a true 
exposition of the before mentioned character in his 
efforts to be useful to mankind will be of great profit 
to your readers; showing how little or nothing a man 
can do who is not sure enough of what he is doing 

LhM "b .'""■"'""■' 7" ">">■<■ loo; it cannot «,t 

To a Friend. July, 1919. 

io'Jz r th' T"'"* ^'''' .""■' »•"" ''"'«■ '*" • p'"- 

oMpntr on the happine,, of your frk.nds wi.h„.,t 
bU cm™, enjoying their fa„,i,/,i,.. ,, ifTt'le^^t 
o»n UellJ you are young; y„u will choo.«. a nice 
wo'k'nR ..uffragi^t. who will embellish youTufe S-' 

dtiTi^;- ""■'" '""'"^- "»»- -"■•"<r « «-t 

hllf!!; l-?.^""" '° *° """■" ">"" " thousand nule, 
half of which they will travel on foot, and eating ^„W 
bread and tea. The boy, and the two girl? have 
recently finished their terms in the har,lIbo 'prf ^ 
and yet they are young, fresh, and full of hope TOey 
«e enthusiastic enough, and will reach their ends " 

To Mrs. Barrows. August 6-19, 1918. 
"life and labor suits me as well as the best 
Buss-an magazines for it is simple and noble! 
!r,A AT '.,'*"•''''* photograph of myself, very like 

Picture postcards to June Barrows Mussey. August 

17, 1914. 

"You see in this picture a horde of ancient Cossacks 
when they formed a nation of their own, andw^^ 
really brave and independent. Free as hey ^re 
they elected every year a new chief, a colonel.™^ 


mM all eh-ir „ff„ir,. W,,„ ,h.. „., 

look pl„„s ,h, ..,..,,;.,, ,,,„,,, ,,,„„^., ^ ;"-'-" 

ch„,..„ Alanmn- „|| ,„,. Mi..,. „r j..„..u. whuh w!^ 

«n<l « «W, of h,.nor for tl,.. ,„.r,o„ ,h„t k,.,,, ,h,.,„ 
ho. my d,.ar Kran.l,on, I will ,„,„,„„•, ,„ 1,1 'J-^ "; 
m of my bent «.„tim..„l, „ml thought,." 

OctolM-r iO-Novembor », 191«. 
"You «,| that thi, boy lako, hi., toy for a living 
hear. He „ a little afraid „f him. yk coura«™u! 
enouKh to encounter him in a H«ht. L olU^ZZ 
-fe we are mi.slaken. taking quite ehil,li,h IhinZ 
tnfle,. for «„ou» or dangerou, eircum,tance,. and we 
waste our fme and fore,.., about non.,en.,e. S^ nit 
cry unless you arc badly hurt, and never be a coward " 





Goow U7an.|T (., Mr-, n«rrow». N-.,v,.„,l«.r 8. IBM. 
'•Aft.T tl... ,M.„.Tfi,l slriko „| tl„. |^.„„ „„|,, , 

:r :::," ,:•;!■;'", ;• • '■;■■",• »■ • -' ''.".i- 

wort sl,„|, k, l,.,l „,„| w.,u.„l,,l. „n,| „|| tl,o „„|i,,>,,| 

kovsIv^'iT "7'".'"'" "■'"^'"•' "' ""'''""<■ »«-»h- 
ami phot„Kru,.l„, l.ut lal.r r.l„rn.-,l t|,o,„. She U 

net m „rg„,„^„,^, ,,,|„ ,„, „„, ,j,,^ 

population, riie whole ,K,pulati«n love her, and this 
agam excle, fresh snspieion on the part of the p^li^ J 
»™d her reRnlarlv forty rubles a month " (a liuk^ore 
than twenty ilollars). ""'' 

With three pieture posteards sent to Miss Dudley. 

from a It'' fi" " 'y"''-"',«"«"'" •"'"'-"t. .She come, 
from a far-off provmee. hves on ei„ht or ten dollars pe- 
.nonlh^ and ,s stn.lymg day and ni^ht. till she grow, as 
lean a, a dyng woman. She wears these clothe, 


I -! 



UTIXK .;R,».M.Mot..KK ok »t,»,.VN H,:v„,,T,ON «87 

";;'"""' "■;'' ""■"' ^ 'ill "h- .nl.!,,-, M.,„.. ill,,,.,, ,.„„ 
"fl-n f„i„l. SI..- wi,|„., ,„ ,„. ,„ . , ' "'"• ^"y 

. .J.-<-t. n... ,„,„„..r .,f ,|,i, ,,i..,„„. i, „ „„„,„,„"'" 

' "•"< »ith lh.,r h„,l„„„|,, „,|,..„ ,,„„,. 1,,.^,. 

.W,CK a„, v..,v ..r , ,.. ,.„ ,„.r.!: , 

in«y arc. s«> moj rsf. so,,ii< ,.i ... , . 

K >ir^ narci. ror all „f fhrrii haw to ram iI....'p 

.i..n*of wZltr;'"''"?,;:::!;:;' ,""' ■:■■ ',"• :•••"•-■ 

" "K' . iitriicart is riot irloivirnf K,,t 

forllT 7' "'"'"■■•' " '"'"■ >■""«' ''.V -""■« ' • card"' 
lor all our bovN are verv fntwl r.f ,. i •• "« ^^arus, 

pathetic f„«.. or la„,i;,.po,' " ' ""■' ■^*•■"- 
are L "^Zi:^ ^li;!:^' "■""' •" """'""' '" ""- 

" ^^'•S'OUtof the village, running 'horovod.' A 

* ' 


IM UTTIK <;RAM.M.m,K|, OK HI «,m.n HgvoLlTION 

k"-. owly ,„.„..„« ..,,,1 ,i„^i„^ .,„, „ ,.„^^ 
1 M II... .„,„m..r .„„ ri«, „^,.j „ , , 

>".l.n. ,.„.l ,„„r, |,v,|.v .|„„„., „„i„„„, „,, 

jrr....... wh..r.. ,..„.,|.f„l ,„.„,„„,., ,..,r „,„, riX~; I 

».i.i iH.,„«, «... „ „.ri„„, „„,, „,,„,,.^, .,i,„.„,i';"" " 

To Mi« l)u,||,.y. at„l«.r (1 II), ifti J 
of W.. Ie,l..y ( „||,.K, . And Kll,.„ Fil. I'..„.||..,„„ wh„t„U ,.elur..l .her., i, lik.. ,hc ,.«„.«. „"Z 
h«„,m„l: j„y. lK.«u.y, „„,| f.,,,,-,,,,. Sorry tCre«» 

Ul.l™ at which th.. „i„. 1,|.,„,| h..„.|, I «.; dun'^mJ 
»h„r, v!,i. at th.. college an. working. * "^ 

. How forid I ,m of the urtick., G^rirc Kcnnan !. 
pvu-g o th.. Outiook, All h.- ,ay, uZ,lTZ I 
-MTT.... with to ,h,. la,, word. For I hav . h, ,h~ 
«« with other p.x,ple,. who,., p, • ., 1"".: 

tr„„«o to the whole l»dy of our nalio^ I„w we 

nil .. ?■*■ ""'^ '"™"'"'" """'"d a, in every 

ot „°u"rL 't:'"'" T •" !•""''"'• "" -"'■"« '-™ 
dWerrt ""' " ""^ """••■• "'^' ^^'^ «« 

rk *^"'i! i'*^' "'' '^"- '"'"•"■'■'< Lawrence and Mi« 
Chr^tabel P.dd.ur,t; very agreeable pictur". but" 

UTTiM i;R\N|)MiiTIIKH OI' riwiax rkxhition ^0 

»h«>ul.l r'" thrm now. nfl.r nil the Milf.Tiniri thry 
hiive ex.. tHi lhc.«o liwt yvuTH. Thvy do not lnu«h. 
luul thfir rlutkii art- nit-iiKr.. nn.J ,m|,.. f wouJiI not 
folbw thorn. y,.t I cnrinot l,hiini. llu-tn. for they iirf 
siiuvri' and dUtrnuM^I. I „„.„n that, with the entrKy 
of KiiKli-HhwoMHii. un«l thi- lur^r iKi*»ihiHty of ciirfyin« 
on thfir j)ri>imKan.hi. the wonu-ii c-ouKI work their 
way out without niiHtnnry run to the extrenu-. 

"A* to the wnr in the BoIkan«. I winh it would end 
the Hordid question, the soHuHed 'Eiwtem quesUon.*" 

On u |)irture poHtoard : 

"ThiH in just the (vll in the forlres.H of St. Peter and 
St. Paul. Kvt-rythinK i.H Mtone. nnphalt. and iron: it 
w very dark in the vv\U on the firsJ fhmr. for the wall 
which .Hurroun.lH the buildiuKM Is hi^h enough to knp 
out the light of the sun, and you never »ec the sky and 
stars. An old creature, like me, can sup^wrt all the 
privatiotw of air. light, motion, etc. But the voung 
«uff.T seriously, and the sih-nce and the mystWious 
running of all the ways of life there exert a distressing 
influence on the spirit and imagination. It is like a 
tomb. No human sounds, hut very numy sounds 
coming from outride, and from umlerground. the origin 
of which you cannot exi>lain. NoImmIv answi-rs your 
ciuestions except the chief, very seldom seen, and vou can 
torture yourself with visions and horrible pictures till 
you go mad. Many, many young lives have in-rished 
in this awful place, the best souls and best characters." 

To Lewis Herreshoff. October 10-23, 1912. 
". :i those around me arc too young to \>e a match for 
me, or, if I speak to the aborigines, too foreign to me. 


— i 




.o™, ca„. p,y. «„ mixed with sadnes^* tp. t""^; 
i«,e r. m. , 4- m?tr :.df 

tun:r„;[7e:„Tmttr """ -"' '"^ "■•^'-- 

My imagination has been verv viv.M /. T »,„. P'^Lure nigh or beautiful events 

tnat 1 have preserved the strpncrtJ. t ,. ^venis. 

Even all ^nrU „f V. .^**' ' P^^^ess until now. 

•4 j 



always healthy ; I sec a great mischief in every species 
of psychopathy. 

"The letter of your niece on the election of Roosevelt 
and Taft reached nie. In the American press, as well 
as in the Russian press, I follow the race of the election, 
and I fear that no one of the candidates is fit to arrange 
matters bettor than they are now. Yet all goes with 
you much better than with us, to the shame of our 

To Miss Blackwell. October 20-November 2, 1912. 
"It has been a quite peculiar pleasure to me to read 
I A Man's World,* by Albert Edwards. Why so? It 
is well written, and includes a lot of interesting questions 
and facts ; but that is not all. The book captivates 
me for its very near approach to the style of our best 
autobiographers. It is even difficult for me to conceive, 
when reading it, that it is by a foreigner : just like our 
own method of setting forth the tilings which are dear 
to us, and those which concern our ideas and feelings. 
No effects, no self-admiration, no desire to move the 
reader by any sentimental pictures or descriptions — 
plain and true. And yet you feel all the time how in- 
telligent and profoundly meaning the author is, how 
awakened is his spirit. The constant sadness and 
melancholy of his heart is not underlined by himself, 
but the reader himself sees this rather stern figure, that 
keeps in his mind a world of thoughts and observations. 
Having missed the happiness of the outer world, he 
has acquired, by a long way of study and philosophical 
watchfulness, an inward world of knowledge of the 
secrets of life. And, as our acquaintance with human 
psychology makes us masters of life with all its vicissi- 

r ^v 

^^ «i 



^iat-nctly the „„„, f^t'Ttth"""^ °' ''■'"™'"« 

It "^arvr^^tX"^ rr « «-"""•"«• 

the needs of thosr«^2r **>' '"'^ '» '"" of 

heavy load. CetoH ""'demies, it becomes a 

young people, hav^Ho wo^ t\"f'' ^'°- ">" 
myself. ** ^°'^^^' "<> voice to express 

platform at UwTenT Hr^ I TT ^ '""^'"'^ '™ 'he 
it is. without a^Sa^ieJ^ ^'"^ ^ '"°- '""' '"'"'tiful 

VeI"°oTpw»Xt'^,J«-\.WoWd. 'Fifty 
B. Broelcway! Sin *'"'''"<'8'-''Phy by Zebulon 

tionary was'tie Itt v nerrbHr """ T^ '"- 
his aceount of nearlv T ^'*'"' ^^^ he 6nishes 

officer was killed rL.'' °°% ^ "'*'""« "■«* ">« 
a narration ol very "nifor" '7 *"' ""^"y- »' " 
of a pedant, and no siZ nf Tk""''"?'"'"* °' »^"i« 
of a human soX" ^ ""^ Psychological growth 

iud'^menfrMrBri^wS "T""^ "'"''"' '"'^ 
here, although out of^TiiogicL X "" '^"'^ 

«.V . February 5-18, 1913 

first pTrtTth^tli" -F^ v"' ' ""-^ -" ""•^"■'^ 

^hen I wrote mytltef V^^t' ft" "^"r ' 
to Its last page I am Pnf.V i 7 ' '^^^^ ^^^^ t 

author. ve^eraJe1ir"t^ktr' °P'°''°"-.«'''t ""' 

iJrocKway, was an imposing 

j^mm"^' Y- 


* „.;ir ^^ 



figure in the tenacity and the devotion of his character, 
which never failed liini. And it is above all the last 
chapter. 'The Ideal of a Prison System,' which proves 
the sagacity and sincerity of this remarkable man. 

"I must tell you that it is just the difference in 
character between our two peoples, the Americans and 
the Russians, which keeps us from mutually under- 
standing each other at first. For instance, ignorant 
and grotesque as are our people, and consequentlv our 
criminals, they are particularly susceptible to the small- 
est kindness, to the least indulgence, even on the part 
of their persecutors. The expression,^' He is our father,' 
IS always used in good faith in regard to the officials 
who pay the least attention to the needs of their sub- 
ordinates, and never in my life have I heard of prisoners 
permitting themselves to ill-treat warders who were at 
all good to them, or who were even just to them. Our 
people acknowledge the law, and are always ready to 
obey it, and it is only a clear injustice, an intolerable 
persecution that makes them impatient and rebellious. 
Everything that is just, everything that is benevolent 
toward them, they appreciate and respect. But, as 
the whole world knows, these poor people are ill treated 
to the limit, in their everyday life; they are still more 
so m the Russian prisons, where every monster of a 
jailor has a right to tyrannize over the prisoners as 
much as he chooses. The most hideous of these 
scoundrels sometimes get the fate that they deserve- 
they fall by the hand of a rebel, who, in most cases, is 
avenging the outrages endured by all his comrades, and 
not his own personal wrong. As for cases of officials 
who were straightforward and courteous being mur- 
dered, I have never heard of such a case anywhere. 


officials were killed miiio .• , ' °*" behaved 

had not even b«„ In^lTL^^''^ «'""'■"• "I"" 
Po»iWe that the independeM i^ "■""• " '' ^"'>' 
can, eannot endure Xr rol r"'"'' "' "■" ^"'"'^ 
not being able to ^[T^""'.:^'"'*- "nd thot. 
themselves to take a Ders^L. """"• "'^J' P«™'t 
»ian eriminal, sUnd Kd TnT'^ r'"* ""' «"- 
of the evils felt by the,V Th^' '""""'' "^ "angers 

"•"Jn'-adVr '-^'^^^^tXa-"'- -•'» '»"«' 


far and ,ig„ifieant Whe'L^'l"""'^"' "•*' l^- 
Anglo-Saxons) are punelll ^ .u^ f"'''"" "*« «« 
alUheireonductrelaUngtothe- i 7 ''"'''""''' ""d '" 
Hationships, we tllvf IS 'V'"'''' ?"''''■'''> ""'"al 
suffer greatly from the fanhf T."" ""^ R-^^'an^. 
hand, this fault mats u^'L, "r^fance. On the one 

8«od things; makXritstf r'/r"'""^ '" """y 
•■ven our knowledge witho,?, %• ■""^' '""' ^''W. 
profit from them On .K .1 T""* "'<' ""^^^ary 
severe laws, the rud^mlSner ^h ^T"' "'" ^^ <" «>« 
eomersofdailylife aS" ' r'^P""'" ■" all the 
specially i„ ,L priso^ ut^lv ""'"V"'''' ""'''* '■•''^. 
is in these cases that thl R. '^ ""'■ndurable. And it 

the prisoners to breatheahfc" "r'"'''">» P-^Ha 
dung«.n.. In cons^quen^" h^ rI™ "^ '''"^'"■«''''"' 
officials who are martin^?' C ■ '"" P*^"'* abhor 

of ther4g,mecarrM„„t n'a^r"^ "?"' "'■' "^^'ty 

hfe impossible. I ventre to I'r """T'^ """^ "■»'=^ 

murders mentioned by Mr B^T" '''" "■" ''^""^n* 

result of these inc^sant v^" ™^ "^ '" P*"* ">« 
mcessant chicanes' which must be 


experienced by the individual subjected to regime that 
deprives him of all liberty, even in relation to Ws 
smallest wishes and needs. It is possible also that the 
Russian people, knowing that they have by their 
side a constant and implacable enemy, an enemy that 
IS complex and as it were insainssahle. may turn their 
eyes rather toward this complexity, wishing to get 
rid of ,t once for all. Hence individual cases of 
atrocities, horrible though they may be. are borne with 
patience, or rather with stoicism. We are accustomed 
to daily cruelties, and face them as inevitable facts. 
l<or instance, one day lately, an exile who was ill 
was obliged to leave the hospital before his strength 
was refetablished. The doctor told him to stay in the 
city, so as to be able to make visits to the dispensary 
for some time longer. But the police had him arrested 
and taken to the place where he was to be exiled 200 
versts from here. The cold was intense, the invalid's 
clothes were too thin, and after two days of a miserable 
journey the poor man was brought back again with 
his hands and head severely frozen. The doctor had 
to amputate his fingers, and both ears, leaving him 
maimed for life. 

"To-day we have hau the grief of burying another 
comrade, a very intelligent Jc v, who, not being able to 
get a passport — Jews here a. - not allowed to have 
passports - not being able to go anywhere to find work, 
died almost of starvation. ... You will understand 
that, having before me in the past and in the present 
an endless series of such pictures, it is not prison reform 
that I am thinking about, it is not to that object that 
1 should like to direct the strength and attention of 
the public, although I venerate the beings who occupy 




«^« MTTLK CHASimmimi OF R,xsf.v 

inem.sclv'o.s with It i * .i 
"hoi,. ,„«/,,, ,,,• ''\ ™' "'■" I 'hould like (o ,,., t; 

«on of ,„.. Kio;;:tu rr r •","" """ "•<• -»"» 

toll,., whol,. norid '' '"'''"' »"■"' "dvanu.^ 

BullLrill;:':^,:J7J'>"'» "-ore ab„„t our Men, 

'^'hoth.r f;„d, or rehVion*™^: ""''•''■ "'""'•'ver form; 

to "»• While adva„lXrhIre;'/''"r' '•' ""^ 
form as better than any other „u,^^." ,""«'' "" ""'^h « 
•■naRination. leaves us fr^u™ . "'"'• °' ""'er our 
™perior forms of life tolSl. "l" T'^"" '"' """''^'^ 
feed ^ th, „,.^ of ou "ll'",':'' '" "■- P'«™t is 
Arthur Bullard's book iLT'^T' '^"'^ >><•■•* i„ 
searchiuB, which is feelint it^t " ""t t '"'"'^ «''">l> " 
standing the imperfS o^ th^ '^^ ^^ ''^ ""''"- 
present society organises iu dtfi '' "r''"""" "here 
•t introduces so ma„nbsurd1,f ,"^ '''"'"'""^- ^^^^ 
worse, so many deeenCV. • ™'.'°'"'' "'"'• "hat is 
depicted i„ -A ManTCM-'," 1^7 • """• "■■"-'" 
because of his disgust 7or evil 'l !. ?. ""^ °'"' ''""<' 
h« efforts to attain all tL „1^" ""' ?'^" ^'^'^^ of 
nature, which is a little vl Tf-'^"""""' '"''" f>y his 
shocks which a boliltd tfdt hfe" T "'"'"' »' '"« 
at every more or less d^ =• . '*" ^"««>ntering 
»eientious and devoted pl^r\'^- «« '^ " »„* 
not enlightened enough'^To^' and'^T""" 'P'"t- 

't.t.onsandevilsofhifcentur^Cuh^^'" ""^ ^•""'■ 

"y witli an arm stretched 



out openly It is jK-ople like that who take the first 
.s lepM toward cr,tu...s,„. toward the reru-wal of the style 

noble tendency, there were in work r-a^es that [ had 
to skip. -not bcTause they contained in<K^enri,>s. 
there, were none, hut bt^cause I cannot bc-ar .scenes de- 
pictmg the degradalion of a h.nnan being, or moments of 
I moral sufTernig. wh^re t he hn.nan heart is f nil of dea.ll v 

I u'\ ^^••'^r"^ '''''' "f •">' »^vn courage, of my strength, 

I which enables me to c.n<lure long an.l unavoidable 

sufferings, it always seems to me that other pc^ople's 
afflictions are much heavier and more intolerable. 
I 1 hat IS a personal trait which I never could get rid of 

. Russians prefer works containing an i,len. trying to 

develop , as far as ,K,ssibIe. to make the reader under- 
stand and accept it. That is why I find a resemblance 
between A Man's World' and the writings of our 
favorite authors. Besides that, works of our avowed 
romanticists never contain scenes of seduction, scenes 
hat are exotic or extraordinary, and tor two reasons; 
1. Our life, even the life of our great cities, is much less 
complex than that of American cities. 2. Our civilized 
public, and even our peasants, prefer works which lead 
us into regions of thought, of ,,hiIosophy, of meditation, 
where one wishes to dwell without being interrupted by 
ettects of a brutal or unbecoming kind. Our friend 
Arthur Bullurd offers us his second book. 'Comrade 
Yetta. which makes the continuation of a program 
of ideas and actions." 

To Mrs. Barrows. November 30-December 13. 1912. 

"My heart is full of you, for I am in distress thinking 

Of your health. Why did you return from the sani- 


Urfum. ,h,„ "'^'^^ "^^^W^ON 

•We than you ? I h.,, „"'„ M " ' T ' """" '''»»' 

•culture- in . very^^l .''""""'"'•"»"•' "-e wod 

howy example, „,j^Cm„,,,7"r ■". 'P'^'J'd and 
to thmk about Ihi, b,.f„re ,h! i "'"' " " P"™«ture 
are obtaine,!. Other, 1°",^;. "''"f "' "'«' ne«-»»ity 
holding baek every effoH „l',r ''""°""" '» '•"•riWy 
""^t apply one/,tre;« h" \fT' '!'^ "'"ntry. „„^ 
entering upon it. But ,^ v„. ' ""^ ""y ke/ore 

^here no efforts are h nVr/ '^"""■^- '<"• '"Stance 
plenty of cultural worlT ^Tf " """"""i. ^h-e L 

'o'howcanweexpeetto';.t?.K '" '"«''""'' "^-'^ary 
"ew form, „f ,^.^ «;'">; people ready to accept 

ne«- and very accomolil T "''"''' ''^'"•■"1 a quiie 
.•"«"«l relation, t^thoitt ~""''"''"' °' '''^ •"'J 
" a 8^at mistake tTth LkX;"!! •^" '»' "? It 
■• "dy to accept and to diL^ '"' '""""» """'' '» 
<"• 'dea, without having i'l™ J7^ ""^ conception 
-dersund it and to Tmb^^^f '°"« ■■" advan^ t^ 
. Culture, in its large sen.. ■ 

»'t«lf all the Progrefr;";^;: ?,"">"" """ '"^"'-^ 
tje bcg,nm„g to the Cs ' f„ "'"'T ' ''"<"™ '^m 
How can "e allow ourselves 10^^°'/" *™«cnce, 

^ to be deprived of this knowl- 


, m ' i 

»rf(?e, whW, i, ih.. common lr..a.,urc of m„„kmd ? How 
poor a„.| m,k«l our ,.xi,t..„co would be without th„« 
prof,,,,,„„, wl, ,.|, «iv.. „, „„. „,.,,.„, „f i„,Xl into 
the mm.l, and f„.|i„«,,, „, „„„ ^, , „.„^; '"/'"'» 
broth„» and ,i„..r, ,1... ...,, jjea,, tfc,. b..,"r't„ th" 

be,t halHt,. he,, kn„wl«|„, „„d h.,t ,..„toent.1 
Are we not endeavoring ,o guarantee them all the mean, 
no only of eoanerving what ha., Ihtu acnuire,l alrlT 
but of Komg f„r„„„| «.i,h ih,. i„,„r„ve„„.nt ? TwJ 

ofThe"!';;*'"" n" r """' '""'^■"•■- -terlll^^e 
of the nm ler rt only means that, while establishing 
the matenal „de on a durable foundation, we m^? 

reM that history ha, made. Culture. «> understood 
- an inherent part of our aetivity and our eZ.W>' 

To Miss Agnes E. Ryan. 

"You are my weekly companion, too. I follow 

eagerly the progress of the tyo^a,,; Journal; it s the 

first thing I read after the n.ail is delivered A great 

hmg ,s he work of the suffragists; it i, a b^ Cl 

to make the world better, and I am sure the womeH 

nusbandry. Only we must not forget to do our best 
for the people who are now deprived of the possM^ 
of enargmg the conditions of their welfare I ^„^ 

^ympathy w,th all the most attractive sides of the 
general progress spread over all countries. Chi„. at! 
racts my sympathy especially, and I am angry bZl 
the big governments are jealous of its succeT" 



T„ M,v, „„.,l.,v. D.^.„,„., ,_„_ , 

What ..,„ , ,,„ t, ^hoV m, ir ' ''""'^- ""«""-'' 

'o iHT.,,,, „,,.. 1,,.':..: :^::,:""',""' *":*■" '" »"' 

>•■". «r,. I„„„„| „„. Zv'T, ."' "" ""'"'«'■■" • 

r' "■■.vii.i... .„•„. ,. ., „ :."" p' •""• ,' "'» /"y «w . 

"Iwa.v, ,.r.„,.| ,„ ,„,,,"'; 7'' "<•>• ""■ n,„„.v. , „„ 

"■rt- ami »,„,„ „,., "?"'*: """;» <l'»nKinK. ami „e„ 
'"-t— and,. ,r :.,*S, ";■.'"">• '"•''-''' «n.l 

r"-l and „,„„. ant: :,^ ;r: ""'^.'fl-'^ ™""' 
women c„„„„„ . „,.,, ,„jX*; "Z- ' "•- AmmVan 

I WO..M not abu«., and Uke ™'o'::;tn ia""""' ■"" 


BrchkovHlcy wrote 17 f " P"'"'*-"- Madame 

'"o.. a .o;:„;rnT„ u'::;"::.::^- , '^^ «"* 

woman, with smiling face, sten J^T, t !. ""1 " ^"""S 
"torniy surf, she write™' ^ "* '" ^"'^ '»'» 

woltlt'Xtrxrb/.f'r ™', r" ™-^ <" «- 

represents life „, ^t,*" 5^. /''^'"onable.- The painter 
throw themselves 1^10 1, ,^ r™"K. ^Me are ready to 

-d in U.C idea? ,;pi7'« /;'■','• !■>/''«'•-'-■'««'■ 

> picture. Certainly only a part 



Of Jhaso nuliant Immiikh rvtnin for lonff tho tlirillmir. of 
t»uir hearts a,ul „.o., of ,»..,„ ur. lo.t in Ih. X o 

The «,^.n(l «hows a youn« rn-asant woma,. working 
m^the held a horse. IJreshkoX 

"Perhaps « yo„n« widow, jn-rhaps the oldest of a 

J, oiui .>m will do all she oiitfht. verv soMom 
eo,„p ,„„,„«.,, |,..r l,..,,vv ,,„., SI,., i, l" ,„ . ,,l ,s" 

<lono l.y hiT laic i.„rral» V,ti- off..,. .. i • , ., ..„o„„h f„r ,1, p|,a„ ..hil,l..„ « „ , '^,^ 

I: ':;;;" 't'- • '■"■•""■» «' '- ri,- ,,,,.1 .1,..,,,. . 

■ « mM: r .ri, siir.. il „„„|,| 1„. ,„ will, ,„ ,,n,| „;. 
wmic birth trre m a Ihoughtful attitude. It is en- 


■I I 



ttKam How hiippy arc thtwe who «ro suro «f »h 
thrv have tut.... » tu' . "^* "' "'*^ w«v 

of fi' wo Id ul- u .^^"', ""'•*'*•"*>' ^"«^-'' one ma^tor 

one" loljr'' ^ '*^*^ "'^^"^^ ""' "^'" ** '»>« «>urc; of 

To Lewi, Herreshoff. (Undated) 

but r'r ''**r ""'*** *^^' ''^*'^''' '^'^'^^^ me in safety 
our 1 was t'mbarrii«j«<»Hl n«» l.. • ■ saieiy, 

We have „„ Ck 1 1° nr"'"* T*"'' •" ''° "''^ ''• 
U«v I r , I . . ™ ""^"l '"^fw -Vew Year's 

to my great pleasure, instead of 47 ki r ^' ^"^ 

rubles. Some ladv of TJ ''"^^*^' ' «*** ^^^ 

oome lady of my acquamtance learned the 

4 ** 

* Bifsh' 

!«^. We 
»ocl. In 
»ry. In 
y strive 

Yet to 
e*» own 
h they 
ht'y an? 
<l have 
ey had 

le way 
He, for 
irce of 

ith it. 
, and 
: 145 


fart, and added th< 10f>. I wan w nuieh HuriiriMnl that 
I wiml cincv nion- to know for mnv, whether it was not 
a rnintake. To my grvitl joy it wan not. and m your 
Kift rearhed uw in tlm^-fold nif.v. Ycmr iminiim. to 
Kratify nic every year with »« Kiv««« nic ^reat witin- 
'netion, for I do not Mp#nd niueh for niynelf. and this 
•;ui will Im^ my own. Thank you. I^wis, my friend, 
• Ty g.rf .j nd rhivalrouN! You nun cannot »>e other- 

•VI. . in A leriea. whero you have sueh excfllent 
wM'-n. 1 »dy wish thi' success that follows their 
« '••r-i- a ni'ver make of them such husiness-like 
• 'p. «^ triost of your men are. For nothing in the 
rj,i i.s s, lovable as a «.kj<| heart, a sympathizing'. r \Mien a human creature sincerely smile* 
n Ml her. one feels one's self so well, more sure of 
one's safety. It is a horror to think that a human being 
can be a monster to his fellow creatures, u mt.nster that 
is feared and hated. And yet there are so many 
etlucatetl Kuropeans who are pumping sweat and blood 
out of their neighl)ors* veins I 

"I am deeply intereste<l in the literary career of my 
friend Arthur Bullard, known by his pen name aa 
Albert Edwards. 

" As for tlie romances and novels that are so numerous 
in all the magaziiu-s which I get (and I get the best on.-s), 
they are tedious with scandals of every sort. We have 
among us also a lot of fwlish writings, but they have 
their place apart; they arc printed by the magazines 
• iestmed for the street and for ignorant p^.-ople. Our 
best magazines are careful in choosing the articles and 
novels to be put in. We do not prize so much art 
which does not contain any noble idea. Literature as 
well as painting, sculpture, music, and other arts 


-<rifi..,„K. a ,„,,to fo h . t. :, "7'"";;"' »"■' •«•" 

-"■ill" nil thi, our Zn, f ""■"' ""'' ''™^'''' 

but we arc Mow, we co„;:::,pTa^,, trJrT'' 
Tt IS our inisforfm... r^ '"^tiad of acting. 

:a";r ':'!"' "^'"^ ''''^- --^^intSn^^^^^ 

lon« talks will, me of r, „„ ^""' ," "'™' ■""«' '■"ve 

«.dne..,,orio„„,„;-,t;;,.^'; »'"""■':' ?' ""- •""»-'• 

'l>.-m. I an, here lik „ ,' '"'■■""n.l^an.l torment 

Ms people. „:; ' ;tr ;: ;:"'' ^rT "" "'■""' 

«•>..». my orphan l.o,s'h,::.';: J, , f Wi h m 't"' 
are openhearte,l. beinij ,„r,. I h,v,. . , '' ""'^ 

Willi all their grief, *' ;r.,„7 ,''"•"'"""' ».™'Pathi3e 

anything wr„n,^, l!: J'::L:f ^^ZZ'^T' '° •'"' 

< lo «" me ?!" n7 7'"!™-"' when they 
that every Jan and 1 ""P'"''"''''-' '"'t I am «ure 
careful ^ifrnLTLriMrr.';™ ,!,''^ 'f\H 


To Mks Blackwrll. Ft'bruury 12-25, 1913. 

S^^T :"^/''"''''["^^' ' »'^'v^' never s'v,npuihm.d 
with the .luahsin of s,.nti».ent.s and devotion. One 
may have a very eomph-x character, one nmy admire 
he whoh. worhl a.ul un<ler.stand all the beauties con-<l ,n It: one may be happy to sympathize with 
every perfeet.on of nature an<l art; and yet one must 
have alonK w.tli all these riehes an aim. a (Jod. a virtue 
or a prmeipl... that will stand above all the rest And 
while enjoying (he luxury <,f life, „ne must be ready at 
every moment to perform one's duty towanis the aim 
that stan<ls over all. That is my ideal of a human 
beiUK; an<l I must add that the more superior the aim 
chosen to stand highest is to other aims or ends of life 
the more valuable is the person who has chosen it. ' 
My health is much better this winter, which seems 
to have no end. All is ri«ht with me .-xcc^pt my poor 
heart, which ,s always thrillin^r ,vith sorrow for my 
starvm^ boys, with no hopcvs for a better future for 
them ; for we expect this summer more and more people 
who have served their terms in the hard labor prisons 
What can we do? One must endure the world's pain 
and be sulisfied to be able to do it." 

To Arthur Bullard, with a photograph. February 


"Here I am in my American overcoat, sitting at my 
large table, and sewing a shirt for one of our poor boyj. 
Hehind is a commo<le with my various possessions 
My armchair being upholstered with light-colored 
^tuff, I put my },lack skirt over the back of it, in order 
to have my white hair stand out from the furni- 



«'<•, trying ,„ l.nng th,™ Tu " T T", .•"■"'"''"'' 
corruptvd ,„„r„|.s. ,„ Z.r[ L I. '"""'' '""' 

ethical life This X-. m. '' T""* righlrous and 

them. I bless v«,T.l ■""""''"' '•"d P"t before 
f„r . 1, • '°'"'' y"" •««' for your ne()r>le 

for the growing youti., (hat iH-fore all n,„ri T ' 
toward everv <.n,. „,l. "«^'ore all must be human 

,. , y ""' who needs care and hoiini„ T 

and materiarlemj; ;re ,: h "h" fT'^ °' '"™"" 
o.^^ |.e aby. read; ^ ^a^ £ r^To! 

To Effie Danforlh McAfee. March IS-48 19IS 
'. JX r It^tl^- ?r 7J,-' 1^- Ha. not 

""ly made me a devoted frendTfT' rr '.■■"" "«" 
l.ut has made me feel Hke IZtr ^"-"^ ^"'"'^• 

American women I^ „^ I • '™' ^^P'^'o'ly to the 

of the h„man";ar''TUT:;r:nd T'""'-'^-"'' 

equalled only by the women "f ^^^n/ ir" "! 
- by their fitness for all that is Sy To "be" 


That little country is a wonder of hard work and 
stability of character. The wonun there are the hest 
part of the population. 

" My opinion is that everywhere on earth the women 
are more exquisite creatures and much less c-orrupted 
than the men. But the difference l>etween the t wo sexes 
is not the same in every country. I think, so far as I 
see, that all the northern countries have a most high 
contingent of women, because they have more time and 
chance to improve their minds, whilt- the men are so 
busy with the material side of life. But in Russia, for 
instance, the opportunity to study and to perfect one's 
self is very hard for both sexes. Consequently the 
boys and girls are on an equal level of educfUion, and 
so understand each other quite well. We snould not 
have a 'woman question,' for the women would not 
ask but take their rights as a matter of course. Now 
every one is a slave, then everybody would be free." 

To Miss Blackwell. March 15-28, \91S. 

"My own experience seems to me a small matter 
compared with the sufferings of others, perhaps be- 
cause of my strong constitution of body and spirit. 
And perhaps it has not happened to me to endure such 
tortures as were the case with others. Now, this very 
year, we have so many diseases, insanities and suicides, 
that sometimes my strong soul is going mad. I feel 
as if I were thrown into hell, where I cannot find an 

"In the first place, the longer the exiles remain in 
such wicked conditions, the less strength they have to 
resist them. Secondly, during the last two years we 
have had a lot of boys who were sent out from the 



prisons where thev hnri i;..- l i . . 

thHt in thm. „r four ve-.r! ! '^ ""' "^ ""■<»!<»" 

dungeons ancj huiniliif,vl t», •^^"'^^*''' thrown into 

en.r....,e a. .„„■ [''tti I L":::::;::;';;' "" -- 

pri-i,,!,,, „„,| „,, roc,.iv,, ,h,.„, 1,,. • , , '" ""'<■ "iwal 

people are urre,,^ "^"^Ce'r;""';'*- """""'>■ «' 
remote places. All ib.Thormo h ", '." " '^ ""* 
too. for ,ueh a great counlv ' " '" ^""""eful 

horrors all the lU^ .^ "" ,"> •"'•"->' all the 
endure. There. aboTit e 'LfT"" ""^ ^"'^ 
gentlefolk and bureaue;a s arrv^- 4eT"' Y ,""• 
people. But all who are not VntT' 7"^ '''' 
captive, see well the undersi.U „f l / . "'"' "''« 

happy. I bee vonr L j 7 "' '''*' ""'' cannot be 
py Deg your pardon for such an ugly letter " 

To Miss Blackwell. March StKApril 3. ,9,3. ' 
aboutlrt ur' 7n X^T ,l'"'^l "''^^^ ««^ -- 

•^.v- Whatapl^ltrhTUVwt^ r ^°^ 
an admirer of myself, for in.stance bTt h ■ "" """ 
■ny -cerity and good will. wS m'l trdy to 


serve my nei«hl,or. I wish to live us lon^r as my mental 
eupaeities retujor me able to be of use. Tlu-n. ^s not vet 
a very lur^e lot of .str(,„«-,nin«le<| and ^^,o,i-hearte<| ncM.ple 
O.I our earth ; llurefore we .nust spare them, unci ,lo our 
utmost to retain their spirits with us Iou^mt an,l l,>„^er 
Last nifrht I was awakened by u terrible headaelu' continued till now. 4 p.m. At Hrst I could not 
t'xplam my misfortune, but when I saw throuL'h the 
wmclow u thiek snow falling. I understood direc-flv 
^Miee I made aeciuaintanee with j.risons. mv blcK>cl has 
not been so thick and so red. and it cannot resist the 
pressure of a condensed atm. sphere, as it could before 
my .mprisonmc-nt. when I was a very Cossack in 
strc'nsth and health. But now that the heaven is not 
so heavy, I feel better, and can continue mv affairs 
It IS the same with all my sorrows. It is very hard to 
encounter each of the new ones. But when vou put 
your mmd to action, to the search how to do vour best 
you have no time to spend on weeping, unci vou fc.ei 
better, seemg that your efforts are not quite- in vain 
I am angry with myself for having written you my 
last letter, m whic-h I deplored the horrors of the life 
o our exiles. We must be accustomed to it, and none 
of us could expect a better lot. And so you can be 
tranquil on my account, my shoulders being ready to 
bear every load. ^ 

" April 2-15. 1913. 
"I find that, if my life had passed without the ex- 
periences I have had, it would be very poor and short- 
sighted. Now, as the hard and wicked sides of life 
are familiar to me, I can judge what my people 
sutfer, what every person in such or such a position 



•Id filing,. Soraelim« when I f^' ■ *■"■ •' """ '"' 
the crowd of visitor,. I «y to ml H • P '' l^™' "'"' 
wom^. • You ,io not fi„<f it e^^o be^ tW ""' "''' 
of good, unlucky people while . hL^T . P"''*"'* 

the «;nf''J::T;^t\h',V" '*- ■" 

must expect nothing g<x^lfZ,„ ,.'''""■'•"• ^^' 
manufacture only d-^hC^ L:i:irt^,,^''' ""' 

Geonre Weff to Mi. B.aekweil. Cl„en,. Switzer- 
'and, March 31, 1913 

bureaucrat,, who had obM 1 LT' "'""'""' 
have been ilZlfied •• ~"'""^' "-^ <-'-«u«on, 

^wi^hr ' '" ^^''"'"^ «-'S.ikJt'KL 

To Miss Blackwell. June 3-16. 1913 

prisoners. ctieDratt-U by granting *n amn- ty tu many 




revolulion. to give a glimpse of this original event 
But one -sees at once that the author k not acquainted 
with the real hfe of the ptxjpU^ «he speaks of. and all 
the entourage is taken from what she knows and sees 
in other countries. Nevertheh-ss I am very glad to 
have this piece, for tlu- foundation, the reasons for the 
troubles, are represented as they are in reality, truly." 

To Mrs. Barrows. June 20-July 1. 1913. 
"Your book. 'A Sunny Life.' is one of the everlasting 
writings. I mean it will be g,K>d alwavs. It is of the 
•siinie kind as the hooks that tell us alnrnt the lives of men 
like bt. Francis of Assisi. Such bm>k.s are not merely 
[)ortraits of beautiful characters, but they are also 
historic documents of great value. As in a mirror one 
sees the moral capacities of the epoch described, and 
can judge the path and the progress toward the per- 
fection of human nature. A thousand years will pass, 
and the book will be read with as much interest as now • 
perhaps with even more, for it gives a picture of moral 
welfare, of the happiness of a whole family, due only to 
Its own perfection." 

On a picture card. To June Barrows Mussey. 
"How do you do, my dear grandson? This pretty 
«irl wants to make acquaintance with you. and to show 
you the little dogs she is nursing with such pleasure. 
a IS good that she loves every living thing, but you 
must remember to tell her that the largest share of 
our love and attention belongs to human beings. 
Children, women, and men, as having a more elevated 
spirit, must be attended, in order that they may become 
yet better, quite reasonable." 

a' •'"" - 


To Mis, Bluckwtll. July ;ii-A„gast 13, 191S. 
"VVhat «„..,,H^,„| „..„,, Y.,„ «,.„. ,,„„ , 

•n. You w,.r.. „,«.r„i..| „„ , o„r ,l,.„r Sophi,. „ H 
wr,... ,„,. „lK,ut your l,..„|.l,. What .l.„., i, \Zu " 
.......y .l.«.«,..»? A,ul I h„v,. iMrn w..|| ,.l| ,| ',, 

""•""• ' "I"'"! thcin m 11 very dwirusliiiir 
«... .•o.nfort,, ,1.. i„ „,y ,„,,„„,, „,.,,, ., ^,,. J '^" J 

warm: ..xc..||..„l, i„d„.,l! So many ,,ict,m.s froumi 
fro.., A„, a„.l S>vi,..H„„.l; ...a.^VL", u — 
Pho,,.. and a .s..wi„K „,„..|,i„... Mv wanlnj, tTn 

(,,,.. Br,.,hkov,ky was provi.l,.,! bv fri..„d, i„ 
K>.rop.. and Anu-rioa «i,|, „ ,„,„„ ,„„,, „.,,, ^^2 o 
l.clp U,.. other ,.xile,,. to l,uy .«,!,, tor .l„.,„. ..,e ) 

To Miss Dudley. Aujtiwt U-i,%, I»l;l. 
'•One g«,d soul wrote me you are well and look 
q...te fl„unsl,in« and »l,i„in«. (i.xl hiess you I on 
«ay the same of myself - hlossomiuK ' 

W„r ld''-'''T' """ •";" Tr "'""'■'' »'"■ 'A Man-, 
« orld I an, even afrai.l I shall not be as well please,!, ;C-o„,ra,le Yetta.' Th.-r,. was a eharacter Z 

.M..;.s..o.,e, and searehed, with all the earneTn s^ of a 

formed fro,, the beKinnmR „f ,he world. I mean an 
mtesral f„„.e. ,vh,ch never doubted, never relinc,r^, " 
was never weak. There are tW diamo.-.d, amidst 




mankind. I ndmin* thorn ; tlu'y nrv likr stnrs to show 
u- our way, aiu] to a.s.siin' us »»f tho possil.ility of such 
[HTftftion on ivirth ; tlirir nuirch is Ixauliful and hril- 
hant, thoir l»row is srrvwv and rniij»'.sfi«-. Huy uvvvt 
sloop thfir h»-ad.s, ami Ihr h«ads of othrrs how hvtoro 
thrni. And yt-t .surh splondi*! characttTs arr a nsuU 
of lh«' work (historic work), which wc cannot |>ursuc nor 
analyze; Ihcy aro .sonathinj? ready, finished, not to he 
studied an<l dissected. When we .se<' such pcrfeclion 
I we can only uuess, and we may inistak*'. not knowiriK 

] the .sources of such an a|)parition. Another tiling',— 

^ when our attention is atfracte«l to the jirocess itself of 

I the construction of the psychoh)«y of a soul, it stru;?^Ies 

through life and is ohli^ed to gain hit hy hit the ground 
where it resolves to stan<l. for whi( n it resolves to fight. 
I I have stvn many young p(oi)le who envied characters 

free from weaknesses and d<fects, they find it very 
hard to struggle against the hlanmhle ha!)ils iidurited 
or acquired; they woul.l prefer to ft-fl themselves 
without failure. When young 1 wished it loo. for I 
was very much ashamed of my weaknesses, felt un- 
happy after every fault T conmiitt«Ml. Now I prefer 
characters that have luid to <lo with nuiny temptations 
during their youth, and come out victors from a s<'rious 
struggle, fortified, with a strong will jirid tinderstandiiig 
of their own capacities and ahility. jind of human nature 
in its consistence nowadays. Such ptopl-- hecome njore 
exacting towards themselves and mor<. indulgent 
towards others, for they know how .lifTi. ult it is to 
overcome the passions implanted hy tuiture in our heing 
liefore we are acquainted with it. The itdieritance (.1" 
different weaknesses, as well as the undcsired hahits 
acquired by an education full of prejudices, give us a 




.i.i.«™, ..„„,.^h .„ fulfill „.i, „„k. „,„„,„ J;. ,;,';;;'j 

Oj.- d.-v..|.,,,,,..,,, „, ,1 .,„, ,„,, ,,„„,„.., -J^™^' 

1 he older wc ;iri> tlii> wiw.f %.. i i i*"^'"*-". 

T,, .,r« , UK wiser. Ami wo i|o not reaiu* f« 

love ,h.. w„rl.l ,|,«t 1„„ ,w,.„ u, ll,.. grrat ha^Z," 
"llow <li«r.„i,« it i, ||„„ |„.|,i„.| ,.».„,. onr of .nv 

Iv™ 1'" "",";*■""'• ."'?■ '" ' '"'•"■' -"-'■« 

Scudder, Kll..,. S.«rr. o.,r ,l..„r l.illm,,, „„d '„„ 'v Z^t 
»<..■'» are ready ,„ i„f„™. „... „,„„„ „.,„„ „„.„,;„*'^' 
three angel, I„.f„re all. and about „ll ,l,„, i, «, dear o 
me .n your iH-aut ful eounlry. I „„. ,„ ,„.„„y ^Z J^ 
and to learn 11... be,t ,id.., „f A„,ene„„ lif^, L I hav" 
to do w,th the be»t people, the l,e„ „a,K.r,. andH,. I «.-.• from n,y distance ,o man; ,p|en2 
pie lade, or ,el, of „„„„.„ a„.| „,..„ „„„ ^^ J ^^J^ 
exclusive y to the welfiin. «f »». . "ut^voieu 

luinian uL tI ! \ ^'■*''*^ problems of 

lunnan life. The questioiLs of ethics und eugenics are 

-"km, great prog.... and spirite.1 minds are Zrkhg 
^v h enHms.a.m to orward then, quickly, in their eager 
ne.vs to s.e the world more and more conscious of the 
divme gifts with which nature has endowed it Yes 

lowThf '' "^i*^" "^ ^""""^^' '"^'-'nded with 
simple to solve if one has passed one's time in studvina 
about them, in thuiking of them. And ^eM here Ire 
millions to whom the same questions are quite strln^e 
a terra incognita, not worthy of belief. 





"Ami now, if we w and know only the he^t part of 
humanity. Ww Mmullfit purl, wv do not know the whole 
reality, and may In- clmiliMl in our iKmirunrr. Hut 
al»o if we remain only with the other, the majority, 
made up of the ignorant and iow-mindeil. we lM'<t>me 
p«'jaiimi»tie. an«l our energy in flKhting the wildernejw 
and lUr darkness is greatly diminisln-d. 

"KncldM'd are two photos slmwing my gemUnegarien 
(eahhages, jKitatm-M. t-te.). Ilrre I am with my two 
comrades (eultivators). and the two fxnurvs with little 
geese are the owners of the <lomain where my friends 
lodge, and wlnre I have rente«l sonu' Im-<|.s for my 
I>lanting.s. Th«-y wisluMl eagerly to he jihotographed in 
our company. Every one says I am not so old a.s the 
photos make me look. I»erhaps it is because somehow 
in speaking and sniiling one always seems younger and 
lively. But when alone an«l quiet, I must look as 
old as I do here, though my heart remains always 

To Miss Blackwcll. August 46-September 8, 1913. 

"I feel .so constrained when I write in English! 
This ftH'ling of hashfulness has its root in the education 
I received from my childhood. My mother was never 
tired of repeating. 'Do well everything that you do. 
Never allow yourself to ho inexact ami negligent.' It 
was considere<l a shaiiu- to make mistakes when writing 
or speaking nny language, and I feel so to this day. 
Ihis has uu« from writing to so warm a friend as 
Arthur Bullard. I lovo him as well as the best boys 
of my own coimtry, and Cmi knows how much I love 
llu-m. how proud I am of thorn. 

"Aunt Isahol's illness kept mo silent for a long time. 







laH.8 |2.5 

' 1^ 12.2 








1653 East Wain Str«l 

Rochester, Ne« Vork 1*609 us* 

(716) 482 - OJOO - Phone 

(716) 288- 5989 - Fo« 



It was jis if I sprcjul my rars to catch the sounds of 
her respiration and the knocking of her heart. I 
watched her sleep; and, anxious to understand her 
thoughts, I examined with my imagination all her 
surroundings, ruiming from one object to another, 
and from Mabel to Henry and little June. I feared 
the doctors, so serious an<l grave, an<l could never 
wholly understand their intentions. I said to myself: 
'They have deprived our Isabel of all her teeth; what 
will they do next?' Now that I hear she is getting 
better, I do not suspect the great savants, but before 
that, I did not love them. 

"Somebody has sent me 'The New Freedom,' by 
your President Wilson. Very interesting." 

To Miss Blackwell. September 0-22, 191l 

"'Miss Caroline I. Reilly is spending a month with 
Miss Alice Stone Blackwell at her sunmier cottage at 
Chilmark, Mass.' This news has made me a sincere 
friend of the very noble Miss Caroline, whose hands I 
kiss; but I cannot conceal that I was jealous of her 
pleasure in remaining with you for so long a time. I 
am only afraid that my presence would be a burden, 
for we Russians are too exi)ansive. I mean we show too 
often and too much caresses and tenderness, to which 
your people are not accustomed. It is very hard for 
me to r'^frain from pouring out my feelings towards 
one whom I love much. Nevertheless I understand 
how tired the person may feel, and object to ever- 
lasting tenderness. 

"The same issue (No. 32) brought your articles. 
Your strong, experienced hand and mind are here like 
a hammer that strikes every question at its due place. 


"All the money I g,.| from ooiinirv i. , 

everywhere. ;: l^lZ''^^ ";',"■■"■-' "1-^^. ""d 
your country. , M T,^ i 7 were of 7. "^ ' 7 '" 
never to be rejected or cast ouT '"'■"'''"''• 

, "September 12-25. 

dentVLlt " ™"' '° '^"'•" ^•'"■■- "bout your Presi- 

but I an^nt; T "«'"''''''^- ^'•'•"-'i 'n reading it • 
but lam not sure how much will be ,|o„e. '' ' 

My beloved daughter, take palientlv all Ihe f 
I «end you. and pardon my ob»U„ae.v." ''"' 

To Ellen Starr. September 26, 1913 


that of Helena Dudley, that incomparable saint, always 
kneehng at the feet of her (iod of mercy. Once Helena 
was mentioned as ahout to take charge of a newly- 
established settlement outside of Boston. Alice's 
name is always there (nolens volens) as editor of her 
paper, which really constitutes an epoch in itself in 
the history of the woman movement of the whole world. 
Well, you three virgins who have devoted yourselves 
to serving the world without asking anything of it, 
without reaping any reward from :t — you may re^ 
main unknown to the world, loved and appreciated 
only by those who know you personally, who have 
learned to cherish the memory of your characters, able 
to respond to the cries of those who are suffering far 
away from you. That is beautiful, it is immortal ; but 
It does not always meet with its reward in this world. 
Nevertheless it is well to remain so to the end of our 
days, for nothing is so precious as a conscience sure of 
Itself and tranquil as to the choice of the road that it has 
preferred to all others. The only thing that grieves me 
is the loss of persons who are the ornament of our race. 
"I have just finished Woodrow Wilson's book, 
'The New Freedom.' I am enchanted with it. He 
has exceptional talent as a speaker, and as a writer 
who knows how to set forth his thought as clearly as 
he carries it in his head. Javais de quiproquo, jamais 
de malentendu, et avec ga, logique et consequent taut le 
long du traits. If that man set out from the standpoint 
of Socialism, he would be magnificent in his arguments, 
and his nation would be grateful to him throughout its 
whole history ; for a sound idea, explained by so fine a 
talent, remains in the people's minds forever, even if 
at first it is not accepted in its entirety. 



i-( I 

"iniu ut RLbSlAN REVOLUTION 269 

"At all events, if we take literal! v nil fK • • 

expressed by your nresonf p/ * I ^^ «''P"'»t'ons 

remarkable rtCLrThe ^1.7*' ^'- ^'""'^^ ""'^^ « 
make over a Jr^ itutln t- ".^^ ^'^ ^'''^ '*'"^^*"^>' *« 

with the ri/htraTd'r^ot^r "^^^^^^^^^^^ '^'Pr^ 
ruler he is. prosperity of the people whose 

a» an old tree amo„« a crowd of voufh "IT '"^'^" 
understood by mv iuniorr^n °7?"^''',"''<' I try to he 
them. ^ ' '• "'"' '° ^ -ndulgent toward. 

oM^'riellr^:;!:,,"-' ■'"'-■•"« T""'^'"^ -^ 

easily .ake a^'n'r^r "rnlLt; ""'' ^-^ ""' ■"'«"' 
ComeHrde'seT-tt'*^ "i" '""" "'•"'"" -P-""""* 

Hollandalsl whorp'turLreTtt:",^ "iT' 'l 
a mght at her house, and saw how muchThe ha,T„T 
There was with her a teacher , ,l.ff " ,r . *" '^°- 
accomplished too. ComeHa' tsfZ T- ^"' ^"^ 
from top to foot T T^. i. f^"'' ^^Unguished 

now? Cplrt ait o Mi^Addat:t ^^^ "^" 
older, and I wonder h\ t *""'""' ^"""fs her much 

a lot ofl-fferrt 1h : T '"^'^ '° '"'«" »»<^h 
Active ike rA„"' *,° "^ "^''y'^here at once. 

You might /ancy'meT„;V:re1Jrfr2X\™'^'^^f 
my letters ; yet my heart is full of thl^MnlT^- "' 
my good wishes to all who will accept them"' 


To Miss Wuld. S<.i)tt.i!iluT 20. 1913. 
"The snow already covers the n.«.„„ous honhTs 
of he su,n.rl> Lona, and frost will s.hh. fill ,h. waters 

cutio s, louvn.^. us isolated on our little island, entirely 

c'HKU fed hy eold. ill treate.1 by the north wind. ^ 

It .s strange! Every tin.e that I an, aske<l t„ 

there woul.1 l„. ..„„u^,|, ,„ ...i^ ,,,„,^ „, • "J j 

n.ore than „ l,«,k. Bui, ev.-r .inoe ,„v ,.|,il,I Zl I 
have been ,„ the habit of ere„l,„„ „ s.iiri.ual e „„ 
mtenor world. «I„Vh e„rre„,„„,led better tithZ 
»p,ntual taste.,. T|,i, i.nasinary worhl ha, had t"e 
upper hand over the real world in its details, over all 
that IS transient. 

"The aim of our existence, the pe fecting of human 
nature, has always been present in my viln, irm" 
mmd. The route, the direction that we ought to 
take m order to approach our ideal, was for me a 
problem, he solution of which absorbed the cflort^ 
of my enfre hfe. I was implacable to „,vself for my 
weaknesses, knowing that to serve a divine cause we 
must be at honest in all things; wc must s." 
cerely love the object of our devotlk, - that is "o 
say, m this case, humanity. 

"Tliese meditations, this interior spiritual work 

beyond the present, permitting me to inhabit the most 
longed-for regions, all combined to attract but very 
attle of my attention to daily circumstances. With- 

LITTLE (.lt.\M).M(mM u oi- n, ... 

pa.,,,,I i„,|„, „„„„"•'"» 'v„r,l. „,v ijf,. 1,,,^ 
flu-re. „r,,..„, /„ „„.■ "' ' '". "'-' "'■■'1 «•,,., „|„, ,., 

"■-...s. The duly ,0 C; ,1 ,'''''■'"■'' "' «•"« 

has b..e„ ,1... laJTf,;, ' 7 """"'"• '" ""^'■■'"l-. 

voice ,uell..d „,,- „,.„•;„„'- , .^.^f ™:- '-- whose 

Th,, duly, ,,,l(,v„|,.,| f„,„, ' ; • "•>• "'"knesses. 

«n(,„u.„t. ,|,e„ f„rhfi,.,l • ""?• ''y '•'■l'>io„s 

analysis of life i„ i , ' ' ' '""""'" ''y ""•■'•«ve 

that there i, noth.^ ';:" 'fc f ,^17"' ""■ ™"^'-""" 
"ertain happin,.,3 a., ,„ J,. ^°f^^^ ".^f"''!^' for 
c, use the noblest, the l,l„l. f ""P"'™!,!,. „,„, 
mind of man. *'"'' "'"'"'8 "" known to the 

"For it is only in serving ti. 
tably perfect oLelZ Zc^l'T"^ '^^' - 'nevy. 
uplifting transport of our sou,. T.T'' '^' "'^^^ 

happy, our conscience bd;;"';;J"V ''' ""'" "^ 
-^P'rit being sure of victory ^ ' ''"' ^''^^^^'^^ 

"I am sure that our AlicP as w.lF 
remembers how difficult it 1,1 f ^' ^""* ^««bel. 

-ysdf. when that tas e L"d 1T "" ^c?- ^^^^^ ^^^^ 
my thoughts more than hi. ' ^'"^^ ^ ^^^ in 

which I have toclft^morX'".''^ "^ ^'^^"^^^^ 
These facts, to tell the TrZl "" ^''^^^^ °^ "'>' ^'fe. 

the truth, are confused enough in 



my memory, an.l off..,, I sl.ouM ,mt »„. ahio U, rdntr 
them in a tluir iUlniU \i ^*^ 

mspect for the m( ivn im of flu- hi.,»..r. 

granueur of an mtell.^^.nce illuminated by love and 
To be better understood, my dear T ;il,nr, t ♦ 

would remain indifferent (cold) to tJ .iT i , l- 
ow. eminence, having hi/ "ii'd t .^f .^ oti^I 

It VSd • "" 'f'"' '° ''""^''"'«' - dear to me 
that I could scarcely ever detach my own self frZ 

the ex,stence of humanity in it, entirety, ^ from tha" 
of my people in particular - did I have timHr de' 

f" i» t.,«,, „„,wi.1,,„.„V^:^ my LbH "n-"-""' "'7™ 
in an abstract worl.l ,„ .1, • , ''""»•' ''''""''• 
I have in no wTv 1 ' .L T"".°' '"^ '""".■i""!™. 
near me. and that in ., ' "•''," "' "'»' '°^<' '^ ""'«' 

invaluable gift as m„^l, f Pfhably I owe Ibis 

the oontinua IpractTc^tf „,""■ T"'"' """"•'^ «' '" 

of those by whom iTm '""f ""''"" '" ""^ f"'" 
'•r -ii- """n" • am surrounded. 

reply: 'I worked for ,.."• ^°" "'""'' '•"^ '» 
that*mea„sTj:,t XV;!::'^:"- ■" ""■-- "»" "^ 

To June Barrows Mussey. On picture card 
November 4, 1913. 

S xiere, who is enjoying herself with her parents 


«* I..TT,.H ...,AN„,„„,„,, ,.K IU*„N KKVOL, T.ON 
ih-'rllT"""." """'' "' " """'"" '"••••»•■ Hu. I f..„, 

: " '" '"'^- ^'""Ol "> "i.v nxpiM I rnul i,,„,,v .\ 

;•"" ";""•"■•" «-in.x ,.„.i u„.,/ S ;, ; 

„„, „ Novcinlxr 17 ;i(), I»|». 

S... ,^fr,. n,.rr.,w,) was ,„„«„« „, |ik.. „„ „„^,.,. 
.. "I ».. ,1,.- I,,,, ,„„„,| ^.j I K . 

■t,or,, „,„ „„.„„„..,,. SI,.. w„, „l„,v.. o :,rM 

. h,.r ,l,.|,<.„ e att,.„t,„n ,o .lu- n,.,,l,s of oaXtLZ 
P<;r»<m. .SI,., wa, fit to 1... „ „,„,|,.,r, „ „i^. "„ ^,'"^'"« 
fr.™d ; ,l,e „..v..r vvi,l„„| ,„ ,„. „ ,,e„..fT,c ^t, o L 
Po»., to be |«,k,,, „„„„ ,„ „„ i„^"2^Z^ 
ou«h, to be a „,„.1..| ,o be pra/Jl ..,,,1 narZ'JZ 
She was a gocl a„.l wi«. spirit, „,„t earn" to u» to 
«how how one can live an.l 1,V, „|wa,v, re, ,ly ,o Mn 

E; an, V •■ "'"■ """■'"■"« '•"•■■ »"■• ■-"'•■■owful 

dark„.« ,h I: ""• ."""■'■"■ ""■ ^«''"'- ""•I th- 
renlir T, "'"*'"■'•'•"""<' "». for our,s aspire to 

't. Tins desire makes us better and stronger, and this 



UTTLK i^HAsimmum of Rts8,,.v RKvoLrrmv m 
interior foiw d««v.'lonH tlii> li<,i.» / 

A IHTMon who is nr ,J,.voi,l of 
with Much « .soul." ^*'"*^ ttc'quaiiito.1 

To MisH Blnrkwrll. Novcmb«T 90. lOl.S. 

"It is wonderful an<l iM-iinfiful siirh » f.; i i • 
ours. Two souls f... rwi . :.* 'riirMlship ,ut 

n.„.t^h„pp.,K.« to be. ,u,e o, . tre„,u.. aJll't 







EAora I., r,.,„nir her w„rk for Ih.. n.v.,l„ti„n „„,l 

Br.,hk„v,ky „„.,|.. „ ,,„„„^ „„,., • , Jy^i 

vrry n.urly »uctM^„|, ~"''^' *"""' 

Giwgc to Mi„ ll|„ckw.ll. Dowmlw u 


' B«bo,.,hk. i, capturH - ^''"''■""' «"''"="'''»d- 
•Tlu. account prinlcl ,„ „|| ,hc R,„„„„ „„„,. 
paper, „.y, ,1,.. w«, „,x-u.,tomo.l to take her ,|i„",^ 
<la.ty at tl„. hou,c of her c„,„ra,l,. exile "off 
S.X „„e,. two at „ ,i,„e. regularly f„l|„„.^ her " :„d 
fro A,ros, the roa.l fro,,, her h„u,e a sentry-C 
had b«.„ built for the l«o ,pie, who kept tl"eir e" 
upon ,t day and night. On Novetnln-r li (Old Stvle 
or Decen,ber , she went out a, usual to Vlad Lh^^r 
to dinner. A., usual, the spies follow,,! her. But ■ 
the even,n« one of the exiles,«.ff, .|r,.s.,c,l in he 
clothe,, came back to her house in company with ,„me 
fncnds. „l|„w.,l by the ,p|e.,. The lati,. li.lT,t 
P<Tcc,ve Ihe tr,ek. Meanwhile B..l«,u.,hka had aken 
horse, that were ready, an,l start„l away. Forlorn" 

Tout" I?'™ r" ""' '"""^'""'' "•™«'' '••' *d no 
go out. Her dinner was .sent resularly to her room 




«« Im.l lmp,M>rH.I l„.f.,rr wh.n ,1... ,.„, not well. Evrrv 

Of. NovnulHr ^I r|),..,..„,H.r 7) i. wa. .hVov.r,.! 
tlmt «h. luuJ H...I. T.. ,.,..„,K. ,lu. HouM hav,. had I.. 

on ir*'! "'rf •'"'"* ^''"'- '" '^^''-^ '" -"•'• '^'^'"^k 
m p (over I.HM kilonM.hT.). .M„.|„..,, f.., 

»urK 11... onlrr waM Kiv,.n l« catch her at «II c«hU 
()»«• thou.Han«| fihlrs uan the r.-wanl 

" ^a (\).vrmhvr (I) fh,. Gcvrrnor of Ir- 
kubk .iKhl «,.„dar„u.. and fifty ,,i .ntarU.I 
to .....t Imt and ...h-rcvpt h.r on fh. way. And to 
-;.Ty»H>dy'.H .h.y nu-t h.r h 'vo^ 
nulj. rom Irkutsk! How it was m^slhl. I^-a .not 
understand rn two hour, more V would T^ 
reached a .safe .shelter in Irkutsk. Th<. soldier, a 
couch a |.«.s.senKer. who was a well-dressed K^ntle 
man Unfortunately, H wa.s discovered that this 
K.-ntleman wa.s Rahoushka. who wa., inmu-diat y 
arms ed and conveyed to tlu- [rkutsk prison. 

It IS a great blow to all her But her 
anxiety I know, i.s not for herself, hut for others 
She hade me m advance do my utmost to console you 
and a I her friends if the wa.s unsucc-essfur 

si.h M ; "'*'' ^'"' ^^'"' *° *^"'"*' ^'«"t «f fore- 

.Kh . 23 (the v.-ry day of her arrest) is 
her bhthday. ami u.sually .she receive*! by some 
present, which renuired her personal receipt T,. 
wluH '7 r^ ^^""''^ '" '^^-^ " --«te place 

a7 this'T ^ T r' ""''r '''' ''^'^^^y- She knew 
all this And I beheve she found the circumstances 
especially favorable if she determined to disregard It/' 

' See Appeodii. 

■7 -* 


I J ^' 



To her «,„ Mol,ol„,. Central Prison. Irkutsk. Siberia 

know whether I shall be allowed t;";::. ": „ itZ' 

healfh V I """" ""^ '"""''" "^--nxiou. ab"u my 
health I ask you my dear, to let them knn«, .1. Tr 

"Your Mamma, Catherine Breshkovsky." 
To Miss Blackwell. January 13-26. 19 14. 
"I have been notified that I mii«t n«f j 

now any more than I did there." "°ermg just 

For this attempt to escape, she was kept in solitary 

Sro'tre^n^rtr "'""" '^ ^^ -'"» 
Her letters from Irkutsk prison continue cheerful. 


To Ellen Starr, April li-«8, I9H. 
"There h nothing more beautiful than to be truste.1 
by our neighbor,, to know that nothing ea„ cW 
the relations established between theman.l „". Wm 

milTtr'^' '""' ''-'' ""'"«• ""'■ ™P"- '" e-y 

.stade^aL-'Slffiel'"'" T " '™« '""'"'y' '"" «' "b- 
stac es and difficulties of every kind. The traveler 

n lrm:^\:r '"' "f """ ■"■ -"•^ -"^ "->> 

in nis Iife-t me the sacred mountain which he has 
chosen for his goal. But when onee he is sure of h" 
choice, and of the approval of those whom he respect 
he marches on till his lust breath, without IT^L^ 
discouraged. Beautiful Dame History wh„ Ze2 
us as her companions, does not show us the gS 
perspective in detail; all we can ask of her is tL .iT. 
direction shall be true for the whole time du ng Jh fch 
the life of humanity is to last." 

Madame Breshkovsky once said to me, "Mv life 
has been like a long journey. If an opp;rtuX o? 
persona happiness came to me, I took it only as I 
might pick a flower by the way, or eat a Jnb^„ " ' 

To George Lazarelf. May 12-85, 1914, 
"May has come to Irkutsk, too. The Lena Riv.r 

tation of the exiles are ready for their work. I exD«-t 
any mmute to hear: 'Be ready! get un'- aT-T. 

dearest. Till a new place!* I do not fear the coming 
Joun.^. Utely the good people in Irkutsk Tu d i,! 


Russia have nourisliod me abundantiv .« ,.. . 
me gain not only i„ ,t„.ngth bu i„ tt' Z Thrn 
winds of the Lena River do nof iZu, "''"' 

"aXfXT'h •" T-^^^^^ re 


my correspondence with my fne'd, % " s^ Vat 
from every possible Tsle of Bouvan' on tl,. • 

"Yours forever, Kitty." 

A series of postcards brought loving messages to 
her friends, and said that she kent wpII ^.^^^^f *^ 
-eiving "a shower of cards'-'Lt' Amerir M^' 

verses, and that he wondered at her talent. 
To Miss Blackwell. June 8, 1914. 
"Tuhps, daffodils and othe- sDrinir fl««, 
my solitude and carry my thou^^l';::" iTal! 
be forced to spend the coming year alone «« T I 
the past six months. The lack of h? ^^""^ 

not to forget"rEUhInX"VndTar TT"" 
them in order to s^ bctter'^hr'd^tly the hl'a°f 
b^ IS penetrated with ideal sentim^L 



(Of L^;t;''4n7;,tf «7. -d even . „.,„,•„, 
/ i^jgiu Dt sent to rae m English." 

•«T« * . May 13-26 Iflli 

thoy do not tell me li' "" *•* «° ""h •' or not 
it rejuvenate. n.eTll tl^lZTZVl'"' """■ "" 
'n the open air. I shall hl.^ ' ^^'^^ '^P^"'* «t 

however severe." '^**^^ *° "^^«* **»« winter. 

"Remember me to all n "^"^"'^ ^"^^' ^^'^• 
them I am bearTng LlZ .T'"'' ^"^"^^- ^ell 
my physical strength Thol '"' ^7"^'^' ^^^ ^^at if 
will not be the fault of m^ T^^^^^ ^""''^^^ "'«. it 

cairn, accustomed ilu "^oT ' "'"' ""^'"^ ^'^^^^ 
«« »t « to be surprised at nothing." 

««T _ .. September 17-30 lfl14 

-nt in .uch sto^/ir'- " «"' '""" °'- «■" -»■ 

to pi^^. t':.ztjt ?\'T«'"'"- -'"- 

daya is filled. wX't hi ^ ^'^ ""' ^^^'^ <>' <»" 
atand open-mouth^ ^ifZ l"T'^' °"« ^''" ""'y 
theless, in spite oTilTll ,,'' *''""<'"■ Never- 

accompany unive^al wafmvr r Z''"^""^ that 
it is, does not foresee Th T'^ )T^' '" ^'"'"^ though 
KTeat hope tha^ „l„^df;"'' "' •'"""'""y- ^ have 
world wUI be ouriLT !. T" "" ""' '"^^^s of our 
through such Sf:" Ji ™"«'"-''. «'ter passing 

against all wars between the 

I ♦ f 



nation, «nd have foretold that militarism, when it 
has attained .ts highest point, must end by ann 
h^atmg .tself And the sentiment of indi^atbn .s mvading all „,nds against the in.soC o" 
Germany proves that th. people are for eulture and 
not for destruction. The evil i. horrible, for its depth 
as wd as .ts mtensity; but better days will come' 

heart FeHv^'rvVr ^tl ^"" ^°^'"« '^' "^^lest 
nearts Felix [Volkhovsky] is no more; brother 

Egor [Lazareff] feels weak, wearied with crushing to.I 

whieh has been his lot all his life. I feel well desoke 

he bars; and when weather permits. I go out for a 

ormX" *' *'' "' '"' ^^' *'^ numbness ou? 

"I have just read ''De Profundis.' by Oscar Wilde; 

nd what an immense difference I find between his 

psychology and mine! How much to be pitied are 

1:^1: atr sZr' ^-^^^^ ^'^ -^^^--^^ ^^ ^--n 

"I need postcards for children, and nobody sends 
me any. Into my letters to grown people I often shp 
pictures, which delight the little ones. ^ 

"In eight months I expect to be out of prison." 

^ November 5-18, 1914. 

T «y, n ?1V t "?* ^~^ ^*^''^"' ^"^ I believe that 
I shall get through the winter fairly well. I am be- 
coming more and more prudent, for I would not for 
anything m the world disappoint my friends' hopes of 
seeing me safe and sound next spring. 

"I often transport myself to Hull House, to greet its 
residents. The face of each of them lives in my^remem! 
brance. I must tell you that literature never leaves so 



.trong an imprcion upon me a.s human p.cence,- 

writer, while (he words, the ■xpreHfion, «n,l .1. 
actions o human being, imprint tin-, Xs' s^eept 
on my mmd that .hey remain engraved there fotve^ 
I IS beeause humanity i, my passion ; and the women 
are my hope of ,™i„« H «,„, j„y perfected 


are allowed to read the •cabreZ: 1 ZZZ' 

o?ma;;,uC:tr "- '" "-"«'" -" -O'-^n 

To Miss Dudley. January 17-30, 1915. 
"Oh. how lorluuate one is to have frien.l, - There 
IS a Russian proverb (very old) which savs • 'D„!-^ 

^Rulstrlr •"*":• "■" '"'- « hunSw^Ts.- 


out all these kindnesses that the good Lord sends me- 
sure^. °" """^^ ' ""■* I »•■«" be -nt to the north 

s«n Kussia, the Russian peasant, and for having car- 

.47rfr^:fd ' "' " ""''''"" "'"•^'' "'■" ■"'"'' ^^ 

though It m"y be HoT ;^- *"*'"'^ disorganized 

gn may be. I do not like to assure the world of 



■ S ( 


the strength inherent in our people; it ought to be 
proved before speuking of it ; but for myself. I believe 
m It with all the fervor of a soul that feels itself close 
to the soul of its people. Already the last ten years 
show the gigantic progress that is being made in the 
very entrails of our country. May the good Go<l bless 
us all ! And He will do it, since our spirit aspires to 
the good of all." 

To Miss Blackwell. January 17-30, 1915. 
"The victory (of woman suffrage) in Nevada and 
Montana is another proof of what well-directed energy 
can do; and it is for you. my daughter, to rejoice in 
It with pride — you who have followed so perfectly 
the course begun by your mother, who by her whole 
life proved the worth of a woman at the height of 
moral power. Honor to the American woman, since she 
eads her neighbors to the regions of a pure and noble 
life ! Very certainly, the women of other countries will 
not delay »o follow her, and the world will be rid of 
these horrible cataclysms, which destroy in a moment 
all that humanity has worked at for centuries. 

"Brother George writes me long letters full of 
painful interest; ' ut T feel that nothing can turn aside 
the movement of history toward a beautiful summer 
day. Is it not so ? 

"I want for nothing; my friends are untiringly 
kind, and I have ended by being ashamed of all the 
delicacies with which they surround me. 

"The American postcards for children are often very 
comical. They furnish me themes for fables in verse 
which I compose for the httle ones, and which make 
me laugh myself." 


— ,#,.. f „ 

« ^■, 


urru CRANDMonrER of revolit.on m 
To Mk, Blackwell. Maml, lo. ifl,j 

EiiietrBSr,' Tir^Tr,"' "^ '^-"" 

like it 8o much that I „m • ^^""^ P"^**'*' ^"^ 

prison." ^ " "■«■"" '"'■<=»8"> »hen out of 

George Uz«reff ,„ Mi,, Blackwell. March ,8. ,9,, 


says she has decuS* "'^'**''^"*y-«'<^on(l year. She 

(tHe Pa4: "shf'L? ri:, -t: ti^^jt 

about two year" „1,1 %h ^ f^ ^^^ " "O" '" be 

will not peS L -t™ k^':;^;!^^ '"^ *'"'*' 
her thread of hfe." ' "'" "">'""'« to spin 

To Mis, Blackwell. April «.-,5, ,9,5. 
Ihe news that Miss Kathcrine R n.,.: 1. t 
appointed superintendent o p "„„f if 7" '■f "" 
of goo,l fortune in my eves liUhsl ,■ ? ™' P'"* 
should beitin to CVIT , f '' '""" """ »""n™ 
regulate thllivest^d fatef f " '"'"'""""^ """ 
All the educat^nal lt:b shl^tsT' ''"'°^""'""- 
ought to be confided to ttmX """"^ "«""« 

Rus ia!Tnd I ti^Mt mi""""' '"^ ''^^" '""'"^^^^ ■» 
fa going to one" nt,nl" ^ '''^"' ^° ''"•^^<»-- The war 

wiU be a stSusT *^ "'"' '", ""-""^ ''«'^^- ""J tti» 


■wx^nwcb' • '»:ijii..r"-!?%; 



To Mi.« Blarkwell. May S, 1915 

!.oo,l ha, „.v..r rh„„«„|, «, ,h„t it, hi.ntory "^ul.1 bt 

oir, of my old oomrad,.,. I „,„ „, ,,ur» ,« T 

t?lf^ ■"'«"'""') ""■• " """"■» ".-• «mne have 

certainty ah„„t 4«'f Mtt-Xr/r hrL"^ 
to he «ood and worthy, and that up to Ihi, moren. , 
am corwtinK my fault, and imp.Xtion, Tn ? i 
toother,, i, i, their moral inclinalTtt" p,;^; 
«h,ch are the „bj«t of my observation,, rafht th« „' 
anythmg el,e. Al«, I mu,t ,ay that it wl "iwav" 
the future that e,pecially preoccupied me. The 3 

un ,„ "T"' '"r*" "« '" ^o '«' ■« they S 
up to, ■„ so far a, they give hope of ,uch or such a 

degree of perfectionment of human life. The pries' 
oJ my peope-I think of it continually. TfoSow eager interest the progress of oth.^ count ks 
knowing how interdependent they are. I am a Ws' 
absorbed m my idea,." • i am always 

To Mi,s Blackwell. 
the summer m prison, where one feel, the lack rf^ 

inTLE r.IMN„„„TlIKR OF m«,s,,N BBVOUTION «87 
Ju"! think, my fri,.ii,l, I,,,,-,. i„,i,,„| ,„^,„ „„ . „, 
my m««,h .„.„„.„, ,,„ nninZZZ X ' :» 

"•Pttir. ,.„,,. I „,„ „i, both Th 

.lootor »uy,, ,1..,, ,h,.y „■„ .... .„„,„,„, ,„ „ 7,' J;,„„'^h. 

let mo com.. „. Irk,„,|< ,„ ,,„v.. i, ,,„„,; , ."„'; ™'/ 
I am « „cc„.s..,„„.,| ,.. ,1,.. i,|..„ „f ,„,„.,, „ ^„"'" 

over my fate, which .,c,.m.s to mc always an enviable one 
Provided you kcn-p well. I am sure to bech«rful." 

To Mis, Blackwell. May ««-June 2. ms 

leav" them? Th ™"*' ''°»'' ""' P""' '"■'"«■ I 

leave them? They promise to apply ,„ „„. _ t„ „^ 

SIX months residence in the place appointed bv the 
Sovernment. ,„ choose the place that'^i^ts th L'best 
».th the exception of the capital city. In myca^ii 

eitie^r„; fo;:!L^; 'tr- '-" "'"^'--"" 

;^JaW. al^lMris Jh'rCX'tt 

cLe oT,7r'"'' '^r'"' r''' ■'- '••^"^ P™'-'"" In 
case of seriou.s illness T sTir^ni^i k i ^- *" 

versts fro. the iZ^:L1iM^^ ''^" ^'^^ '""'^^^ 


f i 

To MiHH Dxullvy. May l^-^^, \qi^^ 

m itroo ty « ,1,,. (.,.„„„„,. I „,„ h,»pinK for Ihr vic- 

"ry of tlu. Alii... An.l th... ,h.. wlllA^rlJ w„ | | 

»- ««mer«. hy kH f !,.« back to a h,«,.. of p,.„.., ^ n.; , 

»blo to cont.ruu. iis work of cullur.. )ur unalZmi 

try nmis it badly." *^ ^""" 

MA, .1 Jun«- «-15. 1913. 

I «nV . iil ' "'T""" '" P"'*"'"*' **"^ ' ^^» ""t move. 
I an .t,IU„„ra„t „. ,« ^Unt is to bt^„,„o „f „,,. 

Ihank heaven, after a ,„o„th of terrible effort., 
the war H resunuMK it. normal <.ourHe. a.ul the hope o 
-.•mg ,t eruleci to the a.lvanta^e of proKres.s in « .nml 

To Miss Blackwell. June U-«7, 19M. 

Yakul,k, A,u My friend,' ..ffort, ,„ h„vc mo al-' 
In Tr 1° ,' r '" ' ""•" '""""•''y P'- '-v.- Tail "d 
in ivirensk. It does not much surprise me- in*! »K«r, 

a"nd i: '/""kI""""' "''■ •" '^'^™"' -' f"r«f 1 .::; 

of Dril H "" " ^'""^ '"■• •">■ '»•' "'■•a month, 

wiirnoT.'.art™,^;:,;^'"'" ^""'-^ '- '"^ -"™^ 

"The cold al Yakutsk rise, above 55- the winter 
asts e,ght month,; .here is no ,pri„,, tor the Zm 

the nighu are freezing. The two months of sunmacr 


.t0m'. -I «.. 

ii ' 



umi clUNnMoniER of ris^ian revolltion m 

•re «>n,ctim« very hot. and omke it rio«ible to grow 
a few vegetttbleii. * 

"But. an it iM the cnpital of the provinee of Yakutsk 
which «tretehe. for thoiwandn of verMn in ev.ry clirt^.* 
tion. there are ,UhU>th there, and more p,.,nle 
than ,n Kirennk. Ther,. are ««,„.. ,K,|itiettl exile*, 
too. »o you may t>e ea^y a»K,ut me. I nhali try f.ot to 

thanks to the eare you ail take of me 

"The longer f live, the more I r.-ali/c that the foun- 
I aticm of my l>e,n« is an .dent ..nd invincible love f„r 
U' human raee. whi( I, as I believe. ha.H in it.self all 
the KerniM of an endle- * intelhvtual >.rfi^tionn " 
an ascent to a moral Iffe that will „mke it infin ^v 
happy. ThiH habit of living in human life a.s a whole 
has mmie me m, associate myself with the universal 
psychology that I lose mynelf in it. and care little 
alKiut my m<lividual fate, which is not dear to me 
once It 18 separated froin the general course." 

A political exile in Irkutsk saw Balmushka. at the 
moment of her setting off for Yaktitsk. He wrote: 
"She has become a little dcnf; her shaggy hair is 
8now.wh.te: but spiritually she is as strong as ever 
On seemg her. at the first moment, I could not keen 
from weeping, hiding my face on her breast. 'Look 
up, let me see what is the matter with you. rascal'* 
she sa.d. 'I don't like to see sad faces of my* little 
ch.ldreii. Cheer up. my boy. and speak loud, like a 
good oflScer at the front. I am a little deaf.' I looked 
at her; her motherly mild eyes were full of tears • she 
was sm.hng. I was not able to utter a word. The 
other boys and girls were awaiting their turn " 


fwlffi i 

«M UTTIK fiRA.M>M<)ni.:R 0» Ma»U!, WcmiTION 
To MiM Blaekmll. Y.kul.k. A.wi,i i .|». i»,j 

I «.n ha,>,,y ,., ,,r..„.|,.. „ f„.,„ „ir. v.ry „.,„■ [...n'Tn 
n wn, rr,«,rt„l ,l,nt hU.hmv Brr,hkov,l y woul.r 

. iH. ,, i„w.,i ,.. „.,v ,., ^uku^k. I,,., ..„„,.ri>,. ,™ 

I 1 •• •»"iic <.ir«-|«'. Mroiij; pruJfst.t iitfiiinnf 
..•r l.«n,,h„,..„l ,„ V„k,.„k .,.r.,ri!, ,1... ^^1 „„ 

i«2r"V'.'r" """■'" "'•■ """""' <"-".„,.„.::; 

izr::,r:i:r ' •- -"'" «- "--^ "-»?■' 

C«>rg.. Lnz„r,.fr .„ Mi,, Du y. Novrml-r IJ. iim 

wriltei, on the ,.yc of h.r ,l,.,mrlun- fn).„ Y«k„l,k 

urclurpd that ,he woiil.l „,.. !«. ,,.„, ,„,„, 
but Hho had not ,u,,Hrle<l ther,. w,« a p^^l 
..My of her H.i„« allow.,! to return «.„,h. AlUh 
attempt, ma<l,. by „any Socialist me„,l,..r, „ . 

«.uth of S,l.enn ha,l been un»ucc.,,,f„l. So it was a 
,urp„,e to when ,he wa, unexpectedK «U 

"I cannot find any reasonable explanation of this 


to th. *H..h «. n,«UKh hy th,.ir own will «m Jl 
pn-vrnt any aHUniUm In An,m< ,i '"* ^"^ 

•;lriiin,.arlMTlHhTMlM. hml writt..n : 

nuiny y.-ar, ul hunl l„l„,r. -, |„... l,„^,. ',„.'" """« 

no money, .„., , ..„. ;„,,,„„, ,„ _^^, ,,r.,tf' ^ 
">lony. Th,.y arc «, ki.„l. ,m,| ,„ ,^ „it..„iiv» 

"■"'7 f '•' '" ■"■■ *"■' *'"• '•>•<«" V..z..r,k • „„ .1; 
.n«™„. of .„ ,K„h, ,„ u„ y„,„h M,,. 'Y.t^,i" ';^^- 
IT h"'T'- ."^u " "' "'""^ '""« ""<' '...rd „ Ive^ 
procured a piuno and now I really enjoy her plnving. 
■■ . The louchmK care of my comrade, « ve, mc 

awful effect, living ,, dear, the product, arc ra •• 
eommu„,cation wi.h Russia i, ,„„,„Ll difficult M^ny' 
of the cxd™ have lost their friends ami relative, who 
can no longer sup,K,rt the poor exiles. E.crvhinK i! 

tT'nin " ""'"'"• ^' ""' «-' oPPortumty send 
me all the help you possibly can.' " ^ 

-.1, ^ I ' 

I '.; .; ■ I 



until the. flouting ,ce stoi,,,,.! navigation. She wJ 
halted at the httle hamlet of Vitim. 

To Miss Blackwell. Vitin. a little port on the Lena 
Uiver. October 1-13, 1015. 

and u";m n' n"' 'r "^l^Y ^T' '""" '"''^'^ f''^"^ Yakutsk 
and 14 00 nules from Irkutsk, waiting ,t practieahle way 

to contmue „.y travel, in a little home of my go^d 

J ^^"HTiea, that there is no weather no 

^l.fteulty stro,.g onough to cru.nhle mv lu-a to 
pieces, to kill me to the ground T„ . Vi 

«,;n u .1-1 • ground, in a month there 

wll I,.. 1.,.^ „^. ,„„,,i„^, j,,^. ,^,_,_^ ^ 

IrkuT,;'- " ""'"""''"" "'■"' ^^''"■" I^^l""" --h 

To Mi,s Blaokwll. Irkutsk, Der,.mh.-r 14 -«7, lOU 
••For two wcTks r hav.. been in Irkutsk, in the house 

ntte l,on. I hav,- now tl,e .,,,|„,rl unity to roRain mv 

But (th,.ro ,., always a but h. our couulrv) the eovern- 
ment of the town has encircled n.e withsueb .7Zo 
hat I cannot „.ake a step alone, b.,t every minute 
when ou of doors „m persm.ted by a row of Zhce! 
men and one of them enters the house and even the 

else. Quite a pnson regime. Such a state of things i. 

lurJhe™"" ''' '"' ' '° ""' ""'"'"• "»<' -» wait 

"It is not difficult to wait, having so excellent 

momenU m life as are part of my existence. Here J 


hav^re^Mved „ l„r«e packet of letters and pa,H.r» from 

th'.tt' """. '"'.'"r^ ''"■ ""y "y''"- The four months 
th.,t I ,,K.„I ,,„, „,„„,,, ,,„„•, „„. h» 

lM-»t re.,».<ly I „,„l,| |„.v,. |,a,|. You see I <„„ Li 
"»'l read all I .'et from voii I \ I , I ' 

mt^ for I l.av, con,ra,les to help ,„,-. The 
oculist say, my eyes will serve lue loal- enouKi, f 
hey are,.arefully used, and many years will p2 I..!- 

anL'''''r!f\''"°'.'.' '•■"•«'■,«''"'"• "nly '^O-OOO inhabit- 

t c untrt of he uilelliKent forces of I he co.u.try and 

mv ™7t'"""""'"" "V"""^^' '^' "'"■"- ''"'-i^ ^r 
"How JiadV'""""""' '™'" '""'''^' ""•* ■•-'■•tutions. 
hrnfh rn ;" •"'" ■'"''■ '" ™mmunication with my 

brother [George UzarefF). He helps mc with raonCT 
and r pn.y God to secure hin, and his friends ull Xy ^ 
especially now, when everyone is laborins hard for the' 
ake of mdhons of desolated p..ple. deprived of aH ia 
necessary for human life. The fugitives from all the 
frontiers encumber even the towns of Siberia and 
provsions are growing clearer every day It L the when all the good elements and all the wl e Ire 
workmg under a full head of steam. This war wdl be 
the provmg stone of the capacities of all humalv 
and espec^lly of those of the cultured people and el": 
tnes. A great show of the worid's progress. 

,.,, , . January 6-19, 1916. 

It has been my turn to be ill, ten days lying in bed 
and suffermg seriously. But the efforts of my fr"e„ds 

SffK^AJ^m^MAml^ ^Simm ji' 


and a set of good scientists of medicine have worked 
rea miracles I now feel strong enough to read and 
write, and walk about the house, keeping a rigid regime 
It was an maammation of the liver, kidneys, stomach 
and bowels, followed by a persistent fever. The 
weather ,s awful. Notwithstanding the frost of 40- 
It IS only to-day that the beautiful Angora river has 
been frozen. Until now its streaming waves have 
tilled the town with unwholesome vapors. Every 
nook m Siberia has its owv. poison. I am too sensitive 
o the cold^ Yet there is no danger now. Your dear 
letters reach me, those of others, too. and I am happy." 

To Miss Blackwell. February 9-22, 1916. 
"You say that the women of the Westover School » 
mean to send me $50.00 a month. It will be a great 
relief, and my gratitude will be profound. You wi-ote 
me once that many persons said: 'She would receive 
much more help if she used the money for her own 
needs, but she gives it all away.' 

"I think that if my sharing with the poor makes me 
ftappy. that is all any one can contribute to my welfare 
I am not only happy when mending the naked needs of 
my comrades, but am seriously unhappy when, knowing 
those needs, I am not able to help. So every ruble 
every dollar, is a joy. a hope, a possibility of rendering 
a service to those who lack the bare necessaries of life 
b^ven when a prey to fierce inflammations, I never for- 
get my obligations towards those to whom I have 
promised my help, and I cannot rest till my waiting 
comrades are provided for as arranged." 

»At Middlebury, Connecticut 


UmE GaA,„,Mar„EB op r„ssun bevolution »m 


unfortunate oecu,^™^,.^', '""«'!' ™-' '» «Peet 
them whntever One^ 1 1!^^."" '" "" '■™«>n '"■• 
of minea,kirher?n!!„H ^'' '° "" "'<' """"n friend 
say i. e a gZllmeT-^f T"""" ''^''''' "■''''='> doctors 

and eManatbnIf ^"hXl1t.;T,J "f"^""" 
years' police surveillance. ^ ''"'^ '° '™ 

"There have been many such cases I ^„ .l . 
a correspondence with anvh^,, j . '"" ''««'» 

quainted with anvbodv t •^' ^° ""* ''«»'"<' ac- 
will do people no "^^,^^' ^""'"^ l^'o-kand that it 

"My whole present life, much like in,™: 
a conclusive proof of how zeSouslv f h ""P."™™™*. « 
to compromise me and tCe »m,W ?" "* ""^ "•^'"8 
me. It is not enough tUf ? * '" ''°"''"=' "■"> 

gendarmes are oTfua d"dL"ri"°l'~"''""'" ""'' 
of the house where I 1 ve ei "'*'' '" "'<' y^"i 

with their electrriamDlairT"'"'' ""'' ««>"»'"« 
evening (i„ the c tv 3, "?° """^ ""-l 8° ■" the 
- all are workif f- Cf "1 "^^ ""'^ '" ">« ''^'"»in« 
forces his ™y So the i^oas T *^P°«- -"P""'" 

"^^eu mat 1 am here. Neither 

>l u 


my illness nor tlu- presence of doctors and nurses pre- 
vented him from 'verifying* me in bed. 

"Once I said to him : 'Yon won't even let one die in 
peace,' but that did not keep him from breaking into 
the house at three a.m., when ihepohceman had reported 
that at two o'clock a woman had left this house for the 
maternity hospital. 

"A soldier is in the habit of visiting my landlord's 
cook. A few days ago three of us were sitting in the 
evening, waiting for the samovar, but it did not come. 
It was already ten o'clock, half-past ten, and the 
samovar did not arrive. The kitchen here is across the 
hall, and our landlady went to find out what i revented 
us from having tea. Policemen and gendai nes were 
searching the kitchen, and right there were the cook 
and the unfortunate soldier. That was a search! 
They had not even thought of notifying the landlord. 
The cook was wanted at the police office. There she was 
questioned, reports were made out, and all the cook's 
love correspondence was retained, to examine into its 
meaning. Owing to my indisposition and my dislike 
for kitchen odors, I have not been in the kitchen since 
my arrival, and have not seen the soldier a single time. 
The policemen, who are always peeping in at the 
windows, particularly the cook's, know, of course, that 
I should neither see her guests nor speak with them ; 
but if I had been in the kitchen at the time of the 
soldier's visit, what would have come of it? The 
police are obliged to bring information, even if they 
have to suck it out of their thumbs." 

UmE CVVOMOTHKB OP „..„,, „,,„,„,„^ ^^ 


To Mi,s Dudley. March I9-3I. 19,8. 

«.nde»e..„di„«. C:,.„.,e,„.„ o "^wwaT" 7.' '"." 
works and survcvs lik,. „„ .• ■''"'"«•''■ »Iw 

nothing, and act ; ^r , n ™"''' . '"'"""■ '™""« 
do.e„ children do noU^ L „^ ^ fT"' •'" ''" 

BeCtrt'hrR':::^:;-;^^^^^^^^ -"•. «thc. „ho 

people differs not only f^rih^t „^'"', P'^^hology of our 
from that of other SI ^0^0 /r ^^ '''"■''''• """ '^^''n 

Bulgarians, etc oT r„ ^T '' ^ P"'-. ^echs. 
brave, but endowe,! w[th ! """" "'■'' ""' ""'y 

and both these riS i T"" '™Jerne»s of heart. 

help, and to take up ^;":'';; "',T ""-'«^''- ^-dy to 
ur upon tneir .shoulders pvorv Ko«j i 

In general T thmi^ „ "'"*^'^*' ev try hard work. 

humanity. I ;e.!p::;t Trth:: b :, ir "t.' -' 

m the world. Almost all '„'''*'"' '^^'^''ythmg 
women; only the poor L'h'f.r"-'^"''™'^ ""^ 

/ H' 


vocation is so needed, so beneficent for the present and 
so fruitful for the future, as the rational and moral 
education of children." 

In May she was transferred to the little city ol 
Minussinsk in Eniseisk, about a hundred miles from 
the frontier of China. She was not sorry to have ii 
change. "I always remember the saying of our peas- 
ants," she wrote, "'If worse, yet different.'" In 
Minussinsk the climate was warmer. She enjoyed 
much more freedom, and her health improved 
" Really, my nature is like that of a wild man. Steppes, 
forests, air, river, sky, are the region where I grow 
young and strong. Without space I feel like a bird ir 
a cage." She found herself in a congenial society oi 
political exiles, and would have been happy but foi 
her grief over the war. 

To Miss Dudley. August 2, 1916. 

"We must realize how dark the common brain still 
is. It needs thunder blows to be awakened and begic 
to think. Less than forty years ago, all the East 
China, Russia, etc., were looked upon as dead, crys- 
tallized in their ancestors' prejudices. Now you set 
mighty China acquiring such ideas as are found in th( 
van of European civilization; and that after five 
thousand years of slumber. During the last thirtj 
years China has received heavy blows on her shoulders 
back and head, and very hastily she understood thai 
she can no longer exist if she does not prevent the new- 
coming blows. China began to think, to analyze, t( 
compare, to find out issues, only after hard and costlj 

"Now we never doubt the capacities of mind and th( 



and tymnnical. «r s"^' „t,v "";' ^T"" "-^^y 

o' the wori.i-, ^;zzi !::z;'"' ""-• '"^^ -""• 

To Mk, Blackwell. October 1-13. 1916. 

much.'7'fXs?r'^'r "'?■" ■"••• " "- '<» 

myself a good ,oul. nothing more." 
To Erne.,t P«>le. October «. November «. ,»ia. 

your .itt,rnV°por„r' '™^ '*'""■ '''"' ^- «"•« 

All right ideas and social rofnrZ eleven ago. 

ning; 'hey belonged rier^wTr^Z V^ 'if 
are so widesnronH tK * *. . „ groups. But now they 

tries. For Is :'ncl't'J^;fr"" "^™ """^ «>»- 
lik^- the -New YoTk Cal, m U'lT """ ""* P-'P" 

quesTiTsTrr'^st' T.™ '■"'"' p™™-" 

moral and phy'tal '1 L "" "« "''^ P^^'^^" "' 


'" practice '1^' he 1". '."'l''^' !"" "*" ^«" P"' 

various InternaliotV^ ;::t .^ If ''"^: "' ,'"' 
and you must not weary of'rep:a:i„rtheLr' '''""' 

' Tlie Socialist daily in New York. 


To Lewis Ilerreshoff. July «4, loie. 

"f do not think there is any nationality quite innocer 

in the liorrorn we are witnessing. Yet I regard th 

comluet of the (uTmans as ahsunl. even unpardonabh 

From ,„y c.h,I.ih<K«l I «hslike.l ,he disdain and roughne.s 

whieh eharaeter..ed their behavior lowanis our Russia, 

rH'opI*-. whom they regard as an inferior race. Ou 

neh pro,.netors «ft<.n ..ngaRed (Jernum agronomes a 

inanaKers of their estat.-s. an«l „ur peasant, hated thos, 

manaKers f..r their syst..,„atie perseeutions and rough 

ness The punishments were terrible; no mercy. n< 

mdulgence; very hard labors. I recogmze that th. 

Gertnans are skilful in every sort of manufacture, thai 

they have energy and F>erstverunce." 

[In another letter she says : "When we were childrer 
my parents employed a German girl to teach us the 
language. I remember her rough voice and cold 
manners. Of course there are goo<l souls among the 
Germans, too. But Russia has rather suffered from 
ttie German civdization.") 

"The English and Americans are proud too, con- 
scious of the of their race; but, to my great 
joy, they have always recognized the good sides of our 
people. I have read many books by intelligent travelers 
in Russia, and I was always pleased with the authors' 
impartmhty. Now too. when reading the opinions of 
the English papers on the bravery and honestv of the 
Russian soldiers. I am sure that they mean what they 
say, for they expressed the same oF)inions when witness- 
ing our war with the Turks in 1877. Our young men 
fought like very lions. ""4? men 

"I do not desire the destruction of the German people. 


. ^''*' ""•"•K«-nco of our ,„i,ul. our soul isu J 

tl.™., „„.| „„t to 1„. a.,l,a,„„| „, it V ll, 1 " 

M our (i«| i„ ou, Im-u,.", r 1 7'" "'"■"J" 

nioilcs of life its nwn f i .' "''" ''"^^«''>' ""'^ 
long a.s my Xl^/t:; 7' ;' "T'-'^'^''^ ""^ - 

to use their innate ^.nTv 1 ^''""" ""^^ ^'"^''' ^"^^ 
of course, that they shTn ? ^m.'"'' °" condition, 
of others When ;L ', "'''^'"' ^'^^ ^^^' ^ff«'>« 

to live a cionTr3'';h:l"".'?f ^' ^'^"^ "'^'^' 
tHe world. Perhap the t"l • ' "^•'«'^''"". ^«th all 
might think." ^^ '' "°^ "^^ '•^"^ote as we 

To Miss Dudley. November 5. 1916 
urchin ia its sh^H onlv h' l- '"" "'^'^''^ ''^^ « «^a 



dolriK I turn ami return the facl«. the .ayin«« a 
wrilinKH of aUTeront n.ina... of aifferent ,mh„>Ic 
Tt .r" nt -unlne.. A. fur «h ! know .t ^n-m. to 
Tt we can u«ree with Mr. Tatf. .,H^h 
CVwi* ♦ ThiH brave w.)man. of a bn«ht and la 
min I "pUuHea ,ne yeurn n«o, when, traveling over ev 
^^UV of the woHa. she deHerihea the .ituat.on of 
«,»ffr««e umhl the women of the variouH nations. , 
is born u U'ader. . , 

•Now. I w.,nd..r. loo, at llu- mustorly way m «1 
Eiwlaml .lo..», will, wlu.1 K.-..iu, sho UwlluT 
nTi« her h«n.U. wU-ly ovrlookin^ the ..tlu.r: 
the worUl. I wish only »he may U- «« h...< and n^ 
1,1 w wine a,.<l »lron«. H.-l it w;"!' >-• ■' « 
mUlake o. h..r part to ..ttlo affair, - '^-^ ^ ^^ 
partiality, for in that cm. nothn.« woul.l !»• pr^^r 
Yet a long. or. hetter. a continual IHUce ., n.«,H 
the dc«.latlon » too profound to be cured .n a 
time The co.mtrie, have lo,t all their Wnt y. 
ore-,, an.1 we n.u,l wait till the young genera 
g^w o be of u,e. We have thou,and, and thou 
Torphan, around u,. and it we do no apply a 
efforts and means to bring them up and teach then 

have no future. . , 

"The child question is the most senous and 

tinually pressing question of the ■«- J h""^ 
around me. the poorest. We are •?<«<» '"™'''-'^? 
little I do is already a relief in their dull and need, 
Many of them visit the school, and need b<»k 
^veL pieces of clothes. I do my best to suffic 
hey are so many! It is awful to see how he 
is ' "ish They are writing in every paper abou 
and fuel, and they forget that if the race dies out, 



inR« ft»ul 
M*o|>lc in 
us to me 
ch, 'Tiio 

tvvr every 
ion of th" 
ons. She 

in whieli 
i^,.th«'r Ihf 

utTuiM «f 
iiiul noWIe 
M? 11 Rrejit 
' untl with 
ni'oeHsary ; 
in a short 
tent young 
1 thousands 
iply all our 
:h them, we 

s and con- 
have a lot 
ids, and the 
1 needy life, 
i books and 
suffice, but 
IV the world 
r about food 
es out, there 


Will be nohcKjy tu e«l «„,| t« provide. For ,hame • I 
»h«ll cry ihu .,ue.lio„ out in .wry letter to my many 
;:3:t •• '-^ «nd ur^e them to do all theyT ti 

To IMJM Ikwrnbop 1-14, iju 

'■....'f.Vrt I (^,.1 linClTritrTlllIvn "■""l'.""^"'"""" '-y 

t ., .1,,.. ,0 ,„y .,,,,;,„, ,„,,. ,^^ ^ • h» 

the fnc „f any |, ,„ „, „,., ,.^^,^, ^ ^ ^i 

pn.y.Hl .... Cr..,.tar t„ re. „.,. n,,J. Zl .Cun. 

more. .,...., ...t I ,„cc,,..l ,K.„Hy. „„.| it .,..., ,: ,X 
mu.* to ,„«„,„.. ,„y h..«rl, r„,v p,.,,io,., ^ wl... . |, . 

work,, out a ,. .ilosophy that .l«,„'t a||.,; ,.„;^:^' : 
m,.nt«l,,,„, a,,,, ,,„1,|., „... a„,| „,y .|i,,„,iji„„ ,./ «"^ 
state of or.l..r „„.l p,,^. f ,„„,j „„j ^. " «^ 
appear Areetly. without ,eei„« the i,,sue of the p„.,'"t 
world tragedy, yet. if the end ca.„... I should '"t ^ 

"To you alone I confess one thought that i, of in- 
terest to .„e. Nearly every pan.l e,H.„t i.. the We "f 
tny own country, also the solution of the ...oral and 
eth.eal question, of humanity, have W™ j" 

hfstorv ,/" P""?'"" '." r ■"">•' ""• present eourse of 
h.story (I have done .t for ...ore than half a ce„t,.ry). 
m »tudy.n« past history. I have ae.,,.,l (he power o 

z:t T""'> ■';■':" -t"" '■'"''' "'"- - n^-^^o" 

come to the front, I have had them in mind, and my 
imagmation h« worked out the way. and method, t^ 

' wm .^- ^ B {llif i i i *3tM&BP 


I f - 

im I.1TT.4! ligAMnMnniKR ,„ MmAS REVOLUTION 
r,.llow. For ia,„....... ,|,.. w„r »ilh fimnnny w« not 

" "" '••'»' " "''n.ri~- Kiv. v.ur. lH.rl. U 

.vnly of ..„r „.„„,,,•, |,.,„ ,., „„„ „,.. i,.,.„i..„ "^ ^ " 
« ......Mv.. „„... M„„„,..,. „„ „„. .■„„i,..,,„V, X 

..»..«..«..,„„, „n.| „..„ , „.., „„.,_ „„,.,„, ,.,,..:, JZ 

ip w w„, i..„„ „«., .,(«.,,„„, i„ ,,,i,,. ' . ; ^"i^' 

..• .HTf..,.„„ „f „... r,„v. I ™..,., ..;,.. n,„rr .,lr: 
'"■I .' "...y.,,.,., ,„.. ,„„. il„. „.r„i,i.. „„ „j„ ,,„ j;;- 

-Hi 1,11 „.,^ will l»^.„„. H..,.r. „„.| will „.k.. r« id 
P.-^ ... .h.. ,..,..,u U.«t have «. ,„,^ u..„ w J, ^l:^ 

To Arthur Bullar,!. NovemlnT 30-Dect.mbrr 13. I9I«. 
"Th.. riKor of ni.Vry i, »r>r.-...lln« ov.-r „ll Eurone 
but Ru»,„„ ,.,m.r, th- ,„<„,. „wi„« ,„ |,„ ,,,„,.i„| 3: 

«P«rl. , urroumW on ovry ,i,l,. with ..„..„„•.., Tlu 

"..r». vo,. But dont forK.-! thu,' th.. histo y of^S 

«.u„lr...» Very cr,...| i, w,.,. and wo f.. the^i^ 
quenc, ,t.ll. VV..,,hall f„.| th.™ for a lo..« t me 7h1^ 

ZrttT ir"""" T, 'It'-""" '"' - ■"<•"■ -«ve 

We are L. '^'"'"' "';"' '"'" """■'' P""™"" "'■ '"'ve. 

our », V '" ■™'"' "' '•'■'""" "' ""' •<> understand 
our „„„t,„n. our surrounding,, the condition, that 

"Son.Him«i llu. |,o,,„r of ih. p^e^.^i j, ^ 
Hat I „,^.J „|| ,„y will „„t lo ,i„k into .l..l.r V 

frtiMl NT *'•'' '-oufUnVs lyin^ iM.hln.l ||„. 


they ™,„/, "„:'",::',': tt """'""'• ;''■'••" 

^^ To Mks .tarr. January 20-i^Vbruary 8. 1917. 
'I do not know who sends mo tfm t u . 

having the advantage of possessing it." 

» A aingle-tax paper. pubUahcd io New York. 




To Miss Dudley. January 28-Fobruary 10, 1917. 

"I shall never forget the moment you took leave of 
me. I do not think you have changed much since then, 
hut sometimes I wonder if you would recognize me! 
My hair is not only white as snow, hut very thin, my 
teeth are gone, my walking slow, with a in ray 
right hand when out of doors. Perhai>s the eyes and the 
voice are the same, and I laugh often enough, which 
is a surprise to me. It is the result of my faith that the 
great mischief of humanity will bring new ideas into 
the heads of the masses, and will make the heads more 
clear, the minds more strong. A new era is coming, I 
feel it with all my soul. E\ en if I die before the end 
of the war I shall die at peace, even for my country." 

To Mr. Herreshoff. February 4-17, 1917. 

"Your sister is seriously ill! Your best friend and 
companion! I wonder that people living in good 
conditions, surrounded by their family and some com- 
forts, can be ill, being not old enough for that. The 
loss of good people is the greatest misfortune to which 
we are subjected. When I hear that this or that old 
friend of mine has left us for another worid, I feel 
lonely, for I know that by and by these brave old 
comrades will pass away one after another. 

"Depressed ! it is an awful stat:- of mind, and I wish 
I could send you, who have spent your life without 
constant misfortune, a part of my resignation. Un- 
certainty is my constant condition. In such a position 
one ought to be ready to meet bravely the worst that 
can happen. Therefore I believe with the litil- nephew 
of your friend Miss Drury, who said to his n. -se, 'Why 
do people look so stern when they say their pra; -s?* 


All our sufferings arc very small in comparison with the 

iiL J ,. ,.,, fiijit the moral oouraire of vonr 

Zdvt ;:,"■'•'''',;"'' 'T"^"''"'-^- "-^^ ™» "™ 

alrtad, („■ t .slu-s all over tl„. world tliat are asking 
for equahty of mjorcsl and r^U. In „,„ „,(,,.; „"s 
of to-, ay we can hope to see belter times, with the h In 

w,th the eh, d who re„,arked that we are wro"« nof to 
our ejes. I hope you will „,pp„rt the burden of life 

^ ^ou'Two'^"'',""" 'r ""- »■•»'" -•" "- 

quit }ou. Two souls so closely bound toRether ,« 
yours were for so lon^ a time can never be separaled:" 

To Miss Julia C. Drury. February 24, 1917. 

„ Jl,*^^ '"""'^ ■'' ^"""""^ '""" -^y t» <l»v. We have 
orphans m such a quantity in every ol ree „„!l Tt 
that we must be ready to si the whol ^ rtr^rd 

ot terrrrLtr- --^ --^^ 

Mankind i. so short-sighted that it does not nav 

:rridii:v;:„\r- -^o- '-in« thei^H^ 

"Anmials plants, bijouterie, furniture, all material 
earth, the best creature of the Creator, is only a burden" 



welfare and good education of the country children 
that must give us a strong, clever, and honjst popS 

of 'Z'„t''!f r ""l- " ' """P"' '^" ''"h «■« majority 
of mankind to understand iu own interest .nj . 

improve life throughout." ' '"'' •" 

Writing in the Neva after the revolution, she said : 
There pulsed so much life in my heart that I could 
not .magme the end of my activities. Neither theTona 

™rr hrigVtXtlft:t™T-'^^^^ -" "- 

fullv th^''"."''"'"'' ^ """ ""'' '"' I "''^"^''d how care- 
fully the physicians conceal. ! from me the danger ol 

could thmk of my fatal end, when my soul was ^ot 

to a d^erent kind of end, the triumph of the revolution^ 
The longer the war continued, the more horrible its 
consequences grew, the more clearly the rascality of 
the government manifested itself, the more ineWtab?e 
appeared the rise of democracy all over the 4orW a.e 
nearer advanced also our revolution 

"I waited for the sounds of the bell annomicing 
Worn and wondered why that sound del^yS* 
When m November, 1916, explosions of indignation 
foUowed one another, I had already one footT^e 
Syrian sleigh, only feeling sorry that the snow rL 
was beginmng to thaw. ^^ 


"Mard 4-17 a telegram reached me in Minussinsk 
announcing freedom. The same day I was on mv 

Si^slf '^'r'' ^'^ "^"^^* railroad'staUon. ' FrZ 
A chinsk on began my uninterrupted communion ^th 
soldiers, peasants, workmen, railroad employes Ttu 
dents, and multitudes of beloved women whn t n !l 
are all bearing the burdens of the no^knd Ll at 
of the abnormal life of a great State." 

'^ Hi*., 


if r 


One of the first acts of the Provisional Government 
was to declare an amnesty to all the ,>oIitical prisoners 
and exiles. There were said to be one hundred thou- 
sand in Siberia alone. All who could do so started at 
once for Russia. 

The government sent Madame Breshkovsky a 
special invitation to return. The long homeward 
journey was one continuous ovation. The soldiers 
joined with the populace to carry her in triumph. 
VVtien she reached Moscow, she was placed in the Czar's 
6tate coach, and taken amid a military escort to the 
hall where the Moscow Douma was sitt-' <g. There 
she was given an ofScial welcome, with greetings and 

"Citizens." she said, ''one thought is in my mind. 
Joy gives place to care. At every station and cross 
roads there is only one demand. It is the groan of 
ttie people for literature, books, teachers." 

She went on to make an earnest plea for universal 
education. She had told her American friends that 
instead of conscripting all the young men to serve a 
term m the army, as under the old regime, she would 
like to have every man and woman in Russia who 
could read and write conscripted to serve for a few 
years as a school teacher. In this way Russia's great 
Illiteracy could all be wiped out in a very short time. 




.1 , 

IITTIE CRANDMoniKt. „K n.ssuj, revou TroN 3„ 
At Petrograd the whole city turncl out l„ meot 

he found the crowd trying to ,tor„> the .,«„".' 
^„ ,' ^""""^y- tWiher with delepilion, of wel 
^..0. and .nU ■:^t.ytn;tt,d K' t^! 

Bril'^^Lff.^rp^rr-t^ ''''™'"^ *" *^'""'- 

-v^ tuuK place in the iforceoiis siiitf in t».« 

w7iruSh""r/ "•"■■ ""''"^" «-p"'. R-- 

wlucn under the old roKTine were used onlv for <C 

the Old Guard amouR the revolutionists were there 
Around the large drawing room were .scores of baskrts 

Z'tCr" ™To T"f."'Tr "' ■"^" <^" »-' Grand- 
ix^ ' , R"ss'a s Martyr H-roine." 

to™oTm tle'tr"'™'' '•'"' """'' "«"'■■ "'"-"Pt^d 

mother™ Tl, J "^■'"'' "^'' "' »«= G™"'!" 

mother . The guards quieted them, explaining the 

danger of a crush, and assuring them that I^ would 
be allowed to take part in the welcome. 

ever wl"f '^^^ "l" ""*"''"'" ■" *'"^ ''»^'d there 
ever was a bride who received so many flowers " 

sa,d the old heroine, smiling and pointing toTr cir 
from S.ber«,. She had been met by euthu,iaetic 




seen all Russia, all her "grandchildren", workingmen. 
soldiers, peasants, and citizens of all ranks, greeting 
her as the symbol of the long .struggle for freedom 
in her special car were several men. some of whom 
had gone to meet her in Moscow. Among them was 
the Secretary of Justice. Kerensky. 

Secretary Kerensky handed "Grandmother" a bou- 
quet of red roses, and they kissed three times. She 
addresseri him with the familiar " thou", and described 
with enthusiasm her visit to Moscow. 

Madame Breshkovsky appeared at the door, leaning 
on Kerensky s arm. Taking off his hat. the Secretary 
of Justice addressed the crowd : " Comrades, the 
Grandmother of the Russian Revolution has returned 
at last to a free country. She has been in dungeons, 
m the penal settlements of the Lena, has beea tortured 
endlessly yet here we have her with us. brave and 
moXr'" "' '^'''"^ 'Hurrah' for our dear Grand- 

The platform fairly shook with the thunder of ac 
c amation that followed, and. to the accompaniment 
of rousing ovations, the beloved Grandmother, led 
by Kerensky. walked to the reception rooms, where 
numerous deputations were awaiting her. 

A party of nurses came first, handing her flowers 
and waving a red flag with the inscription: "Long 
live the Grandmother of the Russian Revolution!" 
ine spokeswoman said: 

"We nurses are but an infinitesimal group of all 
those sisters who. in this happy d y for Russia, send 
yo« their humble and worshipful greetings." 

She was surrouaded on all sides; women pushed 


automobile to be taken t,. ,hTr . "'"'"« 

oegaus. A „tt,ng of the Council o' Sol,^^,^- 

an. applauH«.. Thl 3,^ ' ^ T^-- - 

the namp of P.. • ^ "' Grandmother, n 

meet with sueh honor/' '' "■""" "' "O" 

Council"'„71"?r "'.""■ ^^'^'"''^^ Committee of the 

Rus .an Reltlu'tion 1 , "'\""'""'" -'«' '"^Pi^ed the 
faith in th;righ,ru;net:of"th " """;.""'' '"^ ""»= 
to inspire us in our woil fuwhT' ^'^ "'" "•""■""= 
road of freeing RuJa a1 5 «>nq''e»ts on the 

and salute you'" ^'"" ' «"="' ^o" '"""''ly 

ros^t:";:e:tTe'',:rr:^'''''r'' ™"°"^ -^"p' 

moved fdame\e^t:^k.Xt7Xse°;^^^ 
mgs Every one rose. She said : ^ 

I have come over a lone roar! T ot« u 

not remember everything As T "^ ^"^ """■ 

platform I saw the nVon"e i ,T °"^ ^" *^^ 

«,«^ T People, all around I saw worHncr 




F>I«'te happiness! It proves timt we can work in 
uniwm. free tirul hup|)y, wiMumt <l!HCor(l. ns one man. 
*' I)««ur citizens ! I liuve been fifty years in the ranks 
of the Russian Revolution, and without Imast can say 
that there was never one more true to duty and disci- 
pline, or who appr««ciated more the meaning of obliga- 
tions. Never has there been any wrangliuK or dis- 
putes : my party on my account. I have always 
respected the opinions of my comrades and the rulings 
of the party to such an extent that I have invariably 
.stood for a friendly settlement of the most disputable 

"Do not I sec that you are all children of the same 
cause ,5* The soldier — isn't he the same as the work- 
ingman ? You are all children of our one great mother, 
Russia, and why should you suddenly begin to quarrel 
with one another?" 

A soldier approached close to the platform where 
"Grandmother" was speaking. She picked out a rose 
from her bouquet and handed it to her "grandson," 
The soldier kisse<l her hand tenderly. Madame 
Breshkovsky gently stroked the soldier's hair, and 
continued amidst thunderous applause: 

"If we all aspire towards freedom and equality, 
what differences can there be between us ? What is 
there to disagree about ? >Vhy put sticks in the spokes 
of one another's wheels ? If we seek to overcome such 
an enemy, such a bitter foe of Russia as Wilhclm, can 
we not overcome our little differences? It would 
say very little for our wisdom if we could not combat 

"All these greetings, on all sides, addressed to one 
and the same person — whom you call your Grand- 


motWr-prov,. .l,at y„„ „ro ,in„„i,„„„,. Ev„v „„e 

«y». 'W. »,ll .1,.. for rr„ .„.• I„ ,„i, I ,^*X 

<l..nty Kv.T,„m. ,.„.l,.r.,l,„>.l, that if „.. .1,. no. „vo . 
come ..V f,«, ii „i,l bri„„ „ur «„„„ry ,„ „ C \" any ann,.,„tio,„. we lu,ve „„ «,,•,,, ,„ „„•„ ,„ ,; *, 

"My chiLlren. nollnng « obtained grati. No 
complete fr.,,l„,„ e„„ ,... „,„ai„„, Ju..u\ 1,1 
work. Vm, know ,MTl,ap, l„.„,.r ,|,„„ , „,„, „ , ^ 
«~.mpl,,he,, i,,Wf-l,r„in an,l ,piri, are n«v « ";" 

has suffer ,1 an.l (H.rl.aps more .snff..rinK will have lo 
be K.rne iH.fore we reaeh ,!„, ,„„|. Then let u ' ni. " 
and let u, ,.r,ve that no petty .litferenees ,|,„|1 nj * ! 

Tw^rnS ••'■" - *"^' "-""" "•"' "'— -' 

anfefnTiiriX^ '"''' '"""'' ™"--'« 

ren^kv teh '. '" «'"''' "■"" '""'^ ""' «"<"' "-y Ke- 
rensky, Teheidze. Seeretary of Labor, Skohelev and 

other,, who placed it carefully on their sl.ou J, l" 

It to the Ekatermmsk hull, where thev were met with 
further app „„,,. „„., „,,„•„„, p,„^ were ,r 'd 

n front of the ehair, A riuR wa., for„,e.l around I cT^ 
llTrrre' ''- '''"-'' «™'^"->— earri:d 
Here ., large gathering of representatives of the 
army, from the trenches and reserves, awaited her! 






•Tn the nntno .,f th.. .,l.|-R„.Hian Karrinon of W.00(] 
iiirn. allow m... (;raii.liiiotluT, (o ^nft ymi'" 

••(iran.lmothrr- paM.,! Ih.. soMier nvntly ami Rave 
h.,P a ros. .•(;„ UurUr sU. sauU "arui tell them that 
(.ran.ln...t u.r h„. .v,M then a nne an.l her RnH-tinK,/' 

A Kid ( roHH nurse "In the name of 
the nnrneH on the nortlu-rn front, allow me to Icn* 

roTealso. "' ' ^'^'^ ^'' ""^ «'»^'^' ^'^ * 

*•! have hren wonn,le,| four times." «ald an officer 
noar ,v. 'M,- l,r..,h.r lost his lif. for free<lom 
My father has suffm-.l. It was with .litficulty that I ,M.rnn>,ion to W<,n a uniform to .stand in the 
ranks of the arn.v. Allow Uie to greet you in the 
name ,)f the invalided." J' « •« "le 

"Thank you, dear, thank you." 

A A Xazarov. CWsaek. me.nher of the Douma. 

gree e.l 1,.^ ,,, „. name of the n.emher.s of the Douma ! 

LouK hve the^reat Russian Gramln.other ! In 

your youth you sprea.l the seed of free<lom. and in 

«u old a«e you have ma.le Russia happy. Long live 

the hearers of jn-aoe; long live the Russian woman!" 

Kerenskv "" ' '"""''''* ""^^^ "Grandmother" and 
The Guards' Economic Society was holding a meet- 
ing m the theatre of Musical Drama and inTed 
her to honor them with her presence. Two oth^r of the Russian Revolution were present - Vera 
F.gner and Herman Lopatin. both of whom had 
^pent a quarter of a century in the Schlusselburg 
ortress. It .s har.l to describe the reception accorded 
Grandmother" and the other veterans of the revo- 
lution. Ihe audience hung on every word she said. 


Z^r""'- "■•' "•••»"•'•-' "• -ry.hi„« with 

\Vh..n «h.- t„lk.,l «Ik,„. II,.. „„i„, .,, „,.. 
«'"; P""" "■'" i- -miy ol,l„i I l,y „,.i,v 1|, , ' ' 

| |,. ,h.. ...1,.. v,.„.n„„ .„ ,„' , ;^,;,:, ; ;; 

•ml t, 1,1 |,„„ „„.j, I,,,,, „.j,|,,,^^, ^^_^_ ^ . 

V. I, ,.,„,.,,. ,„. , ,,, „ ,..„ ,,,_^.^ ______ ^^ 

ml lh..y w..r.. ,|r.,„« „„,y („,..„„„ „, 

n" ..viM.,„ „„„,„« „„,„. ,,,„.„ ^, " 

|.Tfn.n.,,.„.|",.,,i|,,.,„.. ,i,.., I .,,7' .;^ 

crow.1 ,,,,.„.., ..„rn,,U,r...,. .„„, „r,.., „ , ;, ..,„'^ 
Wutin ,,,i.|; ••Th.T,. i, „„ „rio.. I.„. .I..„r for |l,„i 

n IIU- ,|«1„„. „f ,„y y,,,„ ,„.,„^,, , ,,„•„,' 

rhe «,„«,.„„., a, on,. „,„„, ,|«„| „ „„,, , 

When tl«. b..|„v«| Gr„„,|„„,ih,.r „f ,i„. n.Zu"l 
w«.s c„rru,l from „... h„|, ,„ ,,.., „„„„„„, ,7„"' 

«»»„„„.. an., ,„i,., ol,l w„„,„n, in uh.-l f„ , 







Ctthl«»Krttiii. PHro^rrml. Afiril 13. |fl|7. 
To Alice Stum. Blackwrll. H... H',man*M Journal, 

Boston, U. S. A. 
••CJnH.tlnK. fro... fr,.. R„^|„ ,„ ,hr ^^\^ „r ,he 
V. X A. Am ..njoying hai»iiitiei..s with ull the city, 

" Rri'shkovsky.** 
A like cnl.h.Krain rnme to Miw VVald. 

To Mi«a Uu.lley. April li™<7. 1917. ()n a picture 


"I havi. .,.nt two \v\vnuvmn fo Arnrrican fnVncU. 

Hit no iHtor unfil now. From Ihr Mh of our March 

III to.«|«y r havo nrvor hwxx alonr. All the way 

throuKh S, MTia. th. TrnU an.l Rusnia. the people 

eame hy thon^a,H|.H an,| wante.| some wohIm from 

me: often ev.n at ..i^l.t \ from my railroad 

car. winch .> now n.y cIvv.JlinK: for I ko from one place 

to another to see and sfx-jik and hear. 

"I dare .say with certainty that our' pcH)p|e is n re- 
«pjm.s,hle and riKht-fec.|in« one. TIh- war will continue 
till our fnends w.ll disc-cmtinue it without anm-xation-s. 
I was m Mmussinsk when it happened. This 
(picture.) IS the army of our pcMiple the first day of the 
revolution in Moscow. WV hope it will continue as 
well as It has he^un. I «ni quite well. Much to do, 
very much : hut it i.s my life." 

To Mi.s.s Blackwell. Moscow. April 9fi-May 9, 1917. 

"I am healthy, and .strong, and happy — yes, 

happy, though always thinking about the future. 

How wjil the war end, and how soon? Will our peo- 


p|p Im. nlwiiyii an i^nwnnhl.. n% » ey nrr now? I nm 
Mir,. th..y will: hut wrUtin f.H»li,h in.livi,lu.iU Iuhh- t«j 
influffuv 11,.- iim,M., |,a,||y. V,.t ,1,,.,.. „r,. ,„„r,. ^.^^j 

CVMnt„, nt„| „ ,,„«„! ily „f ^,^„j jH^jpl^. 

"I hn.l lJv,M| M, loriK hjIIi my Ii«|h. of M^-ing I{,ii„i« 
fr«M' thut r mw nut « hit ii«loniH|i,.,| to mh' it r,'iili/,.i| 
nn.l th.. cM,t,f|.K.„,.,. „f ,„y f,.||„w Htizin. umkvs mv ,uro 
of u hap|)y fnlur... aft.r th,. war. Tlu- Iohh,.|, ar.- ,.nor. 
nious. an.l .-v.ry on,, in huny with H.ini,- w.irk t.» pro- 
vi.l,. th,. army with f.MMl ami all M.rtn of miinili.HH." 
VV,. hav,. had other KlinipMH of h.r ihru.iKh th.. pr.-Hs 
At ft Kr,.at ni,vtin« in Mom„w call,.,| hy th,- L.«ku,. 
to l»rom,.t,. K.jual Wuhts for Woni,n. hUv nai,! : 

•*You hav.. r,-<-,-iv...| ni.- as a h.r.iin,.. Ah a niatt.T 
of fact, y.m haw n.v.r .,f unylhin- h.-roi,- iUmv 
.y m... nnl,...; it hv (hat all n.y lif.. ! i.av,. h.l.l n.y ,H,st 
Ilk.' a faithful an.l hav.. .K„... niv w..rk .|ui,.tlv 
Kvvn «,. I roul.l n„l .|„ it a|| th,. tiniV. Thirly-lwo 
yoars of r,riHon an.l of Sih,.ria k.'r.t ,„.« practVally 
i«lif: only ,.h.v,.n y,.ar.s of * un.l.rKr.Min.r lif,. ^av,- ni,. 
th.. .>pportunity t.> .'iiKaK,. in th,- activ.. w,.rk as ,li,.. 
tat.'.l hy n»y h|.art. An.l that was n..t h.-niir work- 
It WHS onlinary. everythiy work, yet th,- kin.J of work 
th,. p,>.)pl,' n<H.,l. 

"Tlu're is no n,M.,l of h.-roic .l.-rds. tTnf.)rtunat,'ly. 
many innrtiv,- porson.s iinaKin.. that it is iu.f,..ssiiry hi 
p,.rforni s,)ni,.thinK wontlorful, lu-roic - that one is 
either to sit in passive i.|len,.ss. or else to ascn.! to 
the summit of a l.ifty mountain and th,.re p,.rform an 
act of such extraor.linary heroism as shall rev,'rl),.rate 
throughout the world. As a result these p^ple sit 
idly at home and do nothing. 

"To be sure, there are times and emergencies de- 







1 : 


'"I i 




^^B -ti -f 


or mind ., ,,1 action, heroic dmi.,. But I wish vou t, 
bear ,„ „„ , ,h,t ,h„^. i^ ^ ^^,_^| of wo Mo" b 

done ,„ „„, ti,..o, -ordinary, not heroic work 

L'icr„::<,t:i.''°"''- "-" '" -' "-•'' '■"'»^- - 

"My greatest treasure is my infinite love for th. 
people. Many of those who worked and suffered wM 
. me shared that treasure. Only I have been more 
fortunate m that I happened to have a strongerZ 

We al aimed „ brins light and freedom to the people 
Now It IS the duty of those who survive • . work harder 
for the realization of that aim. 

hoZ i7,h'^""'"' "°" '^ °'«""'™ " S'"" publishing 
am„n.,then^'""''"r T' ""^''"''I! ""'' eirculatinf 
among the plain people the sort of literature they need 
- he books to be written in the plainest language 
o that any one can understand. It is likewise nZ: 
^ary to organise a corps of young people to engage 
in d ssemmating this literature throughout the lef^ 
and breadth of the country. Within a few days shdl 
begin to work on these lines. I may. SaPs be 
granted the use of a railroad car - I ha^e^o hTm'e 
and travel from one end of Russia to the other, to me^ 
and speak to those who need our word and de^dT 

To Miss Blackwell. May 3. 1917. My Railroad Car. 
"This is only the second card I write you since 
bberty made me a free citizen of a free country Yo^ 
can t imagine how much there is to do now Dav 
and night the best people arc busy with thousands o^ 
affairs, great and small. I am making a tour over 


■ 1-, 


our large country to see and to speak. The long years 
of sufferings have had their effect. Friendship is 
spread everywhere, and every one wants to have the 
old woman who loved so long and so heartily all who 
suffered and wished to be free. My voice does not 
suffice to express all I would say. and I have with me 
a young grandson ' who continues the speeches I begin 
boldiers. peasants, workmen and all the youth is with 
us Frenchmen and Englishmen wonder to see the 
solidarity of such a large country, with so many dif- 
ferent nationalities^ Alice. I am happy, but not quiet 
till the war is finished and all the forces occupied with 
the interior affairs." ^ 

To Miss Dudley. May 7-20. 1917. Petrograd. 
"My travels will continue the whole summer, till 
we have the Reunion Legislative, when the voice of 
all our 170.000,000 people will be heard and the fun- 
damental laws settled. We are having some trouble 
with a few bad minds, or foolish minds, but it is im- 
possible to avoid some discomforts in such a large 
and new situation." ^ 

Moscow, May 13, 1917. 
"To all my dear Friends : It goes better and better. 
Ihe peasants are strong and well disposed, always 
ready to do their best. The army, too, for it is com- 
posed of peasants' boys. There are some people 
that have imbibed foreign ideas (from Germany), but 
they are few, and in a few days all the tempest they 
have awakened in the capital will disappear. Such a 
great revolution as we have here cannot be carried 
through without some troubles. 



^M • :) 







I ^H 


enough to make the n«nk h, "T"" " ^">^ 
ages. Yet we must w^*^ '^"^ '" "■"""« »' 

work wouldnot be hart a rr '''''" = ""'' ""' 
of experience. "'"" *"« "'"re people 

"80, and I ^l prepared \^^^^^^ ' T""' ""'' "»"- 
am doing now. '^Bnt lit heresr'wer ''' """«' ^ 
..t wa, such a big surprise to them Z MT "'"?'''''• 
■ng their task only „„„ when T" ^^ "* '«*"'- 

and demand a resohid' a^,l , ^"""^ '^° "»' "ait. 

She was electXvl T "1'°"^ ""nviction." 
Congress. rec":t\reTa " " V"; ''''"°-" ^— ts- 
hundred delegates with ! """""S "" ""^ nine 

^he has been ^tandfug ^Hh'hL f ^. S''\fl«". and 
troubles. She is rennr.„ I .^"""^ ""^ '"^nt 

thing the AmenWrn'dlCthTr ••"" '"^ "^^^ 
« to help them to vanquth German~ ''"""™' 

To Miss Blackwell. The^Crimea. May 30-Jm,e ,3. 

wi^ae^Iate^'of i&h''"^''''™ ^^ P'^^-P'") 
the country no but he f f""* ""^ "'""''y- Not 

-d with^tC'so^fi^t '7 jb^r t "- «<•»« 

without education and knowlewr • ■ "^ P"P'« 
war must be abandonll ° ^! ""°«"'« *«* the 
a^ked to begin it ^^me"-"' "^^ """^'^ ""^ »«t 
;ndiv,-duals in'spir:^- aS^e^CTthesrt ""' "'"' 
«.e recruits, and it took timTI^d't?:, "t; ^^ 


soldiers were convinced that they ought to bemn 
aga,n to do their duty. It « „ueh bettVnow. "^ 
h„,h,„!. Provdence, our peasants, fathers and 

husbands, are reasonable enough to wait, and to main- 
Urn order in their villages. But the ^ung woXr, 
and young soldiers are too inexperienced and'igTotn 
to be mmdful and patient. They imagine that all 
the old wrongs can be undone in some days, and" 
fore they demand new conditions of life that cannot 

stuirs"" '" " '™ '""""^- """ -'" " "" o» our 

JJ^^^'^"u' ^^ ""^ ""^ " '"""■<' ot Ministers very 
noble m all senses. Most of them are Socialists. ^W 
acquamtances of mine. too. 
"After the war there will be a great deal of work 

1st, l7r""^/°' ""^ ^•'"''"■■°" of «>•- "hole peTpb 
I should be so happy to see this work begun and ad 

vanced before I am ready to go away! 

To-day I got a letter from sorte women who pro- 
pose to form a regiment of women alone, to go to wm 
and show how one must 6ght for the liberty and wel- 
fare of one's people. From another place I got "he 
same proposition. If there are many women !l^ 

our s^^c:' "'" ™*^ *° ""^ *^''" <" War offermg 
"Do not laugh. At this time every expedient that 
wJl serve to attain a go«l end will bTwTcom" 5^ 
women have never feared dangers, and if our example 
w,ll promote the affairs of the war. we shall be glaTto 

atit •: V" ''""'' '^ ''°"°'' '""«' -<» *«"> -«"« 

ml^ UK*''^ '""'' "' "^^ ■■'■P"''''''' becomes the com- 
monwealth property of the whole people, it will mZ 




flowers, and said ."^ .°~T"P'' "' ••"»<■" ™rrounded by 

grandmother and wish oTa^f T"'"^'^ ^'■""»'' ""^ 
flowers and red ribl^ns The >7 """"""^^^ -ith 
ready to do the w II of L nn °!' .r"""" « ""way, 
»he Ms like a M:'b„?n";:*i;!l"*'""- ^-«'»- 

soldiers and workmen T^?,^"'" 't! '^"'""''• 
choose the most convenient X^s." "'^ ""<' 

The Last Letter. 

June 10-23. 1917. The Crimea. 
My ever-dear and beloved friends Alirp <? pi i 

and brave! ""'' "" '^"^ <"''«". faithful 

SociaHsts are working enerrSlv fl Tk ''"'•. ^' 

and there, it is true W« « j • ^^^^^ '^^'"^ 

true. We are doing our utmost to 


combat the false ideas spread by stupid or malevolent 
persons, scoundrels who have nothing to lose, without 
conscience or honor, who have come from every part 
of the world. But the truth is that their propaganda 
affects only young, weak and ignorant minds. And 
as our army is made up mostly of such dements, it is 
the army that is the breeding place of ail the disturb- 
ances which we have to overcome. As for the rest of 
the population -the men and women of the villages 
and of the faubourgs. - they constitute a peaceful 
and patriotic element, desirous to see the war brought 
to an end advantageous to Russia (without losses and 
without humiliations). 

But you can well conceive, my friends, that people 
most of whom (the women included) do not know how 
to read or write, cannot offer a foundation firm and 
durable enough, an audience intelligent enough to 
understand and remember everything that they hear 
from tune to time fron. their Socialist friends, who, 
with all their efforts, cannot suffice to be everywhere 
and as often as would be needful. 

"Vast distances, provinces situated at the farthest 
limits of this immense country, always remain plunged 
in darkness, and camiot take in, can t form a correct 
idea of what is going on in the world. 

"It is necessary to illuminate, to enlighten the 
minds of a nation that is ready to grasp knowledge; 
a nation that has been forcibly deprived of all teach- 
mg. For there are only a few thousand fortunate 
persons who were able to get an education in the smaU 
number of schools that did not in any way meet the 
needs of a population of 170,000,000. 
"Yes, our past history has been a fatal one for Russia 

* -if 



in every respect. The finances utterly ruine<l. all 
the country « present wealth and resources devastated 
the w„r is absorbing the rest, incrcasinrou; 
debts at the rate of 40.000.000 rubles a day. More- 
over at present we lack everything nm-ssary. such as 
"mchmes tools, paper, et^. VVe have everj^hing Z 
rXw to th f !' "";' ^'^' ^^^^^"^ -^ituation'but with 

talung an active part in the upbuilding of the civil- 
ization of the world. » * "ic civu 

of one family. The better these members are pre- 
parcel for a reasonable and brotherly life, the better 
erTst""?rK"' the reciprocity of their mutual " 
terests. the better they know each others' customs 
history and c vilization. the surer and deeper w 11 be 

uZ them '•'' ''^ ^^^"^^^ ^'" ^^ *^^ ^-^ th': 

"The international interdependence of reciprocal 
mterests (present and future) is a subject tl^t'Z 
be thoroughly gone into in all its complexity; but an 
Ignorant nation will have difficulty in understanding 

exnl«tT- '' 'f\<^^'^<^ to it by some preliminar^ 
explanations and has some concrete ideas about i^ 
We must teach them the causes of the present war 

tonu^T\T^ ^ "''^""'^ "*^^^*"^^' t« organize 
groups of intelligent women and men ready to go among 

the masses to enlighten and instruct them -men 

women, youths, even old people. In the hospitals,' 


in the barraoks, wherever there l, anybody to talk to 

they are ex,.lai„h,g. „iv,„« le,,,„„,. ;elr4r,r ' 

But we are t«, few to „,„.( ,|,i, v,.,t n..H| for in- 

«-k for ,„„re ami ,till ,„„„. „f U.en, ; fr„,„ „,,rv earner But we eannot re.s,H.n<l to more than a 
tenth part of |he«. ,|,,„„„,,,. Ti„,e pr,.,,^,. ',Zm 
»re pihuK up. the war i» ruining the whole Z\d To 
are nearer the brink of ruin than the rest. 

The bourKeoisic think only of themselves; thev 
are not helpmg us. We n,rd „,„„y ^^ „ew.,panerf 
capable o reaehiuR the intelligence of all ourtno: 
rant p.-ople, and showing them the truth aZu the 
present s„„„tion, the n.isfortune that awaitT us f wc 
fose the esteem ami eonfidence of our the A 11™ 
Fo tin, we nmst have millions of copies of newspaper .' 
And m order to Ret them we „ee.l a prim ing office 

able number of copies every day. VVe have none such 
m Russia, except those in the hands of the capHaHl 
who will not part with them. We are re^S tl 
more since the breaking out of the war. sr« "t ha^ 
become impracticable to import things '*«'"» 

In our country rotary presses are not manufac 
tured So we poor Socialists remain with empUhands 
Lmited to working with small machines, which ± 
us miserable thousands of copies, instead of he Sh 
hons hat are indispensable. That is why I adrel 
myself to you, my friends. Get up a subscription to 
mse a sum of money which will serve first o toy a 
rotan- printing press, and paper enough to furnlh 
reading matter for several months, until the m^Ung 

k ,«» 



of th« (;.,„.ra| A.«..,.,; the „^n.l part of Ih,- 
money „,, ,h.. „,pit,.| ,„«,,„y ^„ ^ ;„ ^ J 
of puhlisliiiiK till' pil|«T. 
"Mako th.. AiiHTiVun public ,.n.l,T»t«nd that thi. 

l>«.p <•, Imt u .pi,.,t,„„ wInVI, c.,„r,.rtis inlornational 

^rh:t '"'"'"''■ ''■'"• "•■' ^"'" -"'^ """' 

Miur by having as a „„.,„b,.r a ,„„„try with ij™, 

TS;i"n „"■'""'*■ •"'7r"-' "™" "• "'""■■"" "- 

atonK m onr com.,,p„„,|,,„c,.. 'Th,. Russians are a 
capubh. p„,„|o, an,l „f a ko,,.! .li,,«,sitio„. All they 
need „ eivilization and e<lueation • 

we should be able to aecon,pli,h it by our own strenRth 

fe-stmg themselves at present, common sense and Rood 
f. th w,l Ret the upper hand. But it w„ul<l be a ^t 
p.tynott„dothc utmost possible to hasten theX of an order which woul.l per„,it working with u 
power and speedy succc-ss. instead of letting the time 
''■^T fl'': ''*."' '''■'"y'"« "■<' «™"''' "'-"-being 
as soon as it .s reached, whether favorable or unfavor- 

I u-« IZ't 7Z "■"'•' *•"" " ■""■^ ^ f"™™''!^ 

mvtelt. • r"*" "" '°°" *-^ '^'»''''^> '°». because 
my health ,s not as strong as it used to be. I should 

hke much to see with my own eyes the installation o 
the whole affair. My experience has been great, and 
LfiT "'"L'""' "' "-y ^■■''^ P"«>°' unworthy of 

onenlvTh °" """ "" "'""""'^ "« ™-»d <» 
ZCi Ki 7^ ''■"^ opportunity to make a good 
choice while I am alive to do it. 


.hil!°' n, **"■ *■?" ~""''"'' ' *^ yo" «" '"'■I'-"- the 
thinR., (ih,. n.»<hin.s its .^|»i|„„..nt ,„„| n.^. ,,„p^.,) 

" W.-II „., the ,„„n..y. |„ i|„. „,|,|„.„, .- 

"'Ru»iia. MiHTOw, Ku»nfiky Most ifl.. 
For Cullim'nf Brrahkovsky." " 
An A»»K-iat«l Pr. i,p„toh of S.ptomher «I. 1017 

grad. «n.l „, finding „■. ,«rr„,„„|i„«, L Korg^u, f^ 
h.;r .„„,p|e „„„.,. Sh.. report,.,] that ,h.. an,^ hor 
^.onds had 14,. printing p,^,,,.,. ,, ,„^„,. ' * 

^Srittfir'""'^''"''""'^"'™- •"'''"-•'« 
Ma.lan,o Br..,hk..v»ky was chosen „ member of the 
Prehmmary Parliament of Ru,,i„. When it a,,«.mb ,.I 
m Petmgrad on Oetob<.r «0. 1917. Premier Kercnsky 
after h.s opemng ,sp,vch, caHe,! upon h,.r to take 

L„„. eL*' .""^ "■" *■"'"■■ ""■•"'«■' «' the Parlia- 

Idla' ' ^'""'^ " «"■" ''™«°" - '™>»-y 

th^tM,*"""""! '" '^ P'*^' despatches, she declared 
that the people ought to be masters of the soil they 
eulfva^e. A ,u,t solution of the a^.„an questioZ 
she said, would enable the country to avoid dangeZ 
c„lhs.ons: therefore, if the council of the refubhc 
se™>usly wished to assist the country, it shoul.1 solve 
th.s problem m conformity with the exisencies of 
Russian history, and she urged the intellectual classes 
not to oppose such a solution 

wo^^^tlTf ^'•^^'^^^'^«^^^>''« ^'ho'e life has fulfilled the 
words that .she once wrote to an American friend : 
Wc ought to elevate the people's psychology by 

' See Apptndix. 





our own example, and fnve them the idea of a pun 
lift- by milking thi-m acqunintttj with better mora 
and higher ideal.; to rail out their U^t f.rlingj. an 
jtroriKc^t r)rinriple«. We ought to tell the truth. n<i 
fearing to di«plea.<*e our henrern; and be always read 
to confirm our words by our deeds." 



Db. Gregory GERaiiuNi (Page 107) 

Gershuni was Maclam. Breshkov«ky\, clo.e«t col 
^ague .„ the work of th. party. He wa, a Jew IntTa 
fl^t l^'^*"*"^^'"-^ '-- ot character, fir;"'' 
«)m Sibena was remaricablo. At the pn.on of Al^tuT 
the prisoners used to niif hm ♦»....-- » "' AKatui, 

the winter TiJ .. * '"^ "^'" Provisions for 

barrel, which had ^^^'f^i'^^^Zl;^: 
They spread a piiK» of leuther over hfm fill Tfi. . 
o the barrel with pickled cabC «„;«,« l.t' 
the Governor-, lowe.t cellar, where th, v MtT r 

cejlar, and Gershun, got out o! the barrel and went 

Gershuai afterwards visited America. The great 


""SlBi ^"i:,?:! 



fwqjtlon ffivrn hf«- on his mrival at th<» South St»ti 
by the Hus*itti » ttn.l Huiiiimn Jvw» of B«Niton wiii 
wonilcrful iiiKht. St, wan \m furural in Pnrin a f 
yottM Itttrr. lit. wim am rtitmrkalile a character 
Miiiliinu' Bn'Mhlcovitky hersc'lf. 

Thi- firnt nunibcT of /W i{u^.na wuh pubh^hH 
a monthly in Au«iwt. 1890. oh Dw „rKun of the Er 
liMh NKirty of Frii.n.!.H of Ru.H,ian Fmnlom. wi 
iNfW York and London" in the ihite line. The N 
ve^mber nunilHT of the name yrur uprH-ured &» 

American Kdition". with the unnou.u-.nient th 
the Riw«ian American Notional I^'ague of New Yo 
had united wirh the Society of Friendn of Ru.,.Hi, 
freedom of England, and had orKaniatetl the Fr 
Rimia Publishing Association "for the purpase 
publishmg this magazine in America." Thencefn 
ward there was a s|Mfial Am.'rican edition of Fr 
Rusna mued every month in New York. The e<li 
ing of it for American readers began with the numb 
for July, 1891. This American edilicm cea-sed public 
tion with the number for Jum-July, 1894. 

American Friends or Rumian Freedom (Paob IM) 
The call sent out in May of 1891 setting forth th 
objects of the association, and inviting membershir 
was headtnJ by Colonel Tl.omo-s VVentworth Higginsor 
and signed by Julia Ward Howe, John G. VVhittiei 
James Russell Lowell, George Kennan. William Lloy, 
Garrison Henry I. Bowditch, Alice Freeman Palmei 
Charles G. Ames. Edward L. Pierce. Phillips Brooks 
frank B. Sanborn, Annie Fields, Albert G. Browne 
Edward Everett Hale, Minot J. Savage, R. Hebe 
Newton. C. H. Eaton. Raymond S. Perrin, Mar^ 

h Station 
m wfti a 
ri» « few 
ractt?r aa 

IUh^fl a» 
the Kng- 
m. with 
The No- 
ll an an 
'nt thut 
i"w York 
he Free 
Tjose of 
of Free 
he eclit- 

B 124) 

)rth the 
I Lloyd 



jT ivVV i'^: """»»"«?<"". William ('. (;„ 
John \^^a.«dwic.k. John H. Vinr..„,. W. J|. C; ' 
W. N. McVickar. and Joseph T. Duryea. 

PoKMn oM Madame Brkhhkovuky (Paob I7S) 
The following ore three of the many poem, that 
have bc^.n written to Catherine Brenhkov^T 

By Klua Barker 

(From the New Vorfc Times) 
How narrow nwmn the round of ladie«* lives 
And «^i«e« duties in their Hmilin« world. 
The .lay th,.s I. tan woman, gray with year.. 
Goe« out across the void to prove her soul ! 
«nef are the pains of motherhood, that end 
In motherhood's long joy ; but she has borne 
The age-long travail of a cause that lies 
StiU-bom at last on History's cold lap 
And yet she rests not; yet she will not drink 
Ihe cup of peace held to her parching lips 
By smug Dishonor's hand. Nay. forth she far«,. 
Old and alone, on exile's rocky road - 
That well-worn road with snows incarnadined 
By blood drops from her feet long years agone. 
Mother of power, my soul goes out to you 
As a strong swimmer goes to m^-t the sea 





Upon whose vastness he is like a leaf. 
What are the ends und purposes of song. 
Save as a bugle at the lips of life 
To sound reveiH6 to a drowsing world 
When some great deed is rising like the sun? 

Where are those others whom your deed inspired 
1 o deeds and words that were themselves a deed ? 
Those who believed in death have gone with death 
lo the gray crags of immortality; 
Those who believed in life have gone with life 
To the red halls of spiritual death. 

And you ? But what is death or life to you ? 

Only a weapon in the hand of faith 

To cleave a way for beings yet unborn 

To a far freedom you will never share ! 

Freedom of body is an empty shell 

Wherein men crawl whose souls are held with gyves 

For Freedom is a spirit, and she dwells 

As often in a jail as on the hills. 

In all the world this day there is no soul 

Freer than you, Breshkovskaya, as you stand 

Facmg the future in your narrow cell. 

For you are free of self and free of fear. 

Those twin-born shades that lie in wait for man 

When he steps out upon the wind-blown road 

Ihat leads to human greatness and to pain. 

Take in your hand once more the pilgrim's staff - 
Your delicate hand misshapen from the nights 
In Kara's mines; bind on your unbent back, 
That long has borne the burdens of the race 


*' ^"'I'^P'... 



The exile's bundle, and upon your feet 
Strap the worn sandals of a tireless faith. 

You are too great for pity. After you 

We send not sobs, but songs ; and all our days 

We shall walk bravelier knowing where you are 




By Sophie Jewett 
(Reprinted by permission of Thomas Y. Crowell.) 
The liberal summer wina and sky and sea. 

For t) sake, narrow like a prison cell 

About cue wistful hearts that love thee well 

And have no po\\ ^t to comfort nor set free. 
They dare not ask what these hours mean to thee: 

Delays and silences intolerable ? 

The joy that seemed so near, that soared, and fell, 

Become a patient, tragic memory ? 
From prison, exile, age, thy gray eyes won 

Their gladness. Mother, as of youth and sun. 

And love ; and though thy hero heart, at length 
Tortured past thought, break for thy children's tears. 

Ihy mortal weariness shall be their strength. 

Thy martyred hope their vision through far years 




By Katharine Lee Bates 

Thou whose 8unn> heart outglows 
Arctic snows ; 

Russia's hearth-fire, cherishing 
Courage almost perishing ; 
Torch that beacons oversea 
Till a world is at thy knee; 
Babushka the Beloved, 
What Czar can exile thee? 

Sweet, serene, unswerving soul. 
To thy goal 

Pressing on such mighty pinions 
Tyrants quake for their dominions. 
And devise yet heavier key. 
Deeper cell to prison thee, 
Babushka the Belov^, 
Thyself art Liberty ! 

Though thy martyr body, old, 
Chains may hold, 
Clearer still thy voice goes ringing 
Over steppe and mountain, bringing. 
Holy mother of the free, 
Millions more thy sons to be. 
Babushka the Beloved, 
What death can silence thee? 

iifmMmm'M "" 


f 'SJf'' 



Dates or Lettkiui (Paoii «77) 

Before her attempt at escape. Mme. Breshkovsky 
had wntten several letters to her friends, dating them 
m advance, and these were sent out to the post, day 

Printing Presses (Page 329) 
These were probably the small presses that she had 
found so unsatisfactory. Her American friends had 
not been able to send a rotary press. 


( -" 


Addams. Jane, 123. 158, 184, 185, 
«09. 23«, 269, SU 

Aim of life, 255, 270, 279 

Alcohol, suppression of, 285 

Alexander II, 33 

Alexandrovsk, 145 

Allies, desires victory of. 288; 
need of supporting the, 326, 

America, visits, 110-131; com- 
ment on leaving, 130; dreams 

Asia, Central, 193 
Assassination, political, 108, 109 
Atchinsk, 309 
AtioTitic Monthly, 190 
Austria. 29 
Australia. 182 
Axelrod, 32 

Azeff, Mudame BreshJcovsky be- 
trayed by, 133 

Babrinski, Count, 48, 49 

n# 11. x-r J ■■— "" "'^"iUWHKI, V^OUNT, 48, 49 

°^.y,V rr' '"■ '"■ "If'!""^." ^y JfU^-e Lee 

206, 211, 220. 256, 267 

American, Catherine Bresh- 
kovsky's, 99-100 

American Friends of Russian 
Freedom, first society of, 124 ; 
second and third. 125 

American magazines, romances 
in, 258 

Americans and Russians com- 
pared, 243-244 

American women, 157, 209, 250. 
256, 284 

Amnesty, 310 

Andreeff, 276 

Angora River, 294 

Apple Mountains, 94 

Armenians, fate of, 118 

Arrest of Mme. Breshkovsky, 79, 

Art, reflections on beauty in, 
137, 140, 141; Russian view 
of, 258 


Bates, 336 
Baikal, Lake. 89, 295 
Bakunin, Michael, 27, 28 
Bakuninites. 27, 32 
Balagansk, 287 
Balkans, war in the. 239 
Ballad of the Brave Man, 195 
Baratov, Duke, 13, 14 
Barguzin. 89-92; flight from, 93 
Barker, Elsa, poem by, 333 
Barrows. Hon. Samuel J.. 125 

127. 128. 129, 134. 224; "A 

Sunny Life" (biography of), 

261 «- ^ / 

Barrows, Mrs. Isabel C. 125 
127, 128. 130. 134. 135, 142,' 
143, 151, 164. 172. 185. 187. 
188. 190, 212. 223. 242, 260, 
265.266,271,274.275; letters 
to. 166, 170, 187, 192, 208, 214, 
224, 229, 234, 247. 261; "A 
Sunny Life," by, 261 




B«t«, Governor John L., 119 
Bates. Katlmrine Lee, poem by, 

Bey, Comeiia ile, i09 
Biography, how to write. 196 
Biography of Luvy Stone urgi^ 

193. «30 * 

BUtk Hole. 8« 
Bla<k People. Soul of. 138 
Blaokwell. Alice Stone. 1«4. IW 

1<8. LSI. 144. 157. l«l. 17..,' 

188. W9. W7: letters to. 149." 
15«. 155. 101, 10(1, u,8, ,7, 
178. 184. 183. 187. 195. «09,' 
«14. «I9. Wl. rM. m, <48. 
955. 857, «58. <0(). <08. ^yj 
«75. 278. «80. «84. <85. «88.' 
«90. «9«. 894. «99. 803. S18 
(cablegram), S<1. Hii, S«4 

Blaokwell. Dr. Elizal>eth. "Pio- 
neer Work for Women," 885 

Blaokwell. Henry B., lU 

Bloomfield, Meyer. 118 

Boarding school, teaches, 21 

Borash. Michael. 155 

Boston. Ill, 120 

Boston Transcript, 120, ISO 

Bouyan, Isle of, 280 

Bre«hkovskaya, by Elsa Barker. , 

Breshkovsky. Catherine, activ- 
ities after the revolution, 318- 
8«9; activities as a Liberal, 
«l-«4; activities as a Revo- 
lutionist, 26-79, 104-132; ar- 
rest, first, 79; arrest, sec- 
ond, 132; attempted escape 
from Barguzin. 93, 94; at- 
tempted escape from Kirensk. 
??;?• 17 V Strayed by Azeff. 
133; birth of, 1; birth of son. 
37; childhood of. 3-lfi- 
elected to NaUonal Peasanta* 

CongreM, SW; escapet. hair 
breadth, 104-106; Geneva 
attend.-* Conference in, Uo 
girlhoo.1 of. 10-21 ; impri-on 
nient m Irkutsk. 278-289 1 
imprison m«f It in Petrograd! 
first. 8.H-85: Irkutsk, letten 
from. 292-298; Irkutsk prison. 
Mters from. 278-289; join, 
Sooialut Itevolutionary Party, 
107; journey to Siberia, first.' 
80-88; journey to Siberia, 
mond. 144-147; journey to 
Yakutsk. 289 ; Kirensk. letter, 
from. 148-275; letters to son. 
135-143; life in SiberU. first 
term. 88-102; life in Sibeiia. 
second term. 145-309; mar- 
nage of. 21 ; Minussinsk. let- 
ters from. 298-308; parenUge 
of. 1-3; parting with son. 38, 
39; placet! under police sur- 
veillanct. 25; Preliminary 
1 arliament, presides at opening 
of. 329; renewal of revolu- 
tionary work. 104-106; return 
to Irkutsk. 292; return to 
Russia after revolution. 309- 
310; return to Russia from 
America. 130-132; return to 
Russia from Siberia, first. 102 • 
Russia's condition and needs 
after revolution. 318-329; son. 
letters to. written in Fortress 
of St. Peter and St. Paul. 135- 
143; speech bv. 112-118- 
transferred to Minussmsk.* 
298; travels in Europe. 109; 
trial and sentence, first, 85; 
trial and sentence, second," 
143-144; visit to America, 
111-131; Yakutsk, letters 
from. 290, 291; welcome in 

li ^tiai 


Monrow 310: welcome i„ 

Pelri>j(ra<J. 3||-S|7 
Bn^hkov.k.v. \i,.hola,. apfH-al. 

'"rhttil. ijw; hirthof..'J7;,.|„. 

cation of. 103; Irtt.-r, to. 13.}- 

143; parfiriK with. 38. .30 
Brorkway. /.-hiilon R.. "Fifty 

Years of Prison Service," «4<"- 

Brother GoorRe. «* LAZAiiErr 

JiiiiKanans. <97 

Biillanl. Arthur. 1«3. l«8. 103 

17<. m 838. <65.«83; •Com- 
rade Yetta.- by. <47. <«J<. 
letters to. 1(1.5, 170. «.33 ^J-,' 
S04. S«4; "A Man's WorlW.""' 
by. «41 «4«. <47. <««; f„.„ 
name. Albert Edwards. «8 

Bulun. 199. iOi) 

Blind, the Jewish. 107 

Byelozerye, village of, 44 


Cahan. Dr. Abraham, v. ill 
11«. I«0 '• 

Calendar of Prienclship, 218 
Calf. Katya's. 9, 10 
California, cards from, 182- 
dreams of, H; suffrage cam- 
paign in. «09 j 
Canada. 18« 

Catarac. on eyes, 287, 293 
Catt, Mrs. Carrie Chapman. 302 
taucasus. 108. 193 
Cliamikon, 15 
Chicago. 111. 120. 158. 206; 

<^ommons, the, 121 
Childhood, 3. 4, 5, 9. 11 
Child question, the. 307. 308 
Clu dren. country life for. 209. 
*10; Mme. Breshkovskv 
among. 121 ; education of. 209 

?^\T' ''^■' <l"-tionof 
302.305,307; view of, 184 

Chillon. raslle of. 1.38 
Chilmark, Muss., ^m 
^'hina. 98. 192. 249, 298 
\''"''«"«' Hcvolutinn. 219 
<'liri!»tma.s f«-.sliva|.s. Kio 
C<wnmon.s. Chicago. 121 
^'onimiinal groups. 49 

Commune, the. 3 1.. 34. 35. .38. 41 

Comrade Yilta." 247. 202 
CoofXT I'nion m«-.'ling. 120 
C<i<ifM>rative. associations. 20; 
bank. 21; colonies. 50; work- 
shops. 20. 20 
Coryell, .loll,,. i;j,) 
Cossa<-ks, ancient, 2.34 
Council of S,l,li,.rs* and Work- 

men s Dclegati-s. 313 
Council of the Empire. 133 
Crimean War. 15, 45 
Crosby, Ernest. 1,30 
Culture and Socialism. 248 
Czar, reverence for, 48. 51 5» 
57. 60 • . u», 

Czechs, 297 

Dargan. Mrs. Ouvte Tilford. 

Davis. Miss Katherine B.. 285 
I Davis, Philip, 1 1 1 
I>eni.s«>n House. 123. 209 
*'De Profundis." by Oscar WUde. 

Dickens. Charles. 136- "A 
Child's History of England." 

Diderot. 16 

Diogenes. 254 

Dirt, hatred of, 141, 194 

Disorders foUowing Revolution. 

Dissenters, 61, I47 

Dnieper River. 42. 61 

Dole. Rev. Charles P., 187 







r>ostoiVvsky. «40 
Dounw. IH3, <90 
Drury, MU« Julia C, 171, 300; 

letter to. 307 
Du«lley. MiM Helena S.. 1«3. 

IM. 137. 161. 17«, 185. 187. 

«I0. ««0. ««9. ■i4i. <Hn ■ let- 

tersto. 149. 103. |«7. 174. 18< 

IM. «11. «18. W7. «S«. <38. 

«50. «6«. 283. «88. 497. «98. 

SOI. SOfl. 318. 3«|, S«4 
Durland. Kellogg, 120, 123. 130, 

132. 214. 213 

Eugenics, 264. 304 

KvangeliitM, 61-73 

Evening I'ost, 207 

Exilen. claanes of. 213; conditio 
of. 133. 139. 162. 163. 186, 191 
«43. 237. 238. 291, 293 

East Siberia. 207 
Eastern qu(>Mtion. 239 
Education, of children. 209. 231. 
297. 298; plan for universal. 
310, 320 
Educators, women as. 283 
Edwards. Albert. See Bullard. 

"Eleventh Hour. The." 214 
Ely, Mrs. R. E.. 220 
Ely, Profi'ssor Robert Erskine 
1«0. 123. 131. 152. 220, 224 
Emancipation of the serfs. 17 
England. 193 

England's statesmanship, 302 
English, language. 98, 111, 121, 
122. 126. 128. 143. 160. 184. 
187. 188, 240. 265. 278. 280; 
literature. 189. 190, 207; pu- 
pils m, 225 
Eniseisk, 298 

Equal rights for women, granted 
in Russia. 322; league to 
promote. 819 
Eristoff. Prince, 278 
Escape attempted from Barguzin, 

93 ; fron. Xirensk, 276 
Escapes, hairbreadth, 104-105. 

^AN«UIL Hall, Boston, meet 

ingin. 111-119 
Farewell to family. .30. 31 
"Fifty Years of Priiion Service,* 

by Brockway, 242-244 
Fighting League, The. 108, 109 
Figner. Vera, 316. 317 
Finland, women of. 237 
Finns, fate of the, 118, ISO 
Flame-seekers, 34 
Flogging, of dissenters. 62: ol 
peasants. 6. 16. 18. 19, 30, 32, 
55, 68, 77; Mme. Bresh- 
kovsky sentenced to, 94 
Flora. Siln-rian. 232 
Florida. 183 
Forecast, power of. 30S 
Fortress of St. Peter and St. 
Paul. 74, 134, 133, 139, 140. 
150. 175. 239. 316 
Forward, Jevnsh Daily, v, 120 
Fouike, Hon. William Dudley. 

111. 118. 125 
France. 193 
Free Ruana, 124. 332 
French, and Spaniards compared. 
137; language, 3, 4. 16, 98, 
112. 128, 129, 240. 278; people. 
137, 1.S8; pupils in, 225; 
Revolution, 16 
Friedman, I. K., 120 
Friends of Russian Freedom, 

Gautzin. Duchess, 15, 16 
Garrison, Francis J., 124 




Geneva, ronference in, IIO- 1 lMAntv»««w ^ 

_Uke«f, 137. 138 • *.T.\7r* '"'^ '^^ >W. 

Uke of, 137. 138 
George. Brother. See lAiARr.rr 
Oerman, ch«raeteriatira, 3oo 
civilixalion, 3(X); govemes...' 
4. 16. 300; hymn». 07; lari- 
inJ««c, 16. ©8; peopi,., dtH,trur- 
tion not dcainil, 300; Pn>l.'s- 1 
Until. 67; piipi|.< in. <« I 

Germana. indignation *88 
Germany. i(iea« from, 3«1 • in- 
«)lenceof,«8«; urges help to 
vanquish. 3W; war with, .104 
GerHhimi. Dr. Gregory. 107. 3.'JI 
viohJen mean inculcated, i, 3 
Golden berg, L.. |«4 
Goldman, Emma. 1««, us 
Goremykina. Olga Ivanovna, 1. « 
Gorow. Boris, 1«4 
Governess, works as, «1 
Greek Church, «. 62-64, 67 

monks of the, 36, 6« 
Guards' Economic Society, 316 

«'0. <40, <70 
Indeprndent. The. 188. 190 
Intcrnttti..n«l Congp.M.vM*. 200 

''ul'i'''"...""* *'^^' ^7- «*». <W». 
J08; ill with scurvy in, 143; 

I P"*^" exptx-ting iier. 147;* 

women wmvicts in, 187; life 

in, «77-«79, «9«, 893 

Ifalian language. «40 

"Ivanhoe." 136 

Jaeoer clothivo. \9i. 195, «08, 

Jafwn. 182, «38; war with, IM 
«o."' '^P*''*'* '^*' ?««« by, 
Jewish Bund. 107 
Jemuh Daily Forward, v 120 

Jews 10. 118; no pamiporta for. 

Health, care of. 139. 161, 176 

«1«. 228, 230. 247, 248. 258 ' 

Helsmp^ors, picture ga'lery of, 


Henry, Alice, 207 

Henry Street Settlement. 123 

Heroism, 319 

Kachuo, 145, 147, 188 
Kalyenkina. Maria, 28, 31, 4| 

•t3. 45, 57. 59 
Kara, mines of, 89-91. 94-100 

102. 22C • 

Karakozoff, 20 

Karanzin's "History of Russia." 

Katz, 120. 130 

Herreshoff, Lewis. 171. 183 231 S!^'n^ . 

839. 291 ; letters to 252] 3M 85 ^""' ^'e^onstraUon. 

Hennan, George, 86, 87, 98-100 

19K too tat ,^.„ * 

Higher education of women, 19 

Honolulu, 182 

Horrors, cannot read, 136 
Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 111 

123, 124, 214, 228 
Hull House, 123, 158. 282 
Hungary, travels through, 109 
Hunger strike, 97, 98 
Hymns, Book of, 280 

125.163,164,219,238; letters 
to. LM, 155 

Kennan. Mrs., 172 
Kerensky, A. P.. 811-313, 316. 

Kerensky's first Cabinet, 110 
Kherson, 61 




Kir,n.k. If5. 143, ,14 ,^. ,^^ 
lAO. ia». 1,1^. I,,., „„ ,^^' 
173. IHN. |»N. la©. *o3. J,.," 
<3«. <78. <8tt^<80 

KiithinrfF niajwiirrp, 100 
KiiiiiirnT, Dr.. H5 
Kovalik. 14, w. <4. »4^ 37 
Kuvaiik family, U 
K'oviKi, so 
Kriwnoyank. H8 
Kropotkin. IVUt, 10. «0. «0 
Kyrrnga llivtr, 130. IM. 174 

Literature nminj in Rimm, $« 

l^m.luri. 110; /}aiii, >>„,#. I4S 
I<(*patin, flprniaii. »|fl, S17 
"I^>r<U and I^vrra." by O. 1 

I>arKan. *«0 
l-UKovrta. H, no 

La Poixette. Scnattin, tn 
ImdiI .iu»'»ti«.n. 17. «6. 48, 00. 77 

lie. II7.SW.a<0 
Lavrist.1. «7. 3i 
Uvrov, IVtor. «7. «8. .le, .W 
Uwr.-nce. Mrn. PtiJii.k. *38 
wwrenw. Mann., HH, Hi 
Lazar.ff. CnHjrKp, «80. I8«. «0*J • 

Iftters to. 148. «79; l.-ttor,' 

from. i(M, «i.i, «3fl, j^m). «7fl. 

«83. «90 

I^ngue to Promofp Equal Rightii 
for Women. 319 

Ivt'na Ilivrr. ! W. IJO. lfl< 10.I 

174. 188. 198. 270. «78 ^80." 

eO<. «05. 81«; gol.l min,^. 

stnkfat. iSO; v.yage up the. 

Leasing, essay on LaocoOn, 140 

I^venthal. 35 
LewijMjohn. Miss Alice. «60 
Liberals, era of. 17; in Petro- 

grad. 19 
Library in Kirensk. «00 
"Life and Ubor." 184. 407. 


Lincoln's statue, 187 I 

McArcB. Erne DANroRTM. Ih 

ter to. «fl 

Markint.wh. Udy. 173 
"Man« World. A." «4I. f4fl 
«47. Wi 

Manu^ript. Mme. Bresbkov 

"kys. 131. 173 
Mannirka. interview at. 143 
Maria Kalyenkina. See Kalt- 


Marriag(>. «| 
Marriagi^, nominal. S9 
Melnikov, 107 

"Memoirs of a Revolutionist." 

Kro|M)tkin. W 
MenUl oorurwition as health 

pri-servative. IO.i 
Militanry. suffrage. 839 
Minussinsk. «98, 318 
Moghilev. 31 

Montflfia. victory of woman suf. 
frage in, «84 

"MoralCiUdtl. A."2«4 
Moscow. «0. 318. 310: Douma. 

31 W; welcome in. 310 
"MojM-s and his Four Brothers." 


Mukhtuiska district. 198 
Mussey. June Harrows. 171. I85, 

as, i(Hi ; letters to. 166 «26* 

«S4. «S5. 261. «73 
Mussey. Professor Henry R 

151.266 • 

Mussey, Mrs. Mabel H. Bar- 

rows, 128, 813, 280 




.\«««rov. A. A., 810 I 

Nwhayev, «0 
N«-krM.if. *), M 
AiTo. Tkf, SOH 

N^v«.U. virtory ,rf womwi wf- 
fr«ue in. <84 

"^•'*' ;;":«''•"'• TJ"*"." by w,mki- 

row Wiliwm. ittjfl. ^(tH 
New York hraiul, of Krionil, of 

KuMuin Frtvilom. 190 
New York Call, im 

^^Zy*^^ ^'•*>'' »mpreMJ"n» of. 

New York »»ri«on A««x-ialion. 

New York JH'ttltm.nt. U3 
New York Tim.,, m- p,^„ 

from. S33 
NicholM. Czar, M 
Noble, RJmuncI, W4 
Nurw»' Settlement. 1«8 


Odema, S«.S4. 109; University 
of, S3 "^ 

WilJ. C. F. Dole. 187 
Original pa^es of Cair's book of 

laws. 41, 55, 3tf 
Orlov. 4«. 44. 30. 50 
OuU(h>k, The, V, 134. 184. «38 
Overwork, wam« aRainst, 170 

«I«. ««8. 230, «58. «59 

Panama," bt ARxnuB Bn,- 

LARD. 233 

Pankhurst. ChrisUljel. «38 
Parentage. Mme. Breshkovsky's. 

Parenta. 183, 184 

P^ 5, UO; why popular. 

''•^/' P'^PfcV ». 100: 8,K.ial. 
wt Kevolutionary, |07, |00, 

Party of Will of Proplr. |O0 

Pajw|Nirt«, 41, 44, li. m 

Pavlovna. Wra, 30 

IVaiT, ni<m| of. 30< 

P.*»ant gJrU. <37.*57: woman, 

• he. W; provimv., Viatka 

anil IVrm. 117 
Pta!«,ni«\ aehievementji. iifl- 

AKri.ultural AIum)|. i| ; right^ 

of liM'al KijfFraite. <4 
PejMant. 107, «83: awakencl. 

M7; National Congrew .if. 

S** ; organizinji among. 76-78, 

104; RiiMian. 4. H. |o, l| i.i* 

JO. 17. «l. <4. 27. :«). 3<; .«; 

W.50 «8.70.<.54..'J<|.3«3 
Pol^e. Trag.^|y of," by Gcorgt 
Kennan. I. VI, |fl.s, 104 

Pemlleton. Kll.u Fitz. 238 

'• P«»ple. To the." 28, 29, JO 

I ••opi,/. Party. 78. 106 

Perm, province of. 117 

Peter flrollier, «9. 71,78 

Petition.207; from England and 
America. 143 

Pftrogra.!. 15. 19. 34. 37, 93. 94 

i^- •**•'«•. -^"W: Pri-onin,' 
H."J-8.5 ; work m, 37. 38 

Philadelphia, 111: meeting. 119 
120 ^ • 

Philadelphia North American. 119 
I hilanthropy not enough, 227 
Pilate. Jesus More, 218 
"FNoneer Work for W >men." by 
Dr. Elizul)efh Bla. .well. 285" 
Platon, 169, 208. 222 

Plehve. von, 109 

PtKlolia. 78 

Poles, 118.297 

Police rultts for exiles, 92, 9S 




PbiUh. Mow. Brmhknvsky one 

fourth. I ; prwMinU. 7H 
Politiail «MaMicuitii>n, lOfl. 100 
Pulitk-«. Amrriian. «W. «W. ii\ 
Puulr. Ernoit. v ; Ictten iu. <0e, 

Pffliminary Partimnpnt, SW 
Printing prrmm. .Kl, .1<7. 9.17 
"PriiMm Srrvicr. Fifty Yemn of." 

Brockway, iU «44 
Prioon ■uperintcmlrntji. womrn 

Pruvinciai town, life uf. 141 
Proviiiiuiuil Govcmmrot of 

RuMi«. SIO 
Publir. Thf, 190. SOA 
Pushkin. Id 

Rkiixt. Minn rAROUNB I., Wa 

Rut, Evening, 190 

"RMurrection." ToUtoy'a, IW 

Heunion U*Ki<*lativr. tiil 

Rogettwfniiky, Aiwixtaot Sur- 
geon. 106. iOi 

Bomancrs in American maga- 
xincm, iS8 

RomaMkiewicx. John. 1 1 1 

Roosevelt. Theodore. «41 

Roumania. travels through, 100 

Roumanian women, 76 

Rousseau, 16 

Rule for exiles, 03 

RusscU. Governor William E., 

Russia, hlitory of, 304, SM 

Russian, characteristics, \tO, 168, 
174, 173, 183, 103. «ll. 836^- 
838. «43-«45. «5(>-«5<, «a4. 
866. «83-«84. 807. 300-301, 
804, 888; National Anthem, 
188; scenery, IIW; soldiers, 
bravery of, 300; types. 850- 
858; view of art, 858 

"Russia's MeMage," Willii 
English Walling. 163 

Ryan, Miss Agnes E., «< 

Ryobashapka, Ivan. 08. 7t. 1 

Saqhaukn. 01. 08 

Ht. Francis of Assisi, 861 

St. Petersburg, 5. 10, 80, 71, 14 
175. 878 

Bavage. Rrv. Mbiot J.. 180 

Si'h«H*l f«)r iM-itsants. 17 

Scott. Sir Walter. 136 

Sruihler. Miss, 864 

Siurvy, 06. 145 

SetMutop«>l. 15 

Seknginsk. 06, 100. 101. 15 

Settlements, Mme. Breshkovsli 
welcomed in, 189 

"Seven Ages of Washington, 

"Shepherd, The." by O. 1 
Dargan. 860 

SItcvchenko, 43 

Shiria. Madame, 18. IS 

Shishko. 1 10 

Shitlovsky. Dr., Ill 

SilM'ria, and exile system, 06, 01 
134. 153; characteristics o 
157. 881. 804; East, 801 
first journey to, 86, 87, M 
secofid journey to. 145, I4( 
147; travels in, 80, 00, 
08. 101 

SilM-rian, classes of exiles, 813 
floni. 838 ; natives. 888 

Siebker. Sophie A., 868. 864 

SkoJK'Iev. 315 

Smith. Miss Lucy, 811, 880 

Smolin Convent, 8 

Smyela, life in, 48 




S«« i«l rVfii.irnitk' Pitrty. lOQ 
S«H i«| iKin.KraU. tin 
»«Mi«li»rii. .mi C-iiHiirr. fiN; 
Hunntm •ilvaiiiinR (<man(. .f<4* 
AkwIuiI Ufv.ilMluMmry IV,rtv 
i«7. 100. no ^* 

"S<HiUof Hl«,k Pwplr." IM 
S|«r.mrW. «nd Frrnth tt>m|,,rr.|. 
• 37 

SfH^h. Mme. nr.H,hkuv,kv 

lu UN 

SUrr. Muii Ell. M. |<3, 15- , ^ 
18J. im, <,u. ^,,7. I,., ^^ 

1.17. 173. M7. V70. tf .: .no 

St€>()|i«novit<h. Vnki v 
♦«. 47. 57. «I. 71. .. 
S«ff»han thf KvaiiK,.'. 
Strpniak. 1<4 
Ht«»lypin. IVimi.r. I.S4 
8t«»n««, LiK-y. IH». ifMi, 

biography <>f. 10.5. <..j(, ' 
Strikrn in HuMia. g.n.ral. 133 
»tinlfnt.i' IuihIi r«K>m. « 
Suffrage. cainfMiign in California 

«09; P«u«nU.'. U. s.* ,,^; 

Woman SurrRAae 

Sugar fartcirit^ „f Smv.Ia. 48 | 
hulUn ,|,.riv«l 8up,H,rt fr,.m 
Czar. 118 

Sumi«hra.Ht. Profejtwr F C .1,. 
Ill ^' 


Si > i 


"Sunny Life. A." hy I. c. Bar- 
rows, mi 

Survey. The. <14. «5 

Switzerlancl. «7. 49, 1 93. jo^. 
revolutionijtts nmkf pilgrim 
aK«ito.«8; grtt-tings recdvcl 
'"■om. 113: n-volutionnrv 
presHo, in. 107; revolutionists I 
ui. 110 

TAfT. WlLlJAM II.. t41 
Taiga. I In*, y^ 
Tartar*. 104 
Tiuhkiml. iOS 
Ti-liaMan*. *« 

T. ha.vkuv,ky. BarlMira. J03. ||.i 
I«l.« Dr. \i,|„.lH,. lai. 
I'''4. I3.i; liitrn, ff,„„ 1^.," 
*IJ; Mlfr t«>. I7i» 
Trhaykov«k.v. Mr*.. 1 4.| 
j ''' litrkaiw. U. 4.1. .17, 59 

I **^'«-"' '-v. « l.iMlMMHl ,Mu«.l in. 

'1'l< ' «!!. tor. 110 

I rir .ri,ni. J ,K, KM) 
j rficji'-.,. j ^. rformamf*. «3I 
I '.m ■!.. 10 
, '"«»' ihk, in I 

I oljif vN "H«i.umHtinn." IW 
'" '•,.,- ^^ ^a 

' iv«'l- i , Euro|H>. too 

irial. Mmr. BnsJ.kov^ky'^ fir,t. 
"^•80; Mx-oncl, 143 

Fulchin. 78 
T'Jrro-Hujwian War, 300 

I'mted States, |ov,. for. I64. 

HW»; progrrjw in. <33. «.1fl. <y» 
» niv,Tsiti...H of Mu«- 

'^>w. ami Dorjut. 311 
J'tiiv,.r*ityofC),|,.s.H«. S3 
UraLi. 103, 818 

V' Cov.stantink Mikiiaii. 

oviTf-n. I, «. «4, 25 
V.-rigo. NutuhV (^on.Htantinovna. 
. 3. 30. 103. 133 
V «-riKo. Olga Con.stantinovna, «8. 

V.Tigo. Olga Ivanovna Goremy- 
Verigo, Vera, 37 



i'0 • 
"Itl } 

Verkhni I'dinnk. terrible accnes 
at. 01 

Vera libre, 194, 195 

Viatka. 117 

Vienna, pajiseit throiiKh, 109 

Vitebsk. 1 

Vitim. «9« 

yiadinjiroff. «7fl 

yittiJiv«wt.)k. 9j 

Volkhovsky. Felix. 1 10. i282 
Voltaire. 10 
Von Plehve. 109 

Wald, Mish Lri.MAw P.. 12.'} 

«I4. 804. ai8; letters to. 18!)' 

WullinR. William ErsKlisli, l-,3 
War. «81. «83. USS. 2»y. .'(04. 307 

Ward. Mrs. L. A. CooiJev. 121 

Warsaw. 5 

Welcome, in Moscow. 310; in 

IVtrograd. 31 1 
Wellesley ColK-ge. 119. ^..jk, ^50 ; 

letter to. lilfl 
VVestover Sclitx.l. <iU, «97 
Wiener. Professor Leo. 1 1 1 

Wife-lieating. fl.5. 66 

Wilde. (War. «8< 

Wilson. W.MHirow, "The N 

Fr«-e,lom." <66-«08. 269 
Woman suffrage. 178. 184. « 

<3<. «34. «49: victories 

Neva<la and Montana. «84 
" Oman » Journal, The, \\\ i 

179. 183. ««3. 849 

Woman's sphere. 179 

Women of Northern countri, 

Women's battalion. 383 ; ehi 
acteriatics. 181, 189, «9 
duties. 181 

Worry, disadvantages of. 103 

^ KUTH. 16«, 166, «14 
Yakutsk. 94. 187, 189, 198. 20 

«07. <88-«91. 308 
Yarros. Dr.. 158 
Velizavet^rad. 61 
\ ezerskj-, Mrs. Lydia, 291 

ZKM8TVO8. 21, 115.117 
Zhelyalwiv. Andrei, 33 
Zlatopol, 70 

'The New 

. 184. <19. 
ictorifit in 
na. «84 
.111. 154. 


?3; cJmr- 
89, «97: 

)f. 108 
198, 201,